Gp Dynamics
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Gp Dynamics

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Why does one need to join a group, What are the types of groups to which one could belong to, what are the stages of group development and the norms followed therein.

Why does one need to join a group, What are the types of groups to which one could belong to, what are the stages of group development and the norms followed therein.

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Gp Dynamics Gp Dynamics Presentation Transcript

  •  
  • SHIPWRECKED!
  • Risk of being marooned!.... View slide
  • You have just 2 minutes!
    • Get ready for a trip on a life boat to a far off island…?
    • You are allowed to take with you, only one item , other than what you are wearing.
    • Write the name of the item in a slip of paper.
    View slide
  • You have 4 minutes!
    • Make groups of 5 each for life on the island
    • Now share your ideas with your team. Make adjustments as required.
  •  
  • What is a ‘Group’?
    • 2 or more individuals interacting, who have come together to achieve a particular goal
    • Have a stable pattern of relationship
  • Criteria for a group include:
    • Formal social structure
    • Face-to-face interaction
    • 2 or more persons
    • Common fate
    • Common goals
    • Interdependence
    • Self-definition as group members
    • Recognition by others
    • Societies are large groups consisting of a myriad of sub-groups.
  • The members….
    • Are motivated to join the group
    • Perceive the group as a unified unit for interaction
    • Contribute in various degrees
    • Have agreements and disagreements, but finally come to a consensus
  • ‘ Group’ Vs ‘ Random collection of individuals’ Crowd at any place Family, fellow workers, crowd… Random interactions Develop several dynamic processes - norms, roles, relations, development, need to belong, social influence, and effects on behavior - Interaction and influence may be there, but non specific Mutual interaction and influence is specific Random collection of individuals Group
  • WHY USE GROUPS?
    • Simulates the “real world” - use of teams
    • Learn better when actively involved
    • Peer instruction, teaching each other
    • Learn more fully and with less effort
    • Learn in context
    • Modification of –
    • - Personality
    • - Power
    • - Behaviour
  • Types of groups
  • Primary group - close, personal, enduring relationships Secondary group – Less personal. Performs functions
  • Category group - associated with an application or global set
  • Formal group Informal group
  • Command and task group
  • Interest and friendship group
  • Coalition group
  • Why do people join groups?
    • Goal achievement
    • Attraction – To persons, to group activities & to group goals
    • Group membership per se
    • Need for – Power, affiliation, self esteem, status, security
  • “Hey friend, your support means a great deal to us!”
  • Group Dynamics Sociology of Groups
  • Group Dynamics
    • The study of groups
    • A general term for group processes .
    • Explains the internal nature of a group –
      • How it is formed
      • Structure & process
      • It’s function
      • Effect on individual members
      • Effect on the organization
    • Relevant to the fields of psychology, sociology and communication studies
    • Primarily concerned with small group behavior .
  • Domains of Group Dynamics
    • Communication processes
    • and interaction patterns
    • Interpersonal attraction
    • and cohesion
    • Social integration
    • and influence
    • Power and control
    • Culture
    • Goal achievement
    • Power
    • Affiliation
    • Self esteem
    • Status
    • Security
  • Criteria for Group Development (Mills 1967) Needs of the individual Social forces Adaptation Goal attainment Integration Pattern maintenance and extension Group
  • Stages of group development - Bruce Tuckman (1965)
    • Confusion – Not certain about purpose, task, leadership
    • Orientation, dependence, inclusion
    • Interaction is cautious, language ambiguous and there is a great deal of agreement 
    • Minimal work is accomplished
    • Breaking of ice (small talk, socializing) 
    • Takes one day to several weeks
    Stage I – Forming (Dependence)
  • Stage II – Storming (Counter dependence)
    • Conflict , confrontations, disagreements, evaluation, control 
    • Assertion of individuality - A chaotic vying for leadership
    • Language - Clear, unambiguous, direct
    • Minimal work is accomplished
    • 2 issues:
      • how close we should be (affection)
      • does the leader know what he/ she is doing (control)
    • Risk for communication failures
    Now there, you two! You can’t both be Australia,. One of you has to be England.
  • Stage III- Norming (Interdependence)
    • Settling down, cooperation, collaboration
    • Agreement on how the group operates
    • Maintaining harmony, focused work emergence
    • Marked by several layers of balance:
      • Individualism vs group ness
      • Group goals vs individual goals
      • Closeness vs distance
      • Role of leader vs members
    • Cohesion begins to emerge
  • Norms
    • = Acceptable standards of behaviour shared by group members
    • All groups have norms
    • They define what ought/ ought not to be done by the members
    • May be laid down formally or informally
    • They act as behaviour influencing parameters without outside control
    • Differ from group to group
  • Why have norms?
    • Facilitate survival of the group
    • Simplify role expectations
    • Protect self-images
    • Enhance the group's unique identity
    • Avoid rejection from the group
    • Increases predictability of group members behaviour
    • Reduces embarrassing IPR problems of group members
    • Allows the group members to express the central values and apply
  • How are Norms formed ?
    • Norms develop in many ways -
    • - Explicit statement by managers
    • - Critical events in group’s history
    • - Primacy – The first behaviour pattern that emerges becomes the norm
    • - Carry over behaviour what one followed
  • Forms of Norms
    • Performance – parameters as to how hard a person has to work, what production level to achieve
    • Appearance – Dress, code of conduct…
    • Arrangement – Social interaction
    • Allocation of resources – Pay, bonus, equipment ..
  • Stage IV – Performing (Independence)
    • Group fully functional, devoted to task at hand
    • Works to meet its objectives
    • Period of consensus and maximum productivity
    • Spirit is high
    • Negative comments are
    • not expressed
  • Factors affecting group performance
    • Composition
    • Size
    • Norms
    • Cohesiveness
  • 1. Composition of group
    • Acts as a predictor of turnover
    • Heterogeneous group - gender, personality, opinion, skill, perspective
    • – More conflict laden  More deliberate
    • - Cultural diversity  Difficulty in processes
    • Groups that have cohorts (persons with common attributes) - perform better
  • 2. GROUP SIZE Dyad: a to b b to a Triad: a to b a to c b to a b to c c to a c to b a to b&c b to a&c c to a&b
    • Dyad - close but unstable because one person leaving ends the group. Hence move from dyads to triads
    • Third person : - Mediator, Vyer for attention, Divide and conquer
    1056 28 8 441 21 7 186 15 6 75 10 5 28 6 4 9 3 3 2 1 2 Interactions possible Relationships # in group
  • Does the size of the group affect the group’s overall behaviour?
    • Yes
    • Simmel (1950): size changes two aspects of groups:
      • Intimacy (diluted)
      • Coordination of behaviors (harder)
    • Smaller group – Good for completion of a particular (productive) task
    • Larger group – Good for problem solving
  • As size increases…?
    • Advantage –
    • Range of abilities & knowledge increases (added resources for problem solving)
    • Disadvantage -
    • Satisfaction of each member decreases
    • Time to decide increases
    • Cohesion decreases
    • Disagreement increases
    • Factions and antagonism increase
    • Member participation decreases
    • - Bales & Strodbeck (1951)
  • Group behaviours
    • Task behaviour – Initiating, clarifying, information seeking/ giving, consensus
    • Maintenance behaviour – Encouraging, harmonizing, compromising, gate keeping
    • Self interest behaviour – Dominating, controlling, blocking, belittling
  • Transactional Analysis
    • Social attraction between individuals –
    • Parent – Protective, nurturing, controlling, critical, guiding
    • Adult – Rational calculating, factual, unemotional
    • Child – Rebellious, spontaneous, dependent, creative, emotional
  • The PAC interactions Parent Adult Child Child Adult Parent Person A Person B ?
  • Reactions within a Group
    • I’m OK – You’re OK
    • I’m OK – You’re not OK
    • I’m not OK – You’re OK
    • I’m not OK – You’re not OK
  • 4. Group cohesion
    • Affected by the ability of the group to –
      • Work as a unit, share tasks, recognize members’ contributions,
    • Vs
    • Conflict, role ambiguity, lack of motivation
      • Attract h igh performers, opportunists, achievers
      • Affected by - Group size, cliques, acts of protest, self interest behaviour
  • Stage V - Adjourning
    • Dissolving, termination 
    • The process of "unforming" the group, that is, letting go off the group structure and moving on.
    • Tail end behavior
    • - Happy
    • - Sad
    • - Depressed
    • - Angry
    • - Dissatisfied
  • ThanQ I’m OK – Are you OK?