PREFACEArtificial Intelligence, or AI for short, is a combination ofcomputer science, physiology, and philosophy. AI is a broadtopic, consisting of different fields, from machine vision toexpert systems. The element that the fields of AI have incommon is the creation of machines that can "think".THE MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THE PRESENTATION IS TOUNDERSTAND THE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN BRIEFAND ITS OTHER BRANCHES & ITS APPLICATION.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIn the preparation of the Presentation, anyquote, summary, information, idea, text, data, photos, or any othermaterial which originally appeared in someone else’s work, wesincerely acknowledge them. And alsoto Mr.Sachin Dave and Mrs.shefali agrawal (lecturer of computerapplication ,bba MSU Baroda.
definition:-Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines."
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the Intelligence of machines andthe branch of computer science that aims to create it.AI is the study of the : How to make computers do thingswhich, at the moment, people do better.In the different-different text book defines AI in different pointof view as a reasoning ,behavior performance & rationality.
Generally , artificial intelligence research aims to create AIthat can replicate human intelligence completely.Strong AI refers to a machine that approaches or supersedeshuman intelligence.Main aims to create AI to build machines whose over allintellectual ability is indistinguishable from that of humanbeing.
Soft AI refers to the use of software to studyor accomplish specific problem solving orreasoning tasks that do not encompass thefull range of human cognitive abilities.Example : a chess program such as DeepBlue.
The definitions of AI gives four possible goals to pursue :1. Systems that think like humans. (cognitive science Approach)2. Systems that think rationally. (Laws of thought Approach)3. Systems that act like humans. (Turning Test Approach)4. Systems that act rationally. (Rational agent Approach)
General goals :-• Solve knowledge intensive tasks ,• Enhance human-human, human –computer, computer- computer interaction / communication. Engineering based AI goals• Develop concepts, theory and practice of building intelligent machines.• Emphasis is on system building. Science based AI goals• Develop mechanism & vocabulary to understand biological intelligent machines.• Emphasis is on understanding intelligent behavior.
Logical AI :- logic is a language for reasoning ; a collection of rules used while doing reasoning. Search in AI :- This is a problem solving technique that systematically consider all possible action to find a path from initial state to target state . Pattern Recognition :- The assignment of physical object or event to one of pre-specified categories.
Knowledge Representation :- Knowledge is a collection of facts by a program, a suitable representation is required. A good representation facilities problem solving. Common sense knowledge & reasoning :- it is mental skills that most people have. Teaching computers common sense. Project “OpenMind” at MIT – here the goal is to teach a computer things that human take them for granted. Project “cyc” –it is an attempt to manually build a database of human common sense.
Game playing :- it is interactive program, an emerging area in which the goals of human-level AI are proposed. Games are made by creating human level artificially intelligent entities, e.g. enemies, partners, and support characters that act just like humans.Speech Recognition :- A process of converting recognizing speech signal to a sequence of words;= In 1990s, computer speech Recognition reached apractical level for limited purposes.
Understanding natural Language :- Natural Language processing does automated generation and understanding of natural human languages. In these 2 parts are there –1. Natural Language generation system2. Natural Language understanding systemComputer vision :-Expert systems:--System in which human expertise is held in the form of rules.