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    Asme b31.9 (1996) Asme b31.9 (1996) Document Transcript

    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Revision of ASMElANSl B31.!-1988 B lDN SERVICES UlG ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING, B31 AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD The American Society of Mechanical Engineers COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • S T D - A S I E B 3 1 - 7 - E N G L 1 7 9 b W 0759b70 0580379 247 The American Society of Mechanical Engineers A N M E R I C A N A T I O N A L T A N D A R D A N S A M CODE FOR PRESSURE PlPlN6, B31 SE AN AMERICANNATIONALSTANDARD A M B31.8-1896 Edition SE Revision of ASMUANSI B31.9-1988 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • Date of Issuance: April 18, 1997 The 1996 Edition of this Code is being issued with an automatic update service that includes Addenda, Interpretations, and Cases. The next Edition is scheduled for publication in 1999. The use of Addenda allows revisions made in response to public review comments or committee actions to be published regular basis; revisions a on published in Addenda will become effective 6 months after the Date of Issuance of the Addenda. ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretations of technical aspects of the Code. The Interpretations are not part of the Code or the Addenda and are published in a separate supplement. Periodically certain actions of the ASME B31 Committee will be published as Cases. While these Cases do not constitute formal revisions of the Code, they maybe usedin specifications, or otherwise, as representing considered opinions of the Committee. Cases arenot part of the or the The Code Addenda and are published in a separate supplement. ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited meeting the criteria for as American National Standards. The Consensus Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made available for public review and comment which provides opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia, an regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large. ASME does not "approve," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity. ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted n i connection with any items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for infringement of any applicable Letters Patent, nor assume any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility. Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to be interpreted as government or industry endorsement of this code or standard. ASME accepts responsibilityfor onlythose interpretations issued in accordance with governing ASME procedures and policies which preclude the issuance of interpretations by individual volunteers. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 345 E. 47th Street, New York, NY 10017 Copyright O 1997 by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS All Rights Reserved Printed in U.S.A. COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • FOREWORD The need for a national code for pressure piping became increasingly evident from to 1915 1925. The American Standards Association initiated the B31 Projneed. TheAmerican ect in March1926tomeetthat Society of Mechanical Engineers proposed work the andhasserved as sponsorsinceits inception. The first edition was published in 1935 as the American Tentative StandardCode for Pressure Piping. To keep Code the abreast of developments in design, welding,and of new standards and specifications, as well as of developments in service conditions, new or supplementary editions were issued as follows: B31. 1-1942. American Standard Code for Pressure Piping B31. I a-1944, Supplement 1 B31. lb- 1947, Supplement 2 B31. 1-195I. AmericanStandardCode for Pressure Piping B31.1-1951 B31.la-1953, Supplement 1 to B3 1 . I - 1955, American Standard Code for Pressure Piping In 1955, a decision was made to develop and publish separate Code Sections for various industries. The current Sections are: B31.1,PowerPiping B3 I .3, Process Piping B3 1.4, Pipeline TransportationSystems for Liquid HydrocarbonsandOtherLiquids B3 IS , Refrigeration Piping B31.8, Transmission Distribution Gas and Piping Systems B3 1.9, Building Services Piping B3 l. 11, Slurry Transportation Piping Systems In the 1969, American Standards Association, renamed the United States of America Standards Institute, becametheAmericanNationalStandardsInstitute (ANSI), and the B31 Sectional Committee became the B31 Standards Committee. In The 1978, American Society of Mechanical Engineers was granted accreditationbyANSIto organizetheB31Committee as the ASMECode for Pressure Piping, withCodeSections designated as ANSYASMEB31. Need for a separate Building Services Section of the Code for PressurePipingwasrecognized for several years.ThisnewCode Section, ASMEB31.9Building Services Piping, first issued in 1982, developed was to fill that need. The Code has intentionally been written on a conservative basis in order to avoid the necessity for complex design, fabrication, and inspection criteria. For this reason, application of Codeexpectedbe this is to simpleand straightforward. Following approval by the B31 Main Committee and theASMEBoardon Pressure TechnologyCodesand Standards, and after publicreview,thisCodeSection was approved by the American National Standards Institute onAugust26,1996. ... II1 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING, B31 OFFICERS L. E. Hayden, Jr.. Chair D. R. Frikken, Vice Chair J. Yarmush, Secretary COMMITTEE PERSONNEL P.A. Bourquin, Pleasantville, New York J. D. Byers, Mobil Research & Development, Princeton, New Jersey L. F. Clynch, CONOCO, Ponca City, Oklahoma D. M. Fischer, Sargent & Lundy, Naperville, Illinois P. D. Flenner, Consumers Power Co., Covert, Michigan D. R. Frikken, Monsanto Co., St. Louis, Missouri P. H. Gardner, Wilmington, Delaware R. W. Haupt, Pressure Piping Engineering Associates, Inc., Foster City, California L. E. Hayden, Jr., Victaulic Company of America, Easton, Pennsylvania R. R. Hoffmann, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, District of Columbia B. P. Holbrook, Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, Massachusetts G.A. Jolly, Henry Vogt Machine Co., Louisville, Kentucky K. Kaye. Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada W. B. McGehee, Houston, Texas E. Michalopoulos, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., Hartford, Connecticut A. P. Povilonis, ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, Connecticut W. V. Richards, William V. Richards, Inc., Lincolnshire, Illinois G.W. Spohn, 111, Colejon Spohn Corp., Cleveland, Ohio L. G.Vetter, Sargent & Lundy Engineers, Chicago, Illinois R. B. West, State of Iowa, Des Moines, Iowa B31.9 BUILDING SERVICES PIPING SECTION COMMITTEE P. A. Bourquin, Chair, Pleasantville, New York F. R. Lyons, Secretary, ASME, New York, New York D. D. Christian, Victaulic Co., Easton, Pennsylvania A. Cohen, Copper Development Association, Inc., New York, New York R. D. Gilligan, C. G. Bostwick Co., Inc., Woburn, Massachusetts H. J. Post, Wayne, Pennsylvania P. S. Rampone, Hart Design Group, Greenville, Rhode Island W. J. Sperko, Sperko Engineering Services, Inc., Greensboro, North Carolina H. E. Wetzell, Jr., Smith & Oby Co., Cleveland, Ohio B31.3 SUBGROUP ON ACTIVITIES B. L. Agee, Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, Tennessee L. J. Balasundararn, Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts B.C. Bassett, Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, Oklahoma R. K. Broyles, Pathway Bellows, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee D. D. Christian, Victaulic Co., Easton, Pennsylvania COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • S. Costa, Newark, Delaware J. A. D'Avanzo, E. I. du Pont de Nemours 81 Co.., Inc., Wilmington, Delaware D. R. Edwards, Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, Oklahoma O. R. Greulich, NASA Ames Center, Moffett Field, California R. Grichuk, Fluor Daniel, Houston, Texas D. 6. Kadakia, T. D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma C. Nath, E. 1. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., Wilmington, Delaware H. E. Svetlik, Phillips Petroleum Co., Richardson, Texas Q. N. Truong, Houston, Texas L. J. Weibeler, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, Pennsylvania B31 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE L. E. Hayden, Jr., Chair, Victaulic Company of America, Easton, Pennsylvania D. R. Frikken, Vice Chair, Monsanto Co., St. Louis, Missouri J. Yarmush, Secretary, ASME, New York, New York P. D. Flenner, Consumers Power Co., Covert, Michigan L. G. Vetter, Sargent & Lundy Engineers, Chicago, Illinois B31 MATERIALS, FABRICATION, AND EXAMINATION TECHNICAL COMMITTEE P. D. Flenner, Chair, Consumers Power Co., Covert, Michigan J. Yarmush, Secretary, ASME, New York, New York J. A. Cox, Colonial Pipeline Co., Atlanta, Georgia P. C. DuPernell, Lancaster, New York D. G. Hopkins, E. 1. duPont de Nemours 81Co., Wilmington, Delaware A. D. Nance, A. D. Nance Associates, Inc., Evans, Georgia D. W. Rahoi, CCM 2000, Rockaway, New Jersey R. 1. Seals, Berkeley, California R. J. Silvia, Process Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Warwick, Rhode Island W. J. Sperko, Sperko Engineering Services, Inc., Greensboro, North Carolina E.F. Summers, Jr., Babcox & Wilcox Construction, Inc., Copley, Ohio B31 MECHANICAL DESIGN TECHNICAL COMMllTEE R. W. Haupt, Chair, Pressure Piping Engineering Associates, Inc., Foster City, California J. Yarmush. Secretary, ASME, New York, New York C. Becht IV, Becht Engineering Co., Liberty Corner, New Jersey J. P. k e e n , AEA O'Donnell, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania J. A. Graziano, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee J. D. Hart, SSD Engineering Consultants, Walnut Creek, California 6. P. Holbrook, Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, Massachusetts W. J. Koves, UOP. Inc., Des Plaines, Illinois P.L. Lin, Wisconsin Public Service Corp., Kewaunee, Wisconsin G. Mayers, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, Maryland T. Q. McCawley, Charlotte, North Carolina E. Michalopoulos, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., Hartford, Connecticut J. C. Minichiello, Vectra, Naperville, Illinois A. D. Nance, A. D. Nance Associates, Inc., Evans, Georgia A. W. Paulin, Coade Engineering Services, Houston, Texas P. S.Rampone, Hart Design Group, Greenville, Rhode Island R. A. Robleto, Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, Texas E. C. Rodabaugh, Dublin, Ohio M. J. Rosenfeld, Kiefner & Associates, Inc., Worthington, Ohio R. A. Schmidt, Ladish Co., Russellville, Arkansas vi COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • Q. N. Truong, M. W. Kellogg Co., Houston, Texas E. A. Wais, Wais and Associates, Inc., Norcross, Georgia G. E. Woods, Raytheon, Houston, Texas B31 CONFERENCE GROUP T. A. Bell, Pipeline Safety Engineer, Utilities Engineer, Olympia, Washington M. L Brunton, KPO, Topeka, Kansas . G. Bynog, Texas Department of Labor and Standards, Austin, Texas R. Coomes, Department of Housing/Boiler Section, Frankfort, Kentucky A. W. Diamond, Department of Labour & Manpower, Saint Johns, Newfoundland, Canada M. P. Fitzpatrick. Department of Labour & Human Resources, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada J. W. Greenawalt, Jr., Oklahoma Department of Labor, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma H. D. Hanrath, Ministry ConsumerKomm. Rel., Toronto, Ontario, Canada C. J. Harvey, Alabama Public Service Commission, Montgomery, Alabama D. T. Jagger, Boiler Division, State of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio M. Kotb, Regie du Batiment du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec, Canada K. T. Lau, Alberta Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada R. G. Marini, New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission, Concord, New Hampshire 1. W. Mault, Manitoba Department of Labour, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada A. W. Meiring, Department of Fire Prevention and Building Safety, Indianapolis, Indiana J. W. Morvant, State of Louisiana, Baton Rouge, Louisiana R. F. Mullaney, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety Branch, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada W. A. Owen, North Dakota Public Service Commission, Bismarck, North Dakota W. M. Picardo, Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia P. Sher, Department of Public Utility Control, New Britain, Connecticut H. E. Shutt, Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, Illinois M. E. Skarda, Department of Labour, Little Rock, Arkansas R. L. Smith, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina E. L. Sparrow, Board of Public Utilities, Newark, New Jersey D. A. Starr, Department of Labor, Lincoln, Nebraska D. Stursma, Iowa State Department of Commerce, Des Moines, Iowa R. P. Sullivan, National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, Columbus, Ohio J. E. Troppman, Division of Labor/Boiler Inspection, Denver, Colorado R. W. Vindich, Department of Labor and Industry, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania C. H. Walters, National Board, Cornelius, Oregon W. A. West, Department of Labour, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada T. F. Wickham, Department of Labor, Providence, Rhode Island B31 NATIONAL INTEREST REVIEW GROUP American Boiler Manufacturers Association - R. J. Fletcher American Institute of Chemical Engineers - W. C. Carnell American Pipe Fitting Association - H. Thielsch American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers - H. R. Kornblum Chemical Manufacturers Association - D. R. Frikken Compressed Gas Association - M. F. Melchioris Copper Development Association- A. Cohen Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association -T. F. Stroud Edison Electric Institute - R. L. Williams International District Heating Association - G. Von Bargen Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry R. A. Schmidt COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • Mechanical Contractors Association of America -Jack Hansmann National Association of Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors- R. E. White National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners - D. W. Snyder National Fire Protection Association - T. C. Lemoff National Fluid Power Association- H. G. Anderson Pipe Fabrication Institute - L. Katz Slurry Transport Association - P. E. Snoek Society of Ohio Safety Engineers -J. M. Holleran Valve Manufacturers Association - R. A. Handschumacher ... v111 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Summary of Changes The following Summary of Changes lists the major revisions to the 1988 Edition. Revisions, other than those identified as editorial and Errata, become effective6 months after the Date of Issuance of this Edition. Page location ... Updated III Personnel Xi Contents xvii Updated Foreword V Updated Change Introduction (1) Ninth para. revised (2) Tenth and eleventh paras. added 1 4 Revised in its entirety 900.1 Fig. 900.1.2 B revised Legend (1 brittle failure and definition added (2) combustible liquid and definition added (3) flammable liquid and definition added 900.2 8 900.3 (1) d6 corrected by Errata to dg (2) SF and definition added 9 901.2.3 Revised 10 902.3.1 (c) Revised 11 Table 902.4.3 (1 ) First entry deleted (2) Last entry added 904.1 .I(b) 12 Revised 13 904.2.2 14 Revised Fig. 904.3.3(b) revised sentence Last (1) Formula (5) revised 904.4.1 (2) S and definition added 14 Added 904.3.3 Table 15 Fig. 904.3.3A Revised in its entirety 16 Fig. 904.3.36 Revised i n its entirety 17 904.5.3 (11 First and last sentences revised (2)Formula ( 6 ) revised ix COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • L77b STD*ASflE B33-7-ENGL 0757b70 0 5 8 0 3 8 7 3 1 5 Redesignated as 905.2.4 and new 905.2.2 905.2.2 added Added 905.2.3 ded 905.2.5 18 906.3 22, 23 Table 919.3.1 Revised 24 921.1.3 Revised 25 Fig. 921.1.3C Revised in its entirety 26 Fig. 921.1.3D Revised i n its entirety 29 922.3 Added 34 Table 926.1 Revised 38 Table 926.2 Revised 40 927.4.6(c) Revised 41 Fig. 927.4.3C Callout corrected by Errata 927.5.1 Revised 47 936.1 .I Added 49 937.4.1 Revised 50 937.5.1 Revised 52 Table A-1 Revised 57 Table A-2 Revised i n its entirety 61 Appendix 65 D-1 Last para. added 67 Appendix E Added added C Last sentence Revised 69 NOTE: to ASME B31.9 issued b e t w e e n O c t o b e r 26, 1983, a n d J a n u a r y 1O, '1997, follow of this Edition. Interpretations Nos. 1 a n d 2 w e r e i n c l u d e d w i t h t h e u p d a t e s e r v i c e to t h e 1988 E d i t i o n a n d a r e b e i n g r e p r i n t e d h e r e . T h e u p d a t e s e r v i c e to t h e 1996 E d i t i o n begins w i t h Interpretations No. 3. The Interpretations are not p a r t of ASME 831.9. The Interpretations the last page x COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • CONTENTS Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASME B31.9-1996 Summary of Changes .................................................... Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter Scope I 900 Scope 900.1 900.2 900.3 Figure 900.1.2B ... III v ix xvii and Definitions General ..................................................................... ....................................................................... Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping - Drum Type Boilers .............. ... , i i 3 7 2 Chapter Design II Part I 90 1 901.1 90 1.2 901.3 90 I .4 901.5 90 1.7 902 902.1 902.2 902.3 902.4 Conditions Criteria and .................................................... Design Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ambient Influences .......................................................... Dynamic Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ThermalExpansionandContractionLoads .................................... Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure-TemperatureDesign Criteria for PipingComponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stresses andOther Stress Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 IO 10 II Fart 2 903 904 904.1 904.2 904.3 904.4 904.5 904.6 904.7 Pressure Design of Piping Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Criteria for Press’ure Design of Piping Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Design of Components .............................................. Straight Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curved Mitered and Segments of Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Branch Connections ......................................................... Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Design of Flanges Blanks and ....................................... Reducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Design of Other Pressure Containing Components .................... 12 Part 3 905 General 905.1 905.2 Selection and Limitation of Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................................................................... Specific Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 17 xi COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services 12 12 12 12 13 14 14 17 17 17 17
    • 906 906.1 906.2 906.3 907 907.1 907.2 908 908.1 908.3 908.4 908.5 Fitting. Bends. Intersections and .............................................. Fittings ..................................................................... 18 Bends Miter and Joints ....................................................... Limitations on Fittings ....................................................... Valves ...................................................................... 18 General ..................................................................... 18 Marking .................................................................... 18 Flanges. Blanks. Gaskets. Bolting and ........................................ General ..................................................................... 18 Flange Facings .............................................................. Gaskets ..................................................................... 18 Bolting ...................................................................... Part 4 910 91 1 911.1 91 1.2 912 913 913.1 914 914.1 9 14.2 915 916 916.1 9 16.2 917 917.1 917.2 917.3 Selection and Limitation of Joints .......................................... Piping Joints ................................................................ Welded Joints ............................................................... MetallicPipe ................................................................ Nonmetallic Pipe ............................................................ Flanged Joints ............................................................... Mechanical Proprietary and Joints ............................................ Limitations Mechanical Proprietary on and Joints .............................. Threaded Joints ............................................................. ............................................................ Acceptable Types Limitations on Threaded Joints ............................................... Flared. Flareless. Compression and Joints ..................................... Bell and Spigot Joints ....................................................... CaulkedLeaded or Joints .................................................... Push-Type Elastomer Gasket ................................................. Brazed Soldered and Joints .................................................. General ..................................................................... Brazed Joints ................................................................ Soldered Joints .............................................................. Part 5 919 919.1 919.2 9 19.3 9 19.4 919.8 919.9 919.10 920 920.I 920.2 92 1 921.1 92 I .2 92 I .3 92 I .4 92 I .5 92 I .6 Expansion. Flexibility. Support and ......................................... Expansion Flexibility and .................................................... General ..................................................................... 20 Concepts .................................................................... Properties for Analysis ....................................................... Analysis. Metallic Piping .................................................... Movements .................................................................. 21 Cold Spring ................................................................. Reactions ................................................................... 22 Loads Pipe on Supporting Elements .......................................... General ..................................................................... 23 Test Loads .................................................................. 24 Design of Pipe Supporting Elements .......................................... General ..................................................................... 24 Fixtures ..................................................................... 27 Structural Attachments ....................................................... Supplemental Steel .......................................................... Attachments to Concrete ..................................................... ........................................................ Supporting Structures COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 22 23 24 27 28 28 28
    • Part 6 922 922. I 922.2 Steam Piping Trap 922.3 Systems .................................................................... Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Piping Systems .................... Pressure Systems Reducing .................................................. .......................................................... ............................................................. Piping Oil Fuel Figures 904.2.2 904.3.3A 904.3.3B 921.1.3C 921.1.3D Tables 902.4.3 904.2.1A 904.3.3 917.3 919.3.1 92 1.2.2A Nomenclature for Miter Joints ................................................ 90 deg. Branch Intersections Not Requiting Added Reinforcement - Standard Wall Pipe ................................................................ 45 deg. Branch Intersections Not Requiring Added Reinforcement - Standard Wall Pipe ................................................................ SupportSpans for StandardWall Steel Pipe .................................. SupportSpans for CopperandThermoplasticPipe ............................ Joint Factors E .............................................................. PipeThickness for Bends .................................................... HeaderandBranch Materials for StandardWallPipe .......................... Rated Internal Working Pressures of Joints MadeWithCopperWater TubeandSolder Joint Fittings.psig ........................................ Moduli ofElasticityandThermalExpansion Coefficients ...................... Capacities of ThreadedASTM A 36 Steel Rods .............................. 28 28 28 29 29 13 15 16 25 26 11 12 14 21 22 27 Chapter III Materials 923 923.1 923.2 923.3 923.4 923.5 Materials . Requirements General ........................................... Materials and Specifications .................................................. Limitations onMetals Specific ............................................... Limitations on Nonmetals Specific ............................................ Coatings Linings and ......................................................... Deterioration in Service ...................................................... Chapter IV Component Requirements Standard and Practices 31 31 31 31 32 32 Dimensions 926 Ratings and of Components ...................................... 926.1 Components Standard Piping ................................................. 926.2 Standard Practices ........................................................... 926.3 Nonstandard Piping Components .............................................. 926.4 Abbreviations ............................................................... 33 33 33 33 33 Tables 926.I Standard 926.2 34 38 Chapter V Welded 927 General 927.1 927.2 927.3 927.4 Rules Component Standards and Specifications ...................................... Practices ........................................................... Fabrication. Assembly. Erection and Fabrication of Metals ................................................ ..................................................................... Materials .................................................................... Preparation .................................................................. for Welding ........................................................... ... Xlll COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services 39 39 39 39 39
    • 927.5 927.6 928 928. I 928.2 929 929.I 930 930.1 93 I 934 934.1 934.2 934.3 935 935.1 935.2 935.3 935.4 935.5 935.6 935.7 935.8 935.9 935.10 935.1 1 935.12 935.13 Qualification ................................................................ Bolting Procedure ........................................................... Bell and Spigot Joints ....................................................... Threaded Piping ............................................................. Flare Joints ................................................................. Fermle Bite Joints ........................................................... Compression Joints .......................................................... Other Mechanical Proprietary and Joints ...................................... Borosilicate Piping Glass .................................................... Equipment Connections ...................................................... Cold Spring ................................................................. Valve Installation ............................................................ Repair of Defective Work ................................................... 45 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 40 41 927.4.5A 927.4.5B 927.4.6A 927.4.6B Fillet Weld Size ............................................................. Minimum Welds Double-Welded for Slip-on Socket-Welding and Flanges ...... MinimumWeldingDimensionsforSocket-WeldingComponentsOtherThan Flanges ................................................................... Acceptable Welds for Flat Heads ............................................. Unacceptable Welds for Flat Heads .......................................... Typical Branch Weld Connections ............................................ Typical Details Weld ........................................................ Chapter VI Inspection. Examination. Testing and 936 936.I 936.2 936.3 936.4 936.5 936.6 937 937.1 937.2 937.3 Inspection Examination and .................................................. General ..................................................................... .......................................................... Required Inspection Responsibility for Examination ............................................... Methods of Examination ..................................................... Type and Extent of Required Examination .................................... .......................................................... Acceptance Criteria Leak Testing ................................................................ General ..................................................................... Preparation for Testing ...................................................... Hydrostatic Testing .......................................................... Figures 927.4.3A 927.4.3B 927.4.3C xiv COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services 41 42 42 43 43 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 48 48 48 49
    • Pneumatic 937.4 Testing 937.5 Leak Initial Test Service ........................................................... ..................................................... Appendices Appendix A Table Allowable A-1, Stresses ............................................... TableA-2.HydrostaticDesign Stresses (HDS)andRecommended Temperature Limits for Thermoplastic Pipe ................................. TableA-3.Design Stress ValuesforContactMolded(Hand-Lay-Up)Pipe Made From Reinforced Thermosetting Resins ............................... Table A.4. HydrostaticDesignBasis Stress for Machine-MadeThermosetting Resin Pipe ................................................................ Nonplastic Pressure Appendix B Table B.1. Allowable Pressures for Nonmetallic. Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix C Reference Standards ......................................................... Appendix D Preparation of Technical Inquiries ............................................ Appendix E Nonmandatory Quality System Program ....................................... Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services 49 50 52 57 58 58 59 61 65 67 69
    • INTRODUCTION TheASMEB31 Code for PressurePiping consists of a number of individually published Sections, each an American National Standard. Hereafter, in this Introduction andin the textof this Code Section B3 1.9, where the word Code is used without specific identification, it meansthis Code Section. The Code sets forth engineering requirements deemed necessary for safe design and construction of pressure piping. While safety is the basic consideration, this factor alone will not necessarily govern the final specifications for any piping system. The designer is cautioned thattheCodeisnot a design handbook; it does not do away with the need for the designer or for competent engineering judgment. Tothe greatest possible extent, Code requirements for design are stated in terms of basic design principles and formulas. These are supplemented as necessary with specific requirements to assure uniform application of principles and to guide selection and application of piping elements. The Code prohibits designs and practices known to be unsafe and contains warnings where caution, but not prohibition, is warranted. ThisCodeSection includes: (a) references to acceptable material specifications and component standards, including dimensional requirements andpressure-temperatureratings; (b) requirements for designof components andassemblies, includingpipe supports; ( c ) requirements and data for evaluation and limitation of stresses, reactions,andmovementsassociated withpressure,temperature changes, and other forces; (d) guidance and limitations on the selection and application of materials,components, and joining methods; ( e ) requirements for the fabrication, assembly,and erection of piping;and cf) requirements for examination, inspection, and testing of piping. It is intended that this Edition of Code Section B31.9 and any subsequent addenda not be retroactive. Unless agreement is specifically between made contracting parties to use another issue, or the regulatory body having jurisdiction imposes the use of another issue, the latest edition and addenda issued at least 6 months priortothe original contract date for the firstphase of activity covering a pipingsystem or systems shall be the governing document for alldesign,materials, fabrication, erection, examination, andtesting for the piping until the completion the of work and initial operation. Users of this Code are cautioned against making use of revisions without assurance that they are acceptable totheproper authorities inthe jurisdiction wherethe piping is to be installed. Code users willnotethat clauses in the Code are not necessarily numbered consecutively. Such discontinuities result from following a common outline, insofar as practicable, for all Code Sections. In this way, corresponding material is correspondingly numbered in most Code Sections, thus facilitating reference by those who have occasion tousemorethan one Section. The Code is under the direction of ASME Committee B3 Code 1, for Pressure Piping, which organized is andoperatesunderASMEproceduresthathavebeen accredited by the American NationalStandards Institute. The Committee is a continuing one and keeps all Code Sections current with new developments in materials, construction,andindustrialpractice.Addenda maybe issued periodically. New editions are published at intervals of 3 to 5 years. Itisthe owner’s responsibilityto select the Code Sectionthatmostnearly applies to a proposedpiping installation. Different Code Sections may apply to different parts of an installation. Factors to be considered by the owner include: limitations of the Code Section, jurisdictional requirements, and the applicability of other codes and standards. All applicable requirements of the selected Code Section shall be and met, the owner shouldimpose additional requirements supplementing those of the Code in order to assure safe piping for the proposed installation. Rules for each Code Sectionhavebeen developed consideringtheneed for applicationspecificrequirementsforthepressurepipinginvolved. Applications considered for each Code Section include: ( a ) B31.1 Power Piping - pipingtypicallyfound xvii COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ( e ) NFPA 8503 Standard for Pulverized Fuel Systems. Building and Plumbing Codes. The Committee has established an orderly procedure to consider requests for interpretation andrevision of Code requirements. To receive consideration, inquiries mustbe in writingandmust give full particulars (see Appendix D, Preparation of Technical Inquiries). The approvedreplytoaninquirywillbesent directly to the inquirer. In addition, the question andreplywill be published as part of an Interpretation Supplement issued to the applicable Code Section. A Case is the prescribed form of reply to an inquiry when study indicates the that Code wording needs clarification or when the reply modifies existing requirements o the Code or grants permissiontousenew f materials or alternative constructions. Proposed Cases are published in Mechanical Engineering for public review. In addition, the Case will be published as part of a Case Supplement issued to the applicable Code Section. A Case is normally issued for,a limited period, after which it may be renewed, incorporated in the Code, or allowed to expire if there is no indication of further need for the requirements covered by the Case. However, theprovisionsof a Case maybeused after its expiration or withdrawal, provided the Case was effective on the original contract date or was adopted before completion of the work, the and contracting parties agree toitsuse. Materials are listed in the Stress Tables only when sufficient usage in piping within the scope of the Code has been shown. Materials may be covered by a Case. Requests for listing shallinclude evidence of satisfactory usage specific and data to permit establishment of allowable stresses, maximum and minimum temperature limits, andotherrestrictions. (To develop usageand gain experience, unlisted materials may be in used accordance withpara. 923.1.2.) Requests for interpretation and suggestions for revision should be addressed to the Secretary, ASME B31 Committee, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017. in electric power generating stations, industrial and institutional plants, geothermal heating systems, and central and district heatingand cooling systems; (b) B31.3 Process Piping - piping typically found in petroleumrefineries; chemical, textile, paper,semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals; (c) B31.4 Liquid Transportation Piping - piping for transporting predominantly liquid products between plants and terminals and within terminals, and for pumping, regulating, andmetering stations; ( d ) B31.5 Refrigeration Piping -piping for refrigerants and secondary coolants; (e) B31.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping - piping for transporting predominantly gas products between sources and terminals, including compressor, regulating, and metering stations; and gas gathering pipelines; (f) B31.9 Building Services Piping - piping for industrial, institutional, commercial, and public buildings, and multi-unit residences, which does not require the range of sizes, pressures, and temperatures covered in B31.1; and (g) B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping - piping for transporting aqueous slumes between plants and terminals, and within terminals and pumping and regulating stations. Certain piping within a facility may be subject to other codes and standards, including but not limited to: ( a ) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III - nuclear power piping; ( b ) ANSI 2223.1 National Fuel GasCode - fuel gas piping from the point of delivery to the connections of each gas utilization device; ( c ) NFPA Fire Protection Standards - fire protection systems usingwaterand other materialssuch as carbon dioxide, halon, foam, dry chemicals, andwet chemicals; (d} NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities - medical and laboratory gas systems; and xviii COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • S T D - A S M E 831*7-ENGL 2 7 7 b m 0757b70 0580375 472 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition m 900-900.1.2 CHAPTER I SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS 900 GENERAL 900.1.2Servicesand Limits ( a ) Services. This Code applies to following the building services, except as excluded in para. 900.1.3: (1) water for heating andcooling ( 2 ) condensingwater (3) steam or other condensate (4) other nontoxic liquids (5) steam (6) vacuum (7) compressed air (8) other nontoxic, nonflammablegases (9) combustible liquids including fuel oil (b) Boiler External Piping. Thescope ofthisCode includes boiler external piping within following the limits: (I) for steam boilers, 15 psig max. ( 2 ) for water heating units, 160 psig max. and 250°Fmax. Boiler external piping above these pressure or temperature limits is within the scope of ASME B3 1.1. Boiler external piping is thepipingconnectedto the boiler and extending to the points identified in Fig. 900.1.2B. ( c ) Material and Size Limits. Piping systems of the following materials are withinthescopeofthisCode, through the indicated maximum size (and wall thickness if noted): ( I ) carbon steel: NPS30and 0.500 in. wall ( 2 ) stainless steel: NPS12and 0.500 in. wall (3) aluminum: 12 NPS ( 4 ) brass and copper: 12 NPS (12.125 in. O.D. for copper tubing) (5) thermoplastics: NPS 14 (6) ductile iron: NPS18 (7) reinforced thermosetting resin: 14 in. Other materials maybeused as noted in Chapter III. (d) Pressure Limits. Piping systems working with pressures not in excess of following the limits are withinthescopeofthisCode: (1) steamandcondensate: 150 psig (2) liquids: 350 psig (3) vacuum: 1 atm external pressure (4) compressed air and gas: 150 psig ThisBuilding Services PipingCodeis a Section of TheAmericanSociety of MechanicalEngineersCode for Pressure Piping, B31.This Section, herein called the Code,published is as a separate document for convenience. Standards and specificationsincorporated by reference in thisCode are shown in Table 926.1, Appendix A, andelsewhere.It is notconsideredpractical to refer to a dated edition of each standard or specification where referenced. Instead, the dated edition references are included in Appendix C. Theuser is cautionedthatthe local building code must be observed and adhered to when its requirements are more stringent than those of thisCode. Components ofpipingsystemsshallconformtothe specifications and standards listed in this Code. Piping elements neither specificallyapprovednorspecifically prohibited by this Code be provided may used they are qualified for use as set forth in applicable chapters ofthisCode. Engineering requirements of this Code, while considered necessary and adequate for safe design, generally employ a simplifiedapproach. An engineer capable of applying a more rigorous aflalysis shall have the latitude to do so. He mustbe able todemonstratethevalidity ofhisapproach. 900.1 Scope 900.1.1 Coverage and Application. This Code Sectionhas rules for thepiping in industrial, institutional, commercial,and public buildings, and multi-unit residences, which not does require the of range sizes, pressures, andtemperaturescovered in B3 I. l . This Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, installation, inspection, examination, and testing of pipingsystems for building services. It includes piping systems in the building or within the property limits. I COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Fig. 900.1.28 Vents and instrumentation 1 I B F" : a T Single installation Multiple installatic installation Common header A. Saturated drain -"- Contr," A" " Inlet header - - Soot blowers Single installation 1 Soot blowers f Two or more a common source Water drum Regulating valve single and multiple installations ADMINISTRATIVE JURISDICTION AND TECHNICAL RESPONSIBILITY - Boiler Proper - The ASME Boiler and PressureVesselCode (ASME BPV Code) has total administrative jurisdiction and technical responsibility. Refer to ASME BPV Code, Section 1 , Preamble, fourth paragraph. Boiler External Piping and Joint (BEP). See para. 900.1.2(b)for 831.9 Scope. - Nonboiler External Piping and Joint (NBEP) FIG. 900.1.2B CODE JURISDICTIONAL LIMITS FOR PIPING - DRUM TYPE BOILERS 2 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 900.1.2-900.2 ( e ) Temperature Limits. Piping systems with working temperatures not in excess of the following limits-are within thescope ofthisCode: ( 1 ) steamandcondensate:366°F (2) other gasesandvapors:200°F (3) other nonflammable liquids: 250°F Theminimumtemperature for all services is 0°F. brazing: a joining processthatproducescoalescence of metals by heating to a suitable temperature and by using a filler metal whose liquidus is above 800°F and belowthe solidus of the basemetals.The filler metal is distributed by capillary attraction between closely fitted joint surfaces. brine: a liquid used for the transmission of heat withoutchange of state in cooling systems, which is nonflammable or has a flash point above 150°F as determined by the method ofASTM D 93 900.1.3 Exclusions. This Code not does apply to economizers, heaters, pumps, tanks, exchangers, heat and equipment covered by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel(BPV)Code. brittle failure: a pipe failure mode that exhibits no material .deformation visible to naked the eye, Le., stretching, elongation, or necking down, in the area of thebreak 900.2 Definitions adhesivebond: adhesive a unionof materials by means of an butt joint: a joint betweentwomembers proximatelyinthesameplane anchor: a structural attachmentdevice or mechanism that prevents the movement pipe to of due thermal expansion,expansion joint thrust, and.other loads chilled water: water used temperaturebelow 60°F aligned ap- as a brine at supply a arc welding: a group of weldingprocessesthatproducecoalescence of metals by heating themwithan arc, with or withouttheuseof filler metal coalescence: the growing together or growth into one bodyof materials beingwelded, brazed, or soldered assembly: the joining together oftwoormorepiping components combustible liquid: or above 100°F automatic weIding: weldingwithequipmentthatperforms the welding operation without constant observation and adjustment of controls by a welding operator. Theequipment may or may notperform the loading andunloading of the work. consumable insert: backing in the form of filler metal whichismeltedintotheroot of theweldandfused with the basemetals backing: materialplaced tosupportmoltenweldmztal at therootof backing ring: backing in the form of a ring See para. defect: an imperfection which by nature or accumulated effect renders a part of the piping unable to meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or specifications. A defect is cause for rejection. be deposited metal: filler metal. that been has added during a welding operation 900.1.2(b). branch connection: the attachment of end the of a branch pipe to the run of a main pipe, with Òr without the use of a fitting. Figure 927.4.6 shows typical branch connectionswhich do notusefittings. design pressure: the pressure, equal to or greater than the highest working pressure, used determine to the minimum permissible wall thickness or component rating.Seepara.901.2. braze welding: a joining process that produces coalescence ofmetalsbyusing a filler metal whose liquidus is above 800°F below and the solidus of the base metals. Unlike brazing, the filler metal is not distributed in the joint by capillary attraction. design temperature: the temperature equal to or higher than the highest working temperature, used in determining therequiredwall thickness or component rating. See para. 901.3. 3 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services at crack: a fracture-type imperfection characterized by a sharp tip and high ratio of length depth and to openingdisplacement ball or swivel joint: a joint that permitspipemotion by means of rotation boiler external piping (BEP): a flash point contractor: the entity responsible for fabrication and installation ofpipingand associated equipment a weld joint basemetal(material): the metal (material) to welded, brazed, soldered, or cut a liquid having
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 900.2 shielding. Added shielding may or may not be obtained froman externally supplied gas or gas mixture. design thickness: the sum of the minimum thicknesses required by thedesign conditions and corrosion, mechanical, and other allowances fulljìlletweld: a filletweldwhose size is equal to the thickness of the thinner member joined. See size o weld. f engineer: the engineer as agent of the owner isthe party responsible for design of piping systems to meet operating and safety standards fusion: the melting together of filler and base material, or ofbasematerial only, that results in coalescence engineering design: the detailed design for a piping installation, developed from the building systems requirements and conforming to Code requirements, including necessary drawings and specifications gasmetalarcwelding (GMAW): an arc welding process that employs a continuous solid filler metal (consumable) electrode. Shielding is obtained entirely from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture. (Some methods of this process have been called MIG or CO;? welding.) equipmentconnection: anintegral part of equipment such as boilers,pressurevessels,heatexchangers, pumps, etc., designed for attachment ofpiping gaspocket: erection: the complete installation of a piping system, including field fabrication andassembly See porosity, the preferredterm. gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW): an arc welding process that employs a tungsten (nonconsumable) electrode. Shielding is obtained from a gas or gas mixture. Pressure may or may not be used and filler metal may or may not be used. (This process has sometimes been called TIG welding.) examination: any of a number of quality control operations that use visualor other methods to reveal imperfections (indications) andto evaluate their significance examiner: a person employed by the pipingmanufacturer, fabricator, or erector who is competent to perform examinations gas welding: groove weld: twomembers expansion joint: a component installed in a piping system for the purpose of absorbing dimensional changes, such as thosecaused by thermal expansion or contraction See oxyfuel gaswelding. a weld in made the groove between heat affected zone (HAZ): that portion of the base metal which has not been melted, but whose mechanical properties or microstructure havebeen altered by the heat of welding, brazing, soldering, forming, or cutting fabrication: bending, forming, cutting, machining,and joining of pipingcomponents into integral subassemblies ready for erection. Fabrication may beperformed in the shop or in thefield. header: See main. heat fusion: a joining process in which melted surfaces of plastic pipe and fittings are engaged and held together under moderate pressure until cool face o weld: the exposed surface of a weld onthe f side from whichtheweldingwas done jìller metal (material): metal (material) to be added in welding, brazing, brazewelding, or soldering impe~ection: an abnormality or indication found during examination or inspection which is not necessarily a cause for rejection. See also defect. jìlletweld: a weld approximately of triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles inert gas: a gas that does not combine with or affect the base material or fillermaterial flammableliquid: a liquidhaving a closed cup flash point below 100°F inert gas metal arc welding: ing, the preferredterm. inspection: any operation performed to assure the owner that the materials, components, fabrication, and installation are in accordance with the engineering design. Inspection may include review of certifications, welding procedure and welder qualifications, records of examinations and testing, and any examination that may be required by the engineering design. @: xmaterial used to dissolve, to prevent accumulation of, or to facilitate removal of oxides and other undesirable substances duringwelding,brazing, or soldering jux-cored arc welding (FCAW): an arc weldingprocess that employs a continuous tubular metal filler (consumable) electrode having a core of flux for 4 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services See gas metal arc weld-
    • S T D - A S M E B I L - S - E N G L L79b m 0757b70 0580397 O37 m ASME 831.9-1996 Edition 900.2 inspector: the owner, or a person representing the owner (not employed by themanufacturer, fabricator, or erector when different from the owner) who performs an inspection oxyacerylene welding (OAW): a gas welding process inwhichcoalescence is produced by heating with a gasflame or flamesobtainedfromthecombustion of acetylene with oxygen, with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal joinr design: the joint geometry together with the requireddimensions oxyfuel gas welding (OFW): a group of weldingprocoalescence produced is by heating cesses in which with a flame or flamesobtainedfromthecombustion of fuel gas with oxygen, with or without the application of pressure, and with or without the use of filler metal jointpenetration: theminimumdepth a grooveweld extends from its face into a joint, exclusive of reinforcement. Joint penetration may include root penetration. See root penetration. liquidus: thelowesttemperatureatwhich alloy is completelyliquid oxygen cutting (OC): a group of cutting processes used to sever or remove metals by means of the reaction of oxygen with the base metal at elevated temperatures. In the case of oxidation-resistant metals the reaction is facilitated by use of a chemical flux or metal powder. a metal or main: as used in this Code, a section of pipe to which a branchorbranches are connected manual welding: welding wherein the entire welding operation isperformedand controlled byhand pass: a single progressionof a welding or surfacing operation along a joint, weld deposit, or substrate. The result of a pass is a weld bead, layer, or spray deposit. maximum allowablestress: themaximum stress value thatmaybeused in thedesignformulas for a given material and design temperature. Stress values tabulated in Appendix A are for stress in tension. peel test: a destructive method examination of that mechanically separates a lap joint by peeling peening: the mechanicalworkingofmetalsusingimpactblows may: As used in thisCode, may denotes permission or indifference; it is neither a requirement nor a recommendation. pipe alignment guide: a restraint in the of form a sleeve or frame that permits the pipeline to move freely onlyalongthe axis ofthepipe.See restraint. mechanical joint: a pipe joint in which mechanical strength is developed by threaded, grooved, rolled, compressed, flared, or flanged pipe ends, with gasketed, caulked, or machined mated and surfaces for leak resistance melting range: thetemperaturerangebetween and liquidus of a metal pipe-supporting elements: These include: ( a ) fixtures: elements transfer load that the from the pipe or structural attachment to the support structure orequipment;and ( b ) structural attachments: brackets, clips, lugs, or other elements welded, bolted, or clamped to the pipe. Support structures such as stanchions, towers, building frames, and foundations, and equipment such as vessels, exchangers, and pumps,are not considered pipe-supporting elements. solidus miter joint: twomore or straight sections of pipe joined (in pairs) on a line bisecting the angle of junction so as to produce a change in direction nominal: a dimension of a product as given in a standard or specification, prior to consideration of tolerances; also, a designated size or rating, not necessarily an actual measurement porosity: cavity-type imperfectionsformed by gas entrapmentduringsolidification ofweldmetal postheating, also called postweldheattreatment (PWHT): the application of heat to anassembly after a welding, brazing, soldering, cutting, or forming operation nominal thickness: the thickness given in theproduct specification to manufacturing which tolerances are applied NPS: nominal pipe size oxidizing flame: anoxyfuelgasflamehavingan dizing effect duetoexcessoxygen preheating ( P H ) : the application of heat to the base metalimmediatelybeforewelding,brazing, soldering, cutting, or forming oxi- 5 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-1% 900.2 Edition procedure: the detailed elements (with prescribed values or rangeof values) of a process or methodused to produce a specific result semiautomatic arc welding: arc welding with equipment that controls only the filler metal feed. The advance of theweldingismanually controlled. procedure qualification: the demonstration thatwelds or other workproducedby a specified procedure can meetprescribed standards shall: usedto indicate that a provision or prohibition in this Code is required, ¡.e., mandatory shielded metal arc welding (SMAW): an arcwelding process in which coalescence is produced by heating with an electric arc between a covered metal electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from decomposition not and of the electrode coveting. Pressure is used fillermetalis obtained fromthe electrode. purge gas: the replacement of air within a piping system with an inert gas; may be required by the welding procedure specification prior to making a gas tungsten arc weld qual$cation: See preferred terms, procedure qualification and welder performancequalification. should: usedto indicate that a provision of this Code isnotrequired,but represents good practice recommend: has the same effect as should single-welded butt joint: side only reducingjame: an oxyfuel gas flame having a reduced effect due to excess fuel gas size of weld (a) groove weld: the joint penetration (depth of bevel plus rootpenetrationwhenSpecified). The size of a groove weld and its effective throat are the same. (b)jìlletweld: for an equal legfilletweld, the leg length of the largest isosceles right triangle which can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. For an unequal leg fillet weld, the leg lengths of the largest right triangle whichcan be inscribed withinthe fillet weld cross section. reinforcement: In branch connections, reinforcement is material around a branch opening that serves to strengthen it. The material is either integral in the branch components or added in the form of weld metal, a pad, a saddle, or a sleeve. In welding, reinforcement is weldmetalin excess of thespecified weld size. restraint: a structural attachment, device, or mechanism that limits movement of the pipe in one or more directions. See pipe alignment guide. NOTE: When one membermakesan anglewiththeothermember greater 105 than deg., the length leg (size) is of less signiticance than the effective throat, which is the controlling factor in the strength of the weld. reverse polarity: the arrangement of direct current arc weldingleadswiththework as thenegativepoleand the electrode as the positive poleofthewelding arc; a synonym for direct current electrode positive rootopening: the separation betweenmembersto joined at the root of the joint slag inclusion: nonmetallic solid material trapped in the weld metal or between the weld metal and base metal be solder: a filler metal used in soldering which has a liquidus not exceeding 800°F rootpenetration: the depth that a weld extends into the root of a joint measured on the center line of the root cross section root reinforcement: weld reinforcement at the other thanthat from whichweldingwas done root surface: the Of a side other thanthatfromwhichweldingwas a butt joint welded from one soldering: a group of joining processesthatproduces coalescence of metals by heatingthemto a suitable temperature and by using a filler metal having a liquidus not exceeding 800°F and below the solidus of the base metals side on the done solidus: thehighest temperature at which a metal or alloyis completely solid run: See main. solvent cement: a solvent adhesive that dissolves or softens the surface beingbonded so thattheassembly seal weld: a fillet weld on used a pipe joint primarily becomes essentially a single fused to obtain fluid tightness as opposed to mechanical strength; usuallyused in conjunction with a threaded solvent cementing: joining plastic parts by useofthe appropriate solvent cement joint " 6 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • 902903 0.-0. ASME B31.9-1996 Edition spacer strip: a metal strip or bar prepared for a groove ajoint to serve .as weld,and inserted in therootof a backing and to maintain root opening during welding; it can also bridgean exceptionally widegapdueto poorfit-up undercut: a groove melted into the base metal adjacent and unfilled by to the toe or root of a weld, left weldmetal weave bead: oscillation spatter: in arc and welding, metal gas the particles expelled during welding that not form part of the weld do welder: onewho is capable of performing a manual or semiautomaticwelding operation stringer bead: a type of bead without weld made appreciable weavingmotion.See also weavebead. weldercert8cation: the action of determining, verifying, or attesting in writing that a welder is qualified to produce welds which can meet prescribed standards submerged arc welding (SAW): an arc welding process thatproducescoalescence ofmetalsbyheatingthem with an arc or arcs drawn between a bare metal electrode or electrodes andthebase metals. The arc is shielded by a blanket of granular fusible material. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode andsometimesfrom a supplementaryweldingrod. Welder Pe$ormance Qualification: demonstration of a welder’s ability toproduceweldsin a manner described in a welding procedure specification that meets prescribed standards welding operator: one who operates a welding machine or automaticweldingequipment supplementalsteel: structural membersthatframebetween existing building framing steel members and are significantlysmaller in size thanthe existing steel welding procedure: the detailed methods and practices, including all joint welding procedures, involved in making a welded joint in proper Welding Procedure Qualz3carion: demonstration that welds made in a manner described in the Welding Procedure Specification will meet prescribed standards. The Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) describes the materials, methods,andresultsofthe test. thermoplastic: a plastic that is capable of being repeatedly softened by heating and hardened by cooling, and whosechangeupon heating is substantially physical thermosetting resin: a plastic when by that, cured heat chemical or means, changes into a substantially infusible, insoluble product Welding Procedure Specification (WPS): the written form of the welding procedure for making a specified kind of a welded joint usingspecifiedbaseand filler metals throat of a fzllet weld ( a ) theoretical: theperpendicular distance fromthe beginningoftheroot of the joint tothehypotenuse of the largest right triangle that can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section ( b ) actual: the shortest distance from root the of a filletweldtoits face wetting: the condition in which a liquid filler metal or flux forms a zeroangle of contact on a solid base metal surface 900.3 Nomenclature thrust block: a type of anchor consisting of a concrete block bearing against earth, usually used on an underground pipeline Symbols used in this Code are listed with here definitions. Upper and lower case Englishletters precede Greek letter symbols. a = weld size (attachmentweld,back of slip-on orsocketwelding flange), in. A = thickness allowance for corrosion (see para. 902.4.I), for mechanical joint preparation (see toe of weld: the junction betweenthe face of a weld andthebasemetal tungsten electrode: a nonconsumable electrode used in arc welding, consisting of a tungstenwire 7 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services transverse welding: a process in which a localized coalescence of metal is produced by heating to a suitable temperature, with or without pressure and with or without the use of filler metal. The filler metal has a melting point approximatelythesame as thebase metals. straight polarity: the arrangement of direct current arc welding leads in which work the the is positive of the pole the and electrode is the negative pole welding arc; a synonym for direct current electrode negative tuck weld: a weld to parts made hold alignment until finalwelds are made a type of weld bead made with
    • ASME B31.9-19% 90 03 b = B = C = d = dg = D = D, = e = E = E,,, = f = F h h, I ksi L = = = = = = Ls = N = P = Q = r = r2 = R = R, = para. 902.4.2), or for mechanical strength (seepara. 902.4.4), in. weld size (attachment weld, face of slip-on flange),in. intemal area, greatest of pipe or expansion joint bellows, in.* head or closure factor, dimensionless inside pipe diameter (D - 2T), for use in closure and branch connection reinforcement calculations, in. inside diameter of gasket on raised or flat (plain) face flanges; or gasket pitch diameter for ring joint and fully retained gasketed flanges, in. outside pipe diameter, as measured or per dimensional standard, in. diameter equal to nominalpipe size, in. coefficientofthermal expansion, inAn."F longitudinal or spiral welded joint efficiency factor, dimensionless (Table 902.4.3) modulus of elasticity, psi (Table 919.3.1) stress range reduction factor for cyclic conditions, dimensionless casting quality factor, dimensionless threaddepth in ASME B 1.20.1, in. gasket moment a r m , in. moment of inertia, in.'' kips (1000 lb) per sq in. developed length of pipe axis between anchors, ft length of pipe between supports or guides, ft number of stress or thermal cycles, dimensionless internal design pressure, psig force to overcome spring rate or friction of expansion joint and guides, pounds-force (lb/ft) radius of gyration, in. mean radius of pipe, based on nominal dimensions, in. anchor or support reaction, Ib/ft effective radius miter of joint; the shortest distance from the pipe center line to the S = S, = S, = S, = SF = S,, = S, = SLp = SE = t, = t,,, = r, = T = T,, = U = = = = = Y = v W W, W, Z = = (Y AT = 8 = 8 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services Edition intersection of planes of adjacent miter joints, in. basic allowable stress value prior to applying joint factor E, psi allowable stress range, [see psi para. 902.3.2(c)] basicmaterialallowablestresspriorto applying joint factor E, at minimum (cold) normaltemperature,psi computed expansion stress range, psi maximum allowable stress in material due to internal pressure considering casting quality factor at design temperature basicmaterialallowablestresspriorto applying joint factor E, atmaximum (hot) normal temperature, psi longitudinal compressive stress, psi longitudinal stress due to pressure, psi maximum allowable stress in material due to internal pressure, considering joint efficiency factor E at design temperature, psi minimum required thicknessflat of head, closure, or blank, in. minimum required wall thickness, in. (see para. 904.l . 1) weldthroat size, in. measured or minimumspecificationwall thickness, exclusive of corrosion allowance, in. nominal pipe thickness, in. distancebetweenanchors,measured in a straight line, ft Poisson's ratio, dimensionless total bolt load, lb/ft weight of pipe and insulation less fluid, Ib/ft weight of pipe, insulation, andfluid, Ib/ft resultant thermalmovement to be absorbed by piping system, in. section modulus, in. 3 lesser angle between axis of branch and axis ofmain,deg. temperature difference, "F angle of miter cut (one-halfthe change in direction at a miter joint), deg.
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 901-902.1 CHAPTER II RESIGN PART 1 CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA 901 DESIGN CONDITIONS 901.1General These design conditions define the pressures, temperatures, andother conditions applicable tothedesignof building services piping. Such systems shall be designed for themostsevere conditions ofcoincident pressure, temperature, andloading anticipated underanyconditions of normal operation, including startup and shutdown.Themostsevere condition shallbethatwhich results in the greatest requiredwall thickness and the highestcomponent rating. 901.2Pressure Pressures referredto in thisCode are expressed in pounds-force per square inch gage (psig), unless otherwise stated. 901.2.1InternalDesignPressure. The internal design pressure, including the effects of static head, shall not be less than the maximum sustained fluid operating pressure within the piping system. Consideration should be given to possible pressure surges. Pump shutoff pressures shall be considered. 901.2.2 External Design Pressure. Piping subject to external pressure shall be designed for the maximum differential pressure anticipated in normal operation. 901.2.3 Required Containment or Relief. Provision shall be to made safely contain or relieve excessive pressure towhichthepipingmaybe subjected. Piping not protected by a pressure-relieving device, or that canbe isolated from a pressure-relieving device, shall bedesigned for atleastthe highest pressurethatcan bedeveloped. COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services 901.3Temperature Temperatures referred toin this Code are the temperatures of piping materials expressed in degrees Fahrenheit, unless otherwise stated. Thepipingshallbedesigned for a temperature representing the maximum condition expected. The temperature of the piping materials is considered tobethesameasthatofthefluid in the piping. 901.4AmbientInfluences 901.4.1Cooling,EffectsonPressure. Where the cooling of a fluid may reduce the pressure in the piping tobelowatmospheric,thepiping shall bedesigned to withstandthe external pressure, or provision shall be madetobreakthevacuum. 901.4.2 Fluid Expansion Effects. Where the expansion of a fluidmay increase thepressure,thepiping system shall be designed withstand to the increased pressure, or provision shall made be to relieve the excesspressure. 901.5DynamicEffects Piping shall be designed, arranged, and supported withdue consideration of vibration, hydraulicshock, wind,and earthquake. 901.7ThermalExpansion and ContractionLoads When a piping system is prevented from free thermal expansionand contraction as a result of anchorsand restraints, thrusts andmoments are set up whichmust be taken into account as set forth in paras. 902 and 919. 902 DESIGNCRITERIA 902.1General Theprovisionsofpara. 902 pertaintoratings, stress values,allowablestress criteria, designallowances,and mínimumdesignvalues,andformulatethepermissible variations in these factors when used in design of piping.
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 902.2-9023.1 902.2 Pressure-TemperatureDesignCriteria For pipe and tube that contain longitudinal or spiral joints, Appendix A shows the product of the basic allowable stress S andthe longitudinal or spiral joint factor E. SE is then the allowable stress. For such materials, divide the value shown in thetable bythe joint factor E to obtain the basic allowable stress S for Code computations in which the joint factor need not be considered. Allowable stresses for materials not listed in Appendix A shall be as listed in ASME B3 1.1 or shall be determined using the bases in (b) through (f) below, as applicable. ( b ) For CastIron. Basic allowable stress valuesat temperature for cast iron (except as covered in para. 904.1.2) shallnot exceed the lower ofthe following: (1) one-tenth of specified minimum yield strength atroom temperature; (2) one-tenth of tensile strength at temperature.' ( c ) For Malleable and Ductile Iron. Basic allowable stress values at temperature for malleable and ductile ironshallnot exceed the lower of the following: ( I ) one-fifth of specified minimum tensile strength at room temperature; (2) one-fifth of tensile strength at temperature.' (d) OtherMetals. Basic allowable stress valuesfor materials other than bolting materials, cast iron, and malleable iron shall not exceed the lowest of the following: ( 1 ) one-fourth ofspecified m i n i m u m tensile strength at room temperature; (2) one-fourth of tensile strength at temperature;' (3) two-thirds of specified minimum yield strength at room temperature; ( 4 ) two-thirds of yield strength at temperature.' ( e ) Thermoplastics. The basic allowable stress for pressuredesignonly of thermoplastic materialsshall be one-halfthe hydrostatic design basis at thedesign temperature, as determined fromtest data obtained in accordance with ASTM D 1598 or analyzed in accordance withASTM D 2837. cfl Reinforced Thermoset Resins. The basic allowable stress for pressure designonly of reinforcedthermosetting resin materials shall be one-half the hydrostatic design basis at thedesign temperature, as determined fromtest data obtained in accordance withASTM D 1598, or analyzed in accordance withProcedure B of ASTM D 2992. Data obtained by the method of ASTM for PipingComponents 902.2.1ComponentsHavingSpecificRatings ( a ) ForListedComponents. Pressure-temperature ratings have been established for certain piping components and are contained in some of the standards listed in Table 926.1. These ratings are accepted for usein accordance withthis Code. (b) For ComponentsNotListed. If it isnecessary to use components which do not conform to standards listed in Table 926.1, they shall be qualified for pressure design in accordance withthe requirements of para. 904. In addition, they shall be used within the ratings and other service limitations given by the manufacturer. 902.2.2 Components Not Having Specific Ratings. Components conforming to some of the standards listed in Table 926.1 are specified as havingratings equal to those of seamless pipe of corresponding material and wall thickness. For the purposes of this Code, these components shall beused as follows. ( a ) Butt welding fittings shall be specified to a wall thickness at least as great as that of the pipe to which they are to be connected. ( b ) Forged steel or alloy threaded andbuttwelding fittings shall be specified in the nominal pressure class at least as great as that listed for thewall thickness of pipe towhichthey are to be connected. 902.2.3 Ratings, Normal Design Conditions.A pipingsystem shall be considered safe for operation if themaximum pressure which may actonany part or component of the system does not exceed the maximum pressure allowed by this Code, at the design temperature for that component; or does not exceed rated the pressure at design temperature for that component in the applicable standard listed in Table 926.1. 902.2.5 Ratings at Transitions. Where piping systems operating at different design conditions are connected, a division valve shall be provided, which shall be designed for the higher pressure-temperature condition. 902.3Allowable Stresses andOther Stress Limits 902.3.1Allowable Stress Values (a) General. The allowable stresses to beused for design calculations shall conform to those in Appendix A, unless modified by other requirements of this, Code. For pipe andtubethat do not contain longitudinal or spiral joints, Appendix A shows the basic allowabIe stress S. ' multiplying the average expected tensile (or yield) strength at temperature by the ratio of the specified minimum tensile (or yield) strength at room temperature to the average expected tensile (or yield) strength at room temperature. 10 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services The remile (or yield) strength at temperature is derived by
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 902.3.1-902.4.4 TABLE 902.4.3 JOINT FACTORS E D 2143 maybeused if analyzed by ProcedureAof ASTM D 2992. (g) Shear and Bearing Stresses. Allowable stress values in shear shall be 0.80 times, and allowable stress values in bearing shall be 1.60 times, the basic allowable stress value S. (h) Pipe Support Elements. For allowable stresses see para. 921.1.1. Type of Longitudinal or Spiral Joint Single butt weld Double butt weld Single or double butt weld with 100% radiography or ultrasonic examination [Note (1)l weld Electric resistance Furnace butt weld (or continuous weld) ASTM A 211 spiral joint 902.3.2Limits of CalculatedStressesdueto or Sustained Loads Thermal and Expansion Contraction ( a ) Internal PressureStresses. The calculated stress due to internal pressure shall not exceed the allowable stress values SE given in Appendix A except as permitted elsewhere in para.902.3. (b) External Pressure Stresses. Stresses due to external pressure shallbeconsidered acceptable when the wall thickness of the piping component and its means of stiffening meet the requirements of paras. 903 and 904. ( c ) Stresses due to Expansion and Contraction. The allowable stress range SA for expansion stresses in systems stressed primarily in bending and torsion shall be determined in accordance with ASME B3 1.1, para. 102.3.2(C),using basic allowable stresses S from Appendix A of this Code. ( d ) AdditiveStresses. The of sum the longitudinal stresses dueto pressure, weight, and other sustained loadsshallnotexceedtheallowable stress in thehot condition s h . Wherethesumofthese stresses is less than S,, the difference between S andthissummay , be added to the term 0.25 s h in Formula (1) of ASME B31 .l, para.102.3.2(C)fordeterminingtheallowable stress range S,. ( e ) Longitudinal Pressure Stress. The longitudinal pressure stress ,S isdetermined by dividing theend , force due internal to pressure by the cross-sectional area ofthepipewall. 0.80 0.90 1.00 0.85 0.60 0.75 NOTE: (1) Acceptance standards are those in ASME 631.1. thelive, thetest. dead, andtestloads existing at thetime of 902.4Allowances 902.4.1CorrosionorErosion. When corrosion or erosion is expected, the wall thickness shall be increased over that required by other design requirements, unless other means of corrosion control such as coatings or cathodic protection are relied on. This allowance shall be consistent with the expectedlife ofthe piping, as judged by the engineer. 902.4.2Threading and Grooving. The calculated minimum thickness ofmetallicpipe or tubingwhich istobethreaded shall be increased by an allowance equal to thread depth, dimension h in ASME B 1.20.1, or equivalent. For machined surfaces or grooves if the tolerance is not specified, it shall be assumed be to 1/64 in. in addition to thespecifieddepthof cut. For plastic pipe, the recommendations for threading and derating in the applicable standardlisted in Table 926.1 shall be followed. 902.4.3 Joint Efficiency Factors. Longitudinal or spiral weld joint efficiency factors are required by this Codeand are included in theallowable stress values SE in Appendix A. Table902.4.3 states the factor E for several typesof longitudinal or spiralwelds. 902.3.3Limits of CalculatedStressesdueto OccasionalLoads ( a ) Operation. The sum of the longitudinal stresses produced by pressure, live anddeadloads,andthose produced by occasional loads, such as wind or earthquake, shall not exceed 1.33 times the allowable stress values S in Appendix A. It is not necessary to consider windandearthquake as occurring concurrently. (b) Test. Stresses due to test conditions are not subject to the limitations of para. 902.3. It is not necessarytoconsider other occasionalloads,suchas wind and earthquake, as occurring concurrently with 902.4.4 Mechanical Strength. The wall thickness of pipe should be increased where necessary mechanical for strength to preventdamage, collapse, excessive sag or supbuckling of pipe due to superimposed loads from ports or other causes; or, if this is impractical or would causeexcessivelocal stresses, thesuperimposedloads shall be reduced or eliminated by other design methods. II COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services Weld Joint Efficiency Factor E
    • ASME B31.%19% E t n d i o 90s904.2.2 TABLE 904.2.1A PIPE THICKNESS FOR BENDS PART 2 PRESSUREDESIGN OF PIPING COMPONENTS Radius of Bends, Pipe Diameters, Dn [Note (1)l 6 or greater 5 903 CRITERIA FOR PRESSUREDESIGN OF PIPINGCOMPONENTS 4 3 Components manufactured in accordance with the specifications and standards listed in Table 926.1 or in Appendix A shall be considered suitable for use at the pressure-temperature ratings or allowable stresses in accordance with para. 902.2. Components not manufactured in accordance with those specifications and standards shall beused only in accordance with para. 902.2.2. The rules in para. 904 usually are for the pressure design of componentsnot covered in para. 902.2, but maybeused for a more rigorous or special design of components covered in para. 902.2. The designs shall be checked for adequacy of mechanical strength under applicable loadingsstated in para. 901. (2) When computing the design pressure for a pipe of a definite minimum wall thickness fm the value of pressure obtained by Formula (2) may be rounded tothenexthigher 10 psi. (b) Ductile Iron Pipe. The thickness of ductile iron pipe shall be determined from one of the following: ( 1 ) A N S V A W A C150/A21.50 or C151/ A21.51; (2) ANSIA21.14 or A21.52; (3) Federal Specification W - P - 4 2 l . The tabulated thicknesses in these standards include allowances for foundry tolerances andwater hammer. (c) Straight Nonmetallic Pipe. The maximum pressure ratings for plastic and other nonmetallic pipe shall be as given inthe applicable standards listed in Table 926. l . 904.1 StraightPipe 904.1.1StraightPipeUnderInternalPressure (u) Steel, Alloy, und Nonferrous Pipe. The minimum wall thickness of pipe wall, including allowances, shall notbe lessthanthat determined by Formula (1). 904.1.2StraightMetallicPipe Under External Pressure. In determining wall thickness and stiffening requirements for straight pipe under external pressure, the procedures outlined in UG-28 of Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME BPV Code shall be followed. PD ="+A 2SE Designpressureshallnotexceedthat Formula(2). P = 1.06tm 1.08tm 1.14tm 1.24tm NOTE: (1) Interpolation is permissible for a radius other than those listed. 904 PRESSURE DESIGN OF COMPONENTS r,,, Minimum Thickness Recommended Prior to Bending 904.2 CurvedandMiteredSegments determined by 2SE (t,,, - A) D 904.2.1PipeBends (u) Thickness of Bends. The minimum wall thickness t, at any point in a completed pipe bend shall not be less than that required by para. 904. l. l. Table 904.2.1A maybeused as a guide in specifying wall thickness for ordering pipe to be bent. (b) Flattening of Bends. Flattening of a bend, as measured by the difference of maximum and minimum diameters, shall not exceed 8% of the average measured outside diameter of thepipebeforebending. Greater flattening may be permitted or less flattening may be required if specified by the engineering design. (2) The engineer may, at his option, use the values of r,,, and P determined by the applicable formulas in ASME B31.1. ( I ) If pipe is ordered by its nominal wall thickness, the manufacturing tolerances on wall thickness must be taken into account. After the minimum wallthickness r,,, is determined, this minimum thickness shall be increased to provide the manufacturing tolerance allowed in the applicable pipe specification. The next heavier commercial wall thickness shall then selected. be 904.2.2MiterJoints. Thickness determined in accordance with para. 904.l. 1 does not allow for discontinuity stresses at the joint betweenmitered segments 12 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services of Pipe
    • S T D O A S M E BILaS-ENGL L77b m 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 0580207 T33 ASME 831.9-1996 Edition m 904.2.2-904.3.2 904.3BranchConnections 904.3.1 General. In para. 904.3, requirements are in which presented for design ofbranchconnections the angle between the axes of the branch and main is 45 deg. to90deg., inclusive, andtheaxes intersect. Branch connections may be made by any of the followingmethods. (u) Fittings. Tees, extruded outlets, laterals, crosses, etc., manufactured in accordance with a standard listed in Table 926.1. ( b ) Outlet Fittings. Cast or forged welding outlet fittings, nozzles, forged couplings, and similar items, attached to themainby welding. ( c ) Direct Connection to the Main. Welding the branch pipe directly to the main, with or without added reinforcement,as shown in details of branch connections in Figs. 927.4.6Aand B. Full size branchconnections of this type are not recommended. FIG. 904.2.2 NOMENCLATURE FOR MITER JOINTS 904.3.2Strength of BranchConnections (u) General. A mainhaving a branchconnection is weakened by the branch opening. Unless wall the thickness the and of main branch are sufficiently in excess of required that to sustain the pressure, it is necessary to provide added reinforcement. The amount of added reinforcement shall be determined in accordancewith para. 904.3.3 or 904.3.4. (6) Branch Connections Not Requiring Added Reinforcement. Itmaybeassumedwithout calculation that a branchconnectionhasadequate strength tosustain the internal and external pressure which will be applied to it i f ( I ) the branch connection utilizes a fitting (tee, lateral, or cross) in accordancewith para. 903; ( 2 ) thebranchconnection is made by welding a threaded or socket-weldingcoupling or half coupling directly to main, the when the branch size does not exceed NPS 2 or one-fourththenominaldiameter of the main. The minimum wall thickness of the coupling shall not be less than of unthreaded that the branch pipe. SeeFig.927.4.6B for permissiblewelds. (3) thebranchconnectionismade by weldingan integrally reinforced outlet fitting (having a threaded, socket, or butt-welding outlet) to main, the provided thefittingismadefrom materials listed in Appendix A, and provided it has been demonstrated by full-scale internal pressure tests or other means described in para. 904.7thatthebranchfittingandits joint are at least as strong as themain or branch pipes. ofpipe.These discontinuity stresses are negligible for miter angles of 3 deg. or less in any service, andmay be neglected for miters in nonflammable, nontoxic liquid service at pressures of 50 psig or less, and for unvalved vents to atmosphere. See Fig. 904.2.2 for nomenclature. ( a ) AllowablePressure. For other services and for pressures in excess of 50 psig, the maximum allowable pressure for miter joints where 0 does not exceed 22v2 deg. shall be the lower positive value calculated by Formulas (3a) and (3b). P = -(R SET r2 ) - O.Sr2 RI I Formulas (3a) and (3b) apply when only R , is at least as great as the value calculated by Formula (4). I RI = tan O D T + ( b ) Other Miters. Miter joints not covered above shallmeettherequirementsof para. 904.7. 13 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-19% Edition 94.-.. 033w51 TABLE 904.3.3 HEADER AND BRANCH MATERIALS FOR STANDARD WALL PIPE’ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ Header Symbol Material Branch Type A538, A1066 SML A53B, A135B (Header seam not cut 15,000 ERW by branch) A536, A135B (Header seam cut by 0.85 15,000 BC ERW branch) A53A, A A106A A53A, 1.00 SML A53A, A135A (Header seam not cut A53A, 1.00AN 12,000 ERW branch) by A53A, A135A (Header seam cut by ERW AC branch) FB A536, A1356 ERW FN A53 Type F BW FC A53 Type F BW B BN sh Material Eh 1.00 A53B, 1.00 A106B A536, A1356 A135B 15,000 A538, 0.85 Type SML 15,000 0.85 ERW 15,000 15,000 A106A ERW SML 12,000 A135A ERW 12,000 A53A, A135A A53 Type F A53 Type F A53 Type F ERW BW BW BW 12,000 11,250 11,250 11,250 12,000 12,000 15,000 11,250 11,250 0.85 1.00 1.00 0.60 ’ E b Sb 1.00 . 1.00 0.85 0.85 0.60 0.60 0.60 NOTE: (1) ThisTableis t o beused in conjunction with Figs.904.3.3AandB.Selecttheheaderandbranch materials from theTable.Usingthe appropriate symbol for the materials and the appropriate sketch the pressure and branch intersection angle, determineif the combination for of header and branch size to beused can bemade without reinforcement. The sizes below and t o the left of the tagged line within each sketch do not need reinforcement. 904.3.3 Reinforcement of Welded Branch Connections (a) Added Reinforcement. Added reinforcement is required for many branch connections described in para. 904.3.1(c). The criteria for such reinforcement are given in para. 104.3.l(d) of ASMEB31.1, along with rules for proportioningand attaching suchreinforcement. (b) No Added Reinforcement. Some branch connections made in accordance with Fig. 927.4.6 have sufficient excess thickness so thatnoadded reinforcement is required within the range of pressures and sizes used in this Code. Figures 904.3.3AandB in conjunction with Table 904.3.3 illustrate branch connections which do not need addedreinforcementwhenusingstandardweight pipe materials as shown in Figs. 904.3.3A and B and when fabricated as shown inFigs.927.4.6AandB. (c) Multiple Openings. In the case of multiple openings in the main, rules the in para. 904.3.3(b) are applicable only if the distance between their centers is at least the sum of their inside diameters d. Otherwise, the requirements in para. 1 4 3 1 D 2 5of 0 . . ( . . )ASME B31.1must be met. 904.4 Closures 904.4.1General. Closures shall be made byuse of closure fittings,such as plugs, caps, or blindflanges in accordance withpara. 903, or byuseofflatplate closures such as thoseshown in Fig.927.4.5A. The minimum required thickness tc for flat plate closures is calculated by Formula (5). tc = d e + A where C = OSt,,/T, but not less than 0.3 S = allowable stress of closure material 904.4.2 ‘Openings in Closures.Openings in closures may be made by welding, extruding, or threading. Attachment to the closure shall be in accordance with the requirements for the corresponding type of branch the and connection in para. 904.3.3, including need provision for added reinforcement. If the size ofthe opening is greater than half the inside diameter of the closure, the opening shall be designed as a reducer in accordance withpara.904.6. 904.3.4 Extruded Outlet Headers. If integrally reinforced extruded outlet headers are used, they shall be reinforced as required by para.104.3.1(G)of ASME B31.1. 904.5PressureDesignofFlangesandBlanks manufactured in accord904.5.1 General. Flanges ance with a standard listed in Table 926.1 are suitable 14 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services (5)
    • S T D D A S M E B I L = S - E N G L L99b m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 0580209 BOb m ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Fig. 904.3.3A 32 24 28 20 24 2 2 20 z $ 16 ._ aì 16 l) i r 12 o C E 12 m 8 8 4 4 2 2 4 12 8 16 20 24 -2 32 28 4- 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Header Size, NPS (a) 90 deg., 100 psig 2 4 14 6 20 Header Size, NPS (b) 90 deg.. 200 psig 12 8 10 16 18 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Header Size, NPS Header Size, NPS (d) 90 deg., 350 p i g (c) 90 deg., 300 psig GENERAL NOTES: (a) See Table 904.3.3 for instructions on theuse of this figure. (b) A 12.5% mill tolerance and a in. corrosion allowance have been used in the calculations for this figure. (c) The pipe size limit for this Code is NPS 30. The sketches end at that size, but allowable unreinforced branches may extend to larger sizes for some materials and pressures. ( d l A53 Type F, butt weld pipe, is limited to NPS 4 as it is not available above thatsize. (e) This figure is based on the rules of 631.1. ’& FIG. 904.3.3A 90 deg. BRANCH INTERSECTIONS NOT REQUIRING ADDED REINFORCEMENT - STANDARD WALL PIPE 15 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ~~ S T D * A S M E B 3 1 - 7 - E N G L 377b 0757b70 0580230 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Fig. 90433B 28 18 1 6 24 L z 14 20 v) 12 Q a l E m 526 z 16 6 c o : 10 c 12 E E 8 m 6 8 4 4 2 2 2 4 12 16 24 20 Header Size, NPS 8 (a) 45 2 4 6 28 2 32 4 6 10 12 13 14 22 16 20 Header Size. NPS 24 (bl 45 deg.,200 p i g deg., psig 100 8 10 12 16 Header Size, NPS 8 14 4 2 6 8 Header Size, NPS 10 12 (d) 45 deg., 350 psig ( c ) 45 deg.. 300 psiy GENERAL NOTES: use of this figure. (a) See Table 904.3.3 for instructions on the in. corrosion allowance have been used in the calculations for this figure. (b) A 12.5% mill tolerance and a (c) The pipesize limit for this Code is NPS 30. Tbe sketches end at that size, but allowable unreinforced branches may extend to largersizes for some materials and pressures. (d) A53 Type F, butt weld pipe, is limited to NPS 4 as it is not available above thatsize. (e) This figure is based on the rules of 831.1. ’& FIG. 904.3.38 45 deg. BRANCH INTERSECTIONS NOT REQUIRING ADDED REINFORCEMENT -STANDARD WALL 16 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services PIPE
    • 904.5.1-905.2.5 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition (a) engineering calculations; (b) experimental stress analysis such as described in Appendix 6 in Section VIU, Division 2 of the ASME BPV Code; (c) proof test in accordance with UG-101 in Section VIII,Division 1 of the ASME BPV Code. If differences in size and proportion are small, components may be designed by interpolation between similar configurations whichhavebeenprovenbyoneofthe procedures described above, or that conform to a listed standard. for use accordance in with para. 903. Other flanges shalldesigned be in accordance Appendix with [I, SectionVIII,Division I oftheASMEBPVCode. 904.5.2BlindFlanges. Blindflangesmanufactured in accordance with a standard listed in Table 926.1 are suitable for use in accordance with para. 903. Other blind flanges shall be designed in accordance with UG34 of Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME BPV Code. 904.5.3 Blanks. The minimum required thickness of a permanentblank installed betweentwoflanges shall be calculated by Formula (6). t,. = d,,J3P/lss +A (6) PART 3 SELECTION AND LIMITATION OF COMPONENTS S = allowable stress of blank material. Use SF if material is a casting. Blanks used only for testing with an incompressible fluid shall be calculated in accordance Formula with (6), except that P shall be the test pressure and S may be taken as 0.95 times specified the minimum yield strength of the blank material. 905 PIPE 905.1 General 904.6Reducers 905.1.1ListedPipe. Pipemanufactured in accordance with a specification or standard listed in Table 926.1 or Appendix A, as qualified by the Notes,may be used in accordance its with ratings or allowable stresses, within other limitations in para. 905, and withinthe limitations on joints inChapter II, Part 4 andonmaterials in Chapter III. 904.6.1General. Reducersmanufactured in accordancewith a standardlisted in Table 926.1 are suitable forusewithpipeofthesamenominal thickness. 904.6.2 Segmented Reducers. The minimum wall thickness of segmented (orange peel) reducers fabricated with longitudinal weldsshallbedetermined in accordance with para. 904.1.2, using a weld joint efficiency factor of 0.6. The slope of thereducing section shall notbeatan angle greater than 30 deg. tothe axis of thepipe. 905.2SpecificLimitations 905.2.1 Cast Iron Pipe. Cast iron pipe shall not be used above ground in oil or other flammable liquid service, nor in compressedgas service. 904.7PressureDesign of OtherPressure ContainingComponents 905.2.2 Pipe. Steel Furnace weld butt steel pipe shall not be used for flammable or combustible liquids. Other pressure con904.7.1 Listed Components. taining components manufactured in accordance with a standardlisted in Table 926.1 are suitable for use in accordance with para. 903. 905.2.3 Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube. Copper pipe and tube shall not be used for flammable or combustible liquids except as permitted in para. 922.3.1(c). 904.7.2 UnlistedComponents. Pressurecontaining in componentsmade of listed materials butnotmade accordance with a specification or standard listed in Table926.1 or Appendix A shall be substantiated by at least one of the following: 905.2.4NonmetallicPipe. Unlistedreinforcedthermosettingresinpipeshallnotbeused. 905.2.5 Thermoplastics Pipe. See para. 923.3.2 for limitations on thermoplastics. 17 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.%1996 Edition 906-9 10 906 FITTINGS,BENDS,ANDINTERSECTIONS 908 FLANGES,BLANKS,GASKETS,AND BOLTING 906.1 Fittings 908.1General manufactured in 906.1.1 Listed Fittings. Fittings accordance with a specification or standard listed in Table 926.1 or Appendix A may be used in accordance with their ratings or allowable stresses, within other within the limitations limitations in para. 906, and on joints in Chapter II, Part 4 and materials on in Chapter III. 906.2BendsandMiter 908.1.1 Listed Components. Flanges, blanks, gaskets, and boltingmanufactured in accordance with a standard listedin Table 926.1 may be used in accordance with their ratings, withinmanufacturers’recommendations, within other limitations in para. 908, and within the limitations on joints in Chapter II, Part4andon materials in Chapter III. Joints 908.3FlangeFacings See para. 904.2.2(a) for service limitations on restricted miter joints. Flange facings shall be in accordance with the standards listed in Table 926.1, or as provided in MSS SP-6. When bolting raised-face steel flanges flatto face cast iron flanges, bolting torque should be limited to prevent cracking the cast iron flange; otherwise, steel flangesshouldbe furnished with a flat-faceandfullface gaskets shall be used. 906.3 Limitations on Fittings Cast iron fittings shall not used be in flammable liquid or gas service. See para.923.3.2 for limitations on thermoplastics. 908.4Gaskets 907 VALVES Material, thickness, and type of gasket shall be selected to suit thefluidtobehandledandthedesign pressureand temperature. 907.1 General 907.1.1ListedValves. Valves manufactured in accordance with a standard listed in Table 926.1 may be used in accordance with their ratings, withinother limitations in para. 907, and within the limitations on in on joints in Chapter II, Part 4 and materials Chapter III. 908.5Bolting Bolts, nuts, and washers shall conform to applicable standards listed in Table 926.1. 907.1.2 UnlistedValves. Valvesnotmanufactured in accordance with a listed standard shall be used only within the manufacturer’srecommendationsas to service and ratings, and withinthe limitations on comparable listed valves, considering composition, mechanical properties, dimensions, method of manufacture, and quality control. Otherwise, the valves shall be qualified in accordance withpara.904.7.2. PART 4 SELECTION AND LIMITATION OF JOINTS 907.2Marking Each valve shallbearmarkings in accordance with MSS SP-25, including the manufacturer’s name or trademark, thematerialof construction, andsymbols to indicate the service conditions for which the manufacturer rates the valve. Other markings shall be included if required by the applicable standard. 910 PIPINGJOINTS The type of joint used shall be suitable for the design conditions and the fluid handled, and shall be selected with consideration of joint tightness andmechanical strength. 18 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • S T D * A S M E B 3 1 . 7 - E N G L b77b D 0757b70 0580213 237 m ASME B31.9-2996 Edition 911-915 911 WELDED JOINTS temperature ratings and other recommendations for installation anduse. 911.1MetallicPipe 913.1Limitations on MechanicalandProprietary Joints Welded joints shall onlybeused for materials for whichwelding procedures, welders,andweldingmachine operators have qualified been as required in ChapterV. Joints dependenton friction characteristics or resiliencyofcombustible or low meltingpointmaterials for mechanical continuity or leak tightness shall not beused for flammable fluids or gases inside buildings. 911.1.1 Butt and Miter Welds. Butt and miter joint welds shall bemade in accordance with para. 927.4.2, andshallbe full penetrationwelds.(Backing rings are notrecommended.) 914THREADEDJOINTS 911.1.2 Socket Welding. Socket welds shall be made in accordance with para. 9 11.I .3. In addition, dimensions of socket type joints shall conform to those in standards listed in Table 926.1. Threaded joints maybeused within the limitations on fittings in para. 906, limitations on materials in Chapter III, and other limitations herein. 914.1AcceptableTypes 911.1.3FilletWelds. Fillet welds in properlydesignedconnections shall bemade in accordance with para. 927.4.3. Threads pipe fittings be on and shall tapered pipe threads in accordance with ASME B 1.20.1 or other applicable standards listedinTable 926.1, exceptthat threads in wrought steel couplings NPS 2 andsmaller may be straight pipe threads. Threads other than tapered pipe threads maybeusedwhere tightness of the joint dependson a seal weld or seating surface other than the threads, andwhereexperience or testhasdemonstrated thatsuch threads are suitable. 911.1.4SealWelds. Seal welds are intendedonly toprovideleak tightness for threaded joints and are not consideredtoadd strength tothe joint. 911.2NonmetallicPipe 911.2.1ThermoplasticWelding. Welds in thermoplasticmaterials shall conformtotherequirements in para. 934. I .3. 914.2LimitationsonThreadedJoints (u) Threaded joints shall notbeusedwheresevere erosion, crevice corrosion, shock, or vibration are expectedto occur. (6) Metallic pipe with a wall thickness less than thatofstandardwall in ASMEB36.10Mshallnotbe threaded, regardless of service. (c) Plastic pipe with wall thickness less than that of Schedule 80 shallnotbe threaded. (d) Polyethylene and pipe polybutylene pipe shall notbe threaded. 911.2.2 Thermoplastic Socket Welding. Dimensions of socket-type joints shallconformtothose in standards for fittingslisted in Table 926.1. 912 FLANGEDJOINTS Flanged joints shallmeettherequirements 908. in para. 913 MECHANICAL AND PROPRIETARY JOINTS 915FLARED,FLARELESS,AND COMPRESSIONJOINTS Grooved, extruded, expanded, rolled, O-ring, clamp, gland-type, and other mechanical or proprietary joints maybeusedwhere experience or tests in accordance with para. 904.7havedemonstratedthatthe joint is safe for the operating conditions andthefluidsbeing transported, andwhereadequateprovision is madeto prevent separation ofthe joint. All such joints shall be used within the manufacturer’s limitations on pressure- Flared, flareless, and compression type tubing fittings and joints may be used within the limitations of applicable standards listed in Table 926. I , on materials in Chapter III, and other limitations herein. Fittings and joints shall be compatible with the tubing with which they are used, and shall be used within the manufacturer’spressure-temperature ratings. Vibration 19 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 915-919.3.1 PART 5 EXPANSION, FLEXIBILITY, AND SUPPORT and thermal cycling shall be considered in each application. 916BELLANDSPIGOTJOINTS 919EXPANSIONANDFLEXIBILITY 916.1Caulked or Leaded Joints 919.1General Bell and spigot joints, caulked with lead and packing material, may be used only for water service up to 100"F, where adequate provisionismade to prevent separation of the joints. See ANSVAWWA C600 for joints in cast iron pressure piping. In additiontodesignrequirementsforpressure, weight,and other loadings, piping systems subject to thermal expansion or contraction, or to similar movementsimposed by other sources shall be designed to prevent: (u) failure ofpiping or supports from overstress or fatigue; (6) leakage of joints; ( c ) detrimental stresses or distortion in connected equipment (pumps, turbines, valves, etc.) resulting from excessive thrusts andmoments. 916.2Push-TypeElastomerGasket Push-type joints with elastomer gaskets may be used where experience or tests have demonstrated thatthe joint is safe for the operating conditions andthefluid being transported, and where adequate provision is made to prevent separation of the joints. 919.2Concepts analysis 919.2.1General. The treatment offlexib' in this Code covers only the simplest applications. For piping systems not compatible with simplified this approach, theuser is directed to Chapter 11, Part 5 of ASME B3 I . 1. The concepts, methods, and requirements therein are acceptable underthis Code. 917BRAZEDANDSOLDEREDJOINTS 917.1 General Brazed and soldered socket-type joints shall be made 928 and brazing with or solderingfillermetalswhich are compatible withthe basematerialandwiththepressure, temperature, and other service conditions. in accordance with para. 919.2.2 Means of Providing Flexibility. Flexibility of following may be increased by one or more the means: (u) adding elbows, bends, or loops where feasible; (b) installing expansion joints, properlyguidedand restrained; (c) installing rotary joints, properlyguided and restrained. 917.2Brazed Joints Socket-type brazed joints may used be within the limitationsonmaterials in Chapter III. 919.2.3 Flexibility in Nonmetallic Piping. Particular in selecting themethodsgiven in care mustbetaken para. 919.2.2 when laying out nonmetallic piping systems, because they are difficult or impossible to analyze, haveverylimited capacity for overstress, are subject to brittle failure, and may have high coefficients of thermal expansion and nonlinear stress-strain characteristics. 9173 Soldered Joints 917.3.1 General. Soldered socket-type joints may be used within the pressure-temperature limitations in Table 917.3. Soldered joints other than socket-type shall notbeused. 917.3.2 Limitations. Soldered joints shall not be used for flammable or toxic gases or liquids. They shall not be used for compressed air or other gases in tubing over 4.125 in. O.D. unless the maximum pressure is limitedto 20 psig. 919.3Properties for Analysis 919.3.1Coefficients of ThermalExpansion. Table 919.3.1 contains data on thermal expansion characteris20 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • S T D = A S M E B33.7-ENGL 177b m OOT H 0 7 5 7 b 7 00 5 8 0 2 3 5 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 919.3.1-919.8 TABLE 917.3 RATED INTERNAL WORI<ING PRESSURES OF JOINTS MADE WITH COPPER WATER TUBE AND SOLDER JOINT FITTINGS, psigl Types K, L, M Copper Water Tube in Nominal Sizes,in. Liquids and Gases [Note (213 Service 5-8 Temperature, Brazing Alloy Solder or Used in Joints 1/4-1 “F, Max. 2l/,-4 1V4-2 [Note (2)l and Steam 10-12 Saturated [Note (2)l Condensate, All Sizes 50-50 Tin-Lead 200 ASTM B 32 Gr 50A 100 150 1 O0 150 100 85 90 7 5 45 135 75 175 150 125 200 [Note (1)l 250 [Note (1)l 70 90 50 100 70 50 40 95-5 Tin-Antimony 500 ASTM B 32 Gr 95TA 100 150 200 CNote (1)l 250 CNote (1)l Brazing Alloys 270 250 175 300 275 200 150 [Note (311 210 190 [Note ( 3 ) l 170 150 400 400 300 200 200 [Note (1)l [Note ( 3 ) l 250 [Note (1)l 3 5 0 [Note (1)l 300 270 350 250 140 180 135 [Note (311 150 150 ... ... ... 15 150 150 ... 110 15 [Note (311 150 150 ... ... ... 15 120 NOTES: (1) See paras. 900.1.2(d) and (e) for pressure and temperature limits under this Code. (2) See limitations in para. 917.3.2. ( 3 ) Rated pressure for temperatures up to 200°F is that of the tube being joined. NOTE: There is noassurancethat Formula (9) is alwaysaccurate or conservative,especiallyfornearlystraightsawtoothsegments or forunequallegU-bendswhere UU is morethan 2.5. There is no assurancethat end reactionswill be. acceptablylow. ticsofmanyofthemetallicandnonmetallicmaterials used in thisCode. 919.4Analysis,MetallicPiping 919.4.1Requirements for Analysis ( a ) SimpliJied Analysis. No formal analysis is required for systemswhichmeetone of following the criteria. ( I ) The system duplicates a successfully operating installation or replaces a system with a satisfactory service record. (2) Thesystemis of ductile material (e.g., there are no cast iron fittings); thesegmentbeinganalyzed has more two no than anchors no and intermediate restraints; it has no more than two pipe sizes, differing by one standard size; the least nominalwall thickness isless no than 75% of the greatest; and thermal expansion in thesegment satisfies Formula (9): D,Y/(L - U)* = 0.03 or Less (9) where D, = the nominal size of larger the pipe segment ( 3 ) The system laid is out with a conservative margin of inherent flexibility, or employs joining methods, expansion devices, or a combination of joining method and expansion devices in accordance with applicable manufacturers’ instructions. (b) Other Methods of Analysis. Piping systems which do not meet the criteria of (a) above shall be analyzed by suitable approximate or conservative methods as outlined in ASME B3l. 1, paras. 119.7.1(C) and (D), and as directed elsewhere in para. 119 of ASME B31.1. in the 919.8 Movements Movements caused by thermal expansion or contraction and other similar loadings shall be determined for consideration of obstructions anddesign of supports. 21 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • 919.9-919.10 ASME B31.9-19% Edition TABLE 919.3.1 MODULI OF ELASTICITY AND THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS ~ Material Modulus of Elasticity, psi x 10" Coefficient [Note ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ . Linear Thermal Expansion, in./lOO ft, Between 70°F and Indicated Temperature, "F (1)l of Thermal Expansion, idin., O F X lo4 O 25 ' 50 70 100 125 Carbon steel 27.5 6.33 -0.49 -0.32 -0.14 O 0.23 0.42 Austenitic stainless steel 29.0 9.27 -0.72 -0.46 -0.21 o 0.34 0.62 Aluminum 10.0 12.69 -0.97 -0.63 -0.28 O 0.46 0.85 Gray cast iron 13.0 5.76 -0.49 -0.32 -0.14 O 0.21 0.38 Ductile Iron ... 5.97 -0.46 -0.30 -0.14 O 0.21 0.39 Copper C12200 (99.9Cu) 17.0 9.50 -0.80 -0.51 -0.23 O 0.34 0.63 CopperCA 23000 (red brass) (8501) 17.0 10.40 -0.87 -0.56 -0.25 O 0.37 0.69 ABS 1210 1316 2112 0.25 0.34 55.0 40.0 40.0 ... ... ... ... O 1.98 1.44 1.44 ... ... -1.32 -0.96 -0.96 O ... ... CPVC 4120 0.42 35.0 *.. ... -0.84 O 1.26 2.31 PVC 1120 1220 2110 2120 0.42 0.41 0.34 30.0 35.0 50.0 30.0 ... ... ... ... ... O O ... -0.72 -0.84 -1.20 -0.72 ... ... O 1.08 1.26 1.80 1.08 PB 2110 ... 72.0 ... ... -1.73 O 2.59 4.75 P E 2306 0.09 0.13 0.15 80.0 70.0 60.0 ... ... ... -1.92 -1.68 -1.44 O O 2.88 2.52 2.16 ... ... ... ... 48.0 43.0 40.0 ... ... ... -1.15 -1.03 -0.96 O O 1.73 1.55 1.44 ... 3306 3406 PP 1110 1208 2105 RTRP ... ... ... f . . ... ... O o O O ... ... ... ... ... ... f . . Consult manufacturer NOTE: (1)Average of the mean values over the temperature range for which data are shown. 919.9 Cold Spring (c) reduction of maximumendreactions. No credit for cold spring is permitted in stress range calculations. Cold spring is the intentional displacement of piping during assembly. When applied, it is normally to compensate for one-half of the total expected pipe movemenb due to expansion. Possible benefits of cold spring include: (u) reduced likelihood of overstrain during initial operation; (b) reduced deviation from as-installed hanger positions; and 919.10 Reactions Terminalreactionsand resulting momentsshall be taken into consideration where supporting structure or by such connected equipment islikelytobeaffected loadings. Determination these of loads may require analysis as specified in para.919.4.1(b). 22 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • S T D m A S M E B 3 L * 9 - E N G L L77b H 0757b700580217 782 m ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 920-920.1.1 TABLE 919.3.1 MODULI OF ELASTICITY AND THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS Linear Thermal Expansion, in./100 ft, Between 70°F and Indicated Temperature, "F 150 175 200 225 250 0.61 0.80 0.99 1.21 1.40 2.48 2.32 2.03 1.46 1.75 0.90 3.20 2.90 1.18 2.61 3.50 1.232.00 4.95 4.52 1.62 4.09 3.18 375 1.82 0.76 1.20 1.48 1.00 2.56 2.25 1.93 1.31 Carbon steel Austenitic stainless steel Aluminum 2.83 1.62 ... ... 2.87 1.331.72 ... ... ... 3.36 4.41 . . . 2.62 2.34 1.77 ... ... ... ... . . .. . . ... ... ... ... ... 6.91 9.07 ... *.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.53 1.93 2.36 Ductile iron 2.91 2.05 2.13 3.19 Copper C12200 (99.9Cu) ... ...... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . ... ... ... . . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Copper CA 23000 (red brass) (85Cu) ... ... ... A B S 1210 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Material Gray cast iron ... 3.49 1.27 2.26 2.04 1.61 350 0.73 0.91 1.45 0.55 1.00 0.90 1.13 0.94 0.57 64 3.67 3.24 2.41 275 325 300 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... P P 1110 1208 2105 ... ... ... ... PVC 1120 1220 2110 2120 ... ... ... ... ... P E 2306 3306 3406 ... ... ,,. ... ... ... ... ... ... CPVC 4120 ... ... ... ... ... ... 1316 2112 PB 2110 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... RTRP 920 LOADSONPIPESUPPORTING 920.1.1 Loads on Supports. The loads to be considered in design of supports are: (u) deadweightofpipe, fittings, valves, insulation, inline equipment,hangersystem,and other pipelines (if supportedfromthelineunder consideration); (b) liveweightof contents; (c) weight of testfluid (see para. 920.2); (d) occasional loads,such as ice,wind,and earthquake. ELEMENTS 920.1 General Supports, as used in this Code, include rigid hangers (that support line above the from without springs), spring hangers, supports that bear the load from below, andguidesandanchorsthat limit pipemovement as well as support loads. 23 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-19% 90119113 2..-2.. In addition, supports shall be so locatedandspaced as to protect the supported piping from excessive stress and distortion. Weight of test fluidand occasional loads neednot be considered concurrently. 920.1.2Loads on Restraints ( a ) General. In addition to the loads described in para. 920.1.I, anchors, guides, and other restraints shall be designed to bear loads resulting from thermal expansion and contraction and from other movements of the piping,such as those caused by internalpressure. (b) Expansion Joint Loads. Use of expansion joints usually increases reactions at anchors. For corrugated and slip joints, in the absence of manufacturer's data, anchor reactionmay be calculated as the sum of: ( 1 ) operating pressure times area corresponding to the maximum inside diameter of the joint corrugations; ( 2 ) the force required to cause full rated deflection of the joint; and (3) frictional forces at guides and supports. If the expansion joint is at an elbow or bend, the vector forces due to fluid change in direction must also be included. 921.1.1 Materials and Stresses. Except as permitted herein, materials for pipe supporting elements shall be listed in Appendix A. Allowable stresses for pipe supporting elements shall be one-fifth of the minimum tensile strength shown in Appendix A. For carbon steel of unknown specification, the allowable stress shall not exceed 9500 psi. . ( a ) ThreadedParts. The maximum safe loadsshall be calculatedon the rootarea ofthethreadsof threaded parts. (b) AllowableOverstress. An increase in allowable stress ispermittedup to 80% of specifiedminimum yield strength during hydrostatic testing, not to exceed 24,000 psi for carbonsteelofunknown specification. ( c ) Selection o Material. Hanger and support materif als shall be compatible withthe characteristics of the piping materials, so thatneithershall adversely affect the other. 920.1.3 Other Loads. Loads from other design conditions described in para. 901 shall be considered in design ofboth supports and 'restraints. Loads due to shock vibration and should preferably be minimized by theuseof suitable dampeners or properlyplaced supports and restraints. 921.1.2 Hanger Adjustments. Hangers supporting piping NPS 2v2 and larger shall be designed to permit adjustment after erection while supporting the load. Threadedparts for adjustment shall be in accordance withASME B1.l. Turnbuckles and adjusting nuts shall have full thread engagement. Threaded adjustments shall be provided with suitable locking devices. 920.2 Test Loads 920.2.1 Test Loads on Rigid Supports. Rigid supports shall be capable of bearingthetotalloadunder test conditions aswell as those ofnormal operation, unless additional supports are provided during testing. 921.1.3 Support Spacing ( a ) Piping Stresses. Stresses in the piping due to support spacing shall not exceed the basic allowable stress S when computed on the basis of a support span twice as great asthe actual span. (b) Allowable Deflection. The allowable deflection of the between pipe supports shall not exceed the smaller of 0.25 in. or 15% ofthe outside diameter of the pipe, based on the weight of the pipe, service fluid (S.G. I l.O),and insulation. (c) Spacing, Steel Pipe. Figure 921 .I .3C shows the maximumrecommended support spacing for standard weight Grade A, Grade B, and Schedule IO pipe. ( d ) Spacing, Other Materials. The maximum recommended support spacing for copper and plastic pipe is shown in Fig. 921.1.3D. (e)Limitations on Charts. Thespans i n Figs. 921.1.3C and D are based on limitations in para. 921.1.3(a) and (b) andarenot applicable wherethere are concentrated loads, Le., valves, special fittings, etc. Spans and deflections are based.onthe simple beam 920.2.2 Test Loads on Spring Hangers. Load conditions for calculated operation of spring hangers should not take test loads into account. The hanger assembly, however, shall be capable of supporting thetestload unlessadditional supports are provided during testing. 921DESIGN OF PIPESUPPORTING ELEMENTS 921.1General Pipe supporting elements shall be designed to carry thesum of all concurrently acting loads described in para. 920. Unless designed to anchor or restrainline movements by withstanding resultant the forces and moments, they shall permit free movement of the piping resulting fromthermal expansion or other causes. 24 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services Edition
    • COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services 0.5 1 (a1 Basic 2 5 a = 12,000 12 above psi 16 FIG. 921.1.3C to NPS 2 and welded Allowable Stress Grade A Pipe Size, NPS 3 GENERAL NOTES: (a) For Grade A pipe threaded ibl Use for grooved pipe. 5 10 15 2G 25 40 45 50 .z C 5 0.5 1 [b) Basic 2 a Pipe Size. NPS 5 = 15,000 12 1 Internal above psi 1~ 1 NPS 2. 20 24 30 [pressure I I I I l/l I I I Allowable Stress Grade 8 3 ( II I I I I I I IYYl GENERAL NOTES: (a) For Grade B pipe tl~reaclcd to NPS 2 and welded {b) Use 12,000 psi chart for grooved ]oilrts. 5 15 20 25 30 35 SUPPORT SPANS FOR STANDARD WALL STEEL PIPE NPS 2. 20 2430 kg 150 psig 50 psig 40 45 60 250 psig 150 psig 50 psig
    • COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services r2 f c - 0 5 10 4 - - 20 15 - 25 30 Size 888. 6 1 -+ 4 4 aP,’ / I/ / - - --- - -- 2.5 Pipe Size, 2 (b) Thermoplastic 1.5 NPS Pipe 4 PIPE GENERAL NOTES: (a) Based on pipe at 73°F with waler and insulation. Closer spacing requirc!d at higher temperatures. (bJ Use sl~~clds on all hangers to avoid point loading 0.5 - -- SUPPORT SPANS FOR COPPER AND THERMOPLASTIC Temper-ASTM L. Copper Tube FIG. 921.1.3D (a) Drawn Type Tube of Nominal Water 3 ti : 2 L I’ m 8 c cnc .z IO 12 14 6 of pipe. 8 - - - 10 7 / / f 12 I
    • S T D - A S M E B33.S-ENGL 37Sb m 0757b70 0580223 303 m ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 921.1.3-9213.1 formulaslimitingthecombinedpressureandbending stress to the basic allowable stress for the material. TABLE 921.2.2A CAPACITIES OF THREADED ASTM A 36 STEEL RODS 921.1.4 Springs. Springs used in spring hangers shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with MSS SP-58. Nominal Rod Diameter, in. 310 790 1460 2340 3500 4860 6400 8000 10,300 5; '18 / '8 1 1 1 (S= 11.6 ksi) be used for pipe clamps, beam clamps, hanger flanges, clips, bases, swivel rings, andparts of pipe supports. 921.2.3VariableSupports ( a ) Requirements. Variable spring supports shall be designed to exert a supporting force equal totheload, as determined by weight balance calculations, plus the weightof all hanger parts (such as clamp,rod, etc.) that be will supported by the spring at point the of attachmentto the pipe. ( b ) Design. Variable spring supports shall probe vided means with to limit misalignment, buckling, eccentric loading, and overstressing of the spring. It is recommended they designed that be for a maximum variation in supporting effort of 25% for the total travel resultingfromthermalmovement. (c) Indicators. It is recommended that all hangers employing springs beprovidedwithmeansto indicate at all times the compression of the spring with respect totheapproximatehotandcold positions of thepipe system,exceptwherethey are used either to cushion against shock or where the operating temperature of thesystemdoesnotexceed250°F. (10) Q is positive for expansion joint compression and negative for expansion joint extension. ( d ) Rolling or Sliding Supports. These supports shall permit free movement of the piping, or the piping shall be designedto include theimposedloadsand friction forces of the supports. Materials and lubricants used in sliding supports shall be suitable for the metal temperatureatthepoint of contact. 921.2.2OtherRigidSupports (a) Hanger Rods. Safeloads for hangerrods shall be based the area on root of threads and allowable stress for the material. In no case shall hanger rods be to pipe less than "/8 in. in diameter used support NPS 1 '/2 or larger. See Table 92 1.2.2A for permissible loads oncarbon steel rods. Pipe, straps, or barsofstrengthand effective area equivalent to hangerrod may also be used. ( b ) Cast Iron. ASTM A 48 cast iron maybeused for bases, rollers, anchors, and parts of supports where the loading is primarily in compression. Cast iron parts shall notbeused in tension. ( c ) Malleable Iron. ASTM A 47 malleable iron may 921.3StructuralAttachments 921.3.1NonintegralType. Nonintegralattachments include clamps, slings, cradles, saddles, straps, and clevises. When clamps are used to support vertical lines, they shall designedsupport total due be to the load to weight of piping, contained fluid, insulation, and other loads such as forces from expansion joints. It is recommended that shear lugs or the clamp beweldedto the 27 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services 0.027 0.068 0.126 0.202 0.302 0.419 0.552 0.693 0.889 3/8 921.2.1AnchorsandGuides ( a ) Requirements. Anchors, guides, pivots, and other restraints shall be designed to secure the piping at their respective locations against movement in specified planes or directions, while permitting free movement elsewhere.They shall be structurally suitable towithstand the thrusts, moments,and other imposed loads. ( b ) Required Guides. Where bellows or slip-type expansion joints are used, anchors and guides shall be provided to direct expansion movement along the axis ofthe joint. (c) Pipe Buckling. The column buckling strength of the must taken pipe be into consideration when determiningguidespacing for expansion joints. This is especially true for small diameter lines. Maximum spacing of guides for anypipematerial or thickness maybe calculated usingFormula (IO): Ls = 0 . 1 3 1 4 m ) Maximum Safe Load, lb 9 4 921.2Fixtures Root Area of Coarse Thread, sq in.
    • S T D - A S M E B 3 L - S - E N G L L99b m 0757b70 0580222 2 4 T D ASME B31.9-19% Edition 921.3.1-922.1.2 921.5.3ConcreteInserts. Placingof inserts shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. pipe to prevent slippage, following the requirements of para.921.3.2. 921.3.2 Integral Type. Integral attachments include ears, shoes, lugs, cylindrical attachments, rings, and skirts fabricated so as to be an integral part of the piping. When welded to the pipe, materials and procedure shall be compatible with piping the and strength shall be adequate for all expected loadings. If piping and support materials differ in allowable stress, the shall lower govern design. Integral attachments shall be used in conjunction with restraints or braces where multiaxial loadings are imposed. Design shall consider all imposed weight and thermal loadings, and shall minimize localized stresses induced in thepiping by the attachment. 921.5.4 Explosive Actuated Fasteners. Explosive actuated fasteners shall not be usedwhere a group of fasteners isnecessaryto support the total load. 921.5.5 Split Pin CompressionAnchors. Split pin compression anchors shall be used only for shear loads. 921.6SupportingStructures The engineer shall assure himself that the supporting structure has adequate strength to sustain all loads imposed bythepiping. 921.4Supplemental Steel Where it is required to frame structural members between existing steel members, supplementary such steel shall be designed using the allowable stress specified in para.921.1.1. PART 6 SYSTEMS 922 DESIGNREQUIREMENTSPERTAINING 921.5Attachments to Concrete TO SPECIFICPIPINGSYSTEMS on Attachments. Loads 921.5.1MaximumLoads on anchors, cast-in-place inserts, and other attachments to concrete shall not exceed one-fifthoftheultimate strength of the attachment as determined by manufacturer’s tests in concrete of compressive strength not greater than that in whichthe attachment will be used,but at least 2500 psi. If the compressive strength of the concrete isunknown, it shall be assumedtobe2500psiandthe manufacturer’s rated load for the fastener shall be reduced in the ratio of 2500 psitothe strength used in the tests to determine the rating. In the absence of manufacturer’s ratings, the attachment may be tested for ultimate strength in accordance with ASTM E 488. 922.1PressureReducing 922.1.1 General. Where pressure reducing valves are used, a relief device or safety valve shall be provided on the low pressure side of the system. Otherwise, the pipingand equipment on thelow side ofthesystem shall be designed to withstand upstream the design pressure. The relief or safety devices shall belocated adjoining or as close as practicable to the reducing valve. The combined relieving capacity provided shall be suchthatthedesign pressure of thelowpressure system will not be exceeded if the reducing valve fails to open. 922.1.2AlternativeSystems. In steamsystems wheretheuse of reliefvalves as described in para. 922. l . 1 is not feasible (e.g., because there is no acceptable discharge location for the vent piping), alternative designs may be substituted for therelief devices. In either case, it is recommended that alarms be provided which will reliably w r the operator of failure of any an pressurereducingvalve. ( a ) Tandem Steam Pressure Reducing Valves. Two or more steam pressure reducing valves may be installed in series, each set at or below the safe working pressure 921.5.2Expansion Studs and Anchors. Mechanically attached concrete or masonry anchors shall extend into the concrete at least the minimum distance recommended by the manufacturer; use a length at least 4 / 12 times the fastener diameter in the absence of such recommendation. If multiple anchors are required to hold a load, they mustbespaced at least eight diameters on center to realize the full design capacity of each anchor. 28 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services Systems
    • ASME 831.9-1996 Edition 922.1.2-922.3.3 of the equipment served. In this case, no relief device is required. Each pressure reducing valve shall have the capability of closing off against full line pressure, and of controlling the reduced pressure ator below the design pressure in the event that the other of the low pressure system, valve fails toopen. ( b ) Trip Stop Values. A trip stop steam valve set of the low to close at or belowthedesignpressure pressure system be may used in place of a second reducingvalve or a relief valve. as the inlet piping unless discharge the atmosphere, or is operated under low no stop valves. 922.3 Fuel Oil Piping 922.3.1PipeMaterial (a) Pipe in buildings shall be steel pipe of a material listed in Table 926.1 except as permitted in 922.3.1 (b). Type F furnace butt welded pipe shall not be used where concealed, i.e., in walls, chases, shafts, or above ceilings. Spiral weldedpipeshallnotbeused. (b) Type L copper tubing maybeused in buildings if protectedfromexposuretofire. ( c ) Underground piping may be steel, Type K copper tubing, aluminum, ductile iron, thermoplastic, or reinforced thermoplastic resin piping. Buried and pipe fittingsshallbeprotected against corrosion. 922.1.3 Bypass Valves. Hand controlledbypass valveshaving a capacity no greater thanthereducing valve maybe installed around pressure reducing valves if thedownstreampipingis protected by reliefvalves asrequired in para. 922.1.1, or if thedesignpressure of thedownstreampipingsystemandequipmentisat least ashigh as theupstreampressure. 922.3.2Joints ( a ) Threaded,welded, brazed, or flared joints shall be within used buildings. A pipe thread compound suitable for oil shall be used on threaded joints. Joints relyingon friction or a combustiblematerialshall not be Brazing used. or flare fittings be shall wrought. Flanged or grooved joints maybeusedwith a gasket material meeting the requirements of API 607 or another standard acceptable totheowner. (b) For underground piping, friction type joints and grooved joints may also beused. 922.1.4 Design of Valves and Relief Devices. Pressure reducingandbypassvalves,andrelief devices, shall designed be for inlet pressure and temperature conditions. 922.2SteamTrapPiping 922.2.1DripLines. Drip lines fromsteamheaders, mains, separators, heaters, or other equipment that operate at differing pressures shall be not connected to dischargethroughthesame trap. 922.3.3 Valves. At the point of entry of underground piping to the building, an accessible steel or ductile iron valve shall be installed to control theflowof oil. 922.2.2 Discharge Piping. Trap discharge piping shall be designed for the same pressure and temperature 29 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services is ventedto pressure and has
    • S T D - A S M E B31-9-ENGL L99b H 0759b70 0580224 O L 2 M ASME B31.%1996 Edition 923-9U3.2 CHAPTER III MATERIALS 923 MATERIALS - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 923.2 Limitations on SpecificMetals 923.2.1CastIron. The low ductility of cast iron shouldbe considered and its useshould be avoided where shock loading may occur. Chapter III states limitations for materials, based on their inherent properties. Their use in piping is also subject to requirements and limitations in other parts of this Code. 923.2.2 Ductile Iron. Ductile (nodular) cast iron components having dimensions conforming toASME B16.3, ASME B16.4, or to ASME may B16.5 be used in accordance withthemanufacturer’spressuretemperature ratings. Welding not shall be used as a method of joining ductile iron components. 923.1MaterialsandSpecifications 923.1.1 Listed or Published Specifications. Any material used in pressure containing piping components shall conform to a specification listed in Appendix A, or to a published specification in accordance with para. 923.1.2. 923.2.3 Copper and Copper Alloys. should given be to the melting of point flammablefluid service. 923.1.2 Materials Listed. Not Allowable stresses for materials not shown in Appendix A, but which are shown in ASME B3 1.1, may be taken from Appendix A of ASME B31.1. A material not listed in this Code nor in ASME B31.1, but which conforms to a published specification covering composition, physical and mechanical properties, method and process of manufacture, heat treatment (if applicable), and quality control, maybeused if it otherwise meets the requirements of this Code. Allowable stresses for such materials shall be determined in accordance withthe applicable basis in para. 902.3.1, or a more conservative basis. Particular attention should be given to properties whichmay tend to affect weldability or ductility adversely. 923.2.4 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. Consideration should be givento the melting point of aluminum in flammablefluid service. When assembling threaded joints in aluminum alloys, a suitable thread compound shall be used to prevent seizing. Pipe in the annealed tempershould notbe threaded. 923.3Limitations on SpecificNonmetals 923.3.1General. Nonmetallic pressure containing components, such as glass, ceramics, plastics, or rubber, may be used within the limitations of para. 923.1.2 and within manufacturers’ limitations on pressure-temperature ratings and application. Consideration shall be giventothe suitability of thematerialforthe service conditions and the fluid to be handled, its flammability, resistance to shock, its dimensional stability, and proper support and protection from damage. 923.1.3 Used Materials.Used pipe and other componentsofknown specifications may be employed provided they have been thoroughly cleaned and visually inspected (and testedif applicable) to determine that they are in good condition, meet the applicable dimensional requirements, and do notcontain defects whichcould impair strength or tightness or which are not acceptable underthis Code. 923.3.2 Thermoplastics. Thermoplastics shall not be used for toxic fluids or for oxygen. They shall not be used for flammable liquids or flammablegases above ground. If thermoplastics are used for compressed air or other compressed gases, special precautions must be observed. The stored energy and specific failure mechanism of the pipe need to be considered. Materials such as PVC, CPVC, and PVDF, which exhibit brittle 923.1.4 Limitations on UnknownMaterials. Steel of unknown specification shall be used only for structural supports and restraints. 31 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services Consideration copper in
    • .~ S T D = A S M E B I L * S - E N G L L77b m 0759b70 0580225 T57 m ASME 831.9-1996 Edition 923.3.2-923.5 shall be given to theflammability of RTR pipingand its susceptibility to brittle failure. failure asdefined in ASTM F 41 2, shallnot be used forcompressedair or gas service. Considerationshall be given to the brittleness and flammability of thermoplastics and to their loss of strengthunderonly slight increases in temperature. In selecting thermoplastics, note that design properties are subject to considerable variation from one type and grade to another. 923.4 CoatingsandLinings External coatings or internal linings may be used on pipe or components thatconformtotherequirements of this Code, but such coatings or linings shall not be considered as adding strength. 923.5 DeteriorationinService 923.3.3 Reinforced Thermosetting Resin. In select(RTR) piping,note ingreinforcedthermosettingresin that design properties are subject to considerable variation from one type and grade to another. Consideration Itthe is responsibility of the engineer to select materialswhichwillresistdeterioration in service, or to make allowances for such deterioration in accordance withpara. 902.4.1. 32 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • 926-926.4 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition CHAPTER IV COMPONENT REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARD PRACTICES 926DIMENSIONSANDRATINGS COMPONENTS 926.4Abbreviations OF Abbreviations used in Tables 926.1 and 926.2 signify the following: 926.1 StandardPipingComponents components Standard piping shall conform one to of the standards or specifications listed in Table 926.1. Those listed in ASME B3 1.1may also beused. Abbreviation BW CI DI MI 926.1.1BoilerExternalPiping. Materials used in boiler external piping shall be ASME SA or SB specifications corresponding to the ASTM specifications listed in Table SS sw HT LT TS Thd Practices 926.2 Standard The standards listed in Table 926.2 should be used for design and installation where applicable under this Code. ABS CPVC PB PE PP PVC RTP RTR SDR PR 926.3 NonstandardPipingComponents When nonstandard piping components are used, pressure design shall be in accordance with para. 904. Adherencetothedimensional principles in American National Standards referenced in Table 926.1 is recommendedto the greatest practicable extent. 33 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services iron Term General butt-welding cast ductile iron malleableiron stainlesssteel socket-welding hightemperature lowtemperature tensilestrength threaded Plastics acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene chlorinatedpolyvinylchloride polybutylene polyethylene polypropylene Polyvinyl chloride reinforcedthermosettingplastic reinforcedthermosettingresin standarddimensionratio pressurerating
    • ASME B31.9-19% Edition Table 926.1 TABLE 926.1 COMPONENT STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS The approved years of issue of standards and specifications listed in this Table are given in Appendix C. Component Designation ANSI A21.14 ANSI A21.52 51 594 609 816.1 816.3 816.4 816.5 816.9 816.10 616.11 816.14 816.15 816.18 816.22 616.24 616.26 816.28 816.33 816.34 616.36 816.39 616.42 B36.10M B36.19M J513 A 47 A 48 A 53 A 105 A 106 A 126 A 135 A 181lA 181M A 197 A 211 A 234lA 234M A 254 A 278lA 278M A 312lA 312M A 377 A 395lA 395M A 403/A 403M A 536 34 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Table 926.1 TABLE 926.1 (CONT’D) COMPONENT STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS The approved years of issue of standards and specifications listed in this Table are given in Appendix C. Component Designation B B B B B A 539 B 2618 26M B 42 B 43 B 61 B 62 B b81B b8M B 75lB 75M B aa/B aaM 13518 135M 2101B 210M 241lB 241M 2471B 247M 251/B 251M B 280 B 283 B 302 B 361 B 547 CllOlA21.10 C151lA21.51 C207 C208 C500 C606 FS WW-P-421 5p-42 S P-43 S P-45 S P-51 5p-67 5p-70 5p-71 SW Reducer Inserts .............................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. Bronze Angle, Valves Gate, and Check Carbon Steel Pipe Unions - SW andThd ............................................................................................................................ SteelValves - SWandThdEnds ......................................................................................................................................... C I Globe Valves, and Angle Flanged Ends and Thd ............................................................................................................... Diaphragm Valves Type ........................................................................................................................................................ S P-72 S P-78 S P-79 S P-80 S P-83 S P-84 5p-85 5p-88 (Table continues on next page and Note fallows Table) 35 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Table 9 6 1 2. TABLE 926.1 (CONT’D) COMPONENT STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS The approved years of issue of standards and specifications listed in this Table are given in Appendix C. Designation Component C 3611C 361M c 582 D 1527 D 1785 D 2104 D 2239 D 2241 D 2282 D 2310 D 2447 D 2464 D 2466 D 2467 D 2468 D 2513 D 2517 D 2609 D 2662 D 2666 D 2672 B 2683 D 2737 D 2846 D 2996 D 2997 D 3000 D 3035 D 3261 D 3287 D 3309 D 3517 D 3754 D 3840 F 437 F 438 F 439 F 441 F 442 C300 C301 C302 C900 (Table continues on next page and Note follows Table) 36 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • S T D - A S M E B31.7-ENGL 177b 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 0580230 3Lb m Table 926.1 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition TABLE 926.1 (CONT’D) COMPONENT STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS The approved years of issue of standards and specifications listed in this Table are given in Appendix C. Component Designation 81.1 81.20.1 B1.20.3 B1.20.7 616.21 816.25 818.2.1 818.2.2 A361A 36M A 183 A 193/A 193M A 194lA 194M A 307 B 32 D 1694 D 2235 D 2564 D 3138 D 3139 F 493 C 1111A21.11 A5.1 A5.2 A5.3 A5.4 A5.5 A5.6 A5.7 A5.8 A5.9 A5.10 A5.12 A5.17 A5.18 A5.20 A5.22 A5.23 S P-6 S P-25 S P-58 J514 NOTE: (1) Applicability limited to alloy U N S No. C23000. 37 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • Table 926.2 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition TABLE 926.2 STANDARD PRACTICES The approved years of issue of standards and specifications listed in this Table are given in Appendix C . Component Designation American Petroleum Institute (API or ANSUAPI) Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves. Fourth Edition ............................................................................................. Std 607-1993 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester ............................................................................................ Test Method for Time-to-Failure of Plastic Pipe Under Constant Internal Pressure............................................................... Test Method for Cyclic Pressure Strength of RTP Pipe ......................................................................................................... Practice for Heat Joining of Polyolefin Pipe and Fittings ..................................................................................................... Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping ............................................................................... Method for Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials ................................................................. Practice for Making Solvent-Cemented Joints With PVC Pipe and Fittings ........................................................................... Method for Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for RTR Pipe and Fittings ........................................................................... Practice for Flaring Polyolefin Pipe and Tubing ................................................................................................................... Test Method for Strength of Anchors in Concrete and Masonary Elements ............................................................................ Practice for Safe Handling of Solvent Cements Used for Joining Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings ........................................ Definition of Terms Relating to Plastic Piping Systems......................................................................................................... D93 'D 1598 D 2143 D 2657 D 2774 D 2837 D 2855 D 2992 D 3140 E488 F402 F412 American Water Works Association (AWWA or ANSIIAWWA) Thickness Design of DI Pipe ................................................................................................................................................. Installation of DI Water Mains and Other Appurtenances ...................................................................................................... C150/A21.50 C600 Copper Development Association (CDA) Copper Tube Handbook ......................................................................................................................................................... .. Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry (MSS) Pipe Hangers and Supports - Selection and Application ...................................................................................................... Pipe Hangers and Supports - Fabrication and Installation Practices ................................................................................... Guidelines on Terminology for Pipe Hangers and Supports .................................................................................................... 38 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services 5p-69 5p-89 5p-90
    • 927-927.4.4 ASME B31.%1996 Edition CHAPTER V FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY, AND ERECTION 927WELDEDFABRICATION (d) Spacing. The root opening of the joint shall be as given in theweldingprocedure. OF METALS 927.1General 927.3.2 Fillet Welds. If fillet welding is used in joining piping components, applicable requirements of para.927.3.1 shall bemetinpreparingtheparts for welding. Welding shall be performedinaccordancewiththe qualification requirements of para. 927.5. Limitations on imperfections and acceptance standards are as stated in Chapter VI or inthe engineering design. 927.2 Materials 927.4 Rules forWelding 927.2.1 Filler Metal. Filler metal, including consumable welding inserts, shall conform to the requirements of Section II, Part C of the ASME BPV Code or AWS AS series specifications for filler metals. A filler metal not conforming to the above may used be with the owner’s approval. 927.4.1 General ( a ) Protection o Work. No weldingshall be done f if there isimpingement of rain,snow, sleet, or high windontheweld area, or if theweld area is frosted or wet. (b) Preheat. Preheating shallbe as required by the WeldingProcedure Specification. 927.2.2BackingRings. Backingringsare not required but when used shall be of a material compatible withthebasemetaland shall fittheinside diameter of the pipe. Backing rings may be tacked to the inside of the pipe and shall be fused into the root of the weld. 927.4.2 Butt andMiter Welds ( a ) Tuck Welds. If used,tackweldsshall bemade by a qualified welder or shall be removed. Tack welds which have cracked shall be removed. Tack welds shall be made filler with metal which is compatible with thefirstpassfiller metal, andshallbe fused withthe first pass. (b) External Alignment. If the external surfaces of the two components are not aligned, the weld shall be taperedbetweenthe surfaces. 927.3 Preparation 927.3.1 Butt andMiterWelds ( a ) End Preparation. Endpreparation for buttand miter joint welds shall be as shown in the welding procedure specification. The basicbevelangles shown in ASME B16.25 may be used. Oxygen or arc cutting is acceptable only if the cut is reasonably smooth and true. Discoloration which may remain on flamethe cut surface is not considered to be detrimental oxidation. (b) Cleaning. Weld areas and surfaces shall be clean and free from paint, oil, rust, scale, or any other material detrimental to the weld or basemetalbeforewelding begins and shall be kept clean during welding. All slag shall be cleaned fromflame-cut surfaces. (c) Internal Alignment. The prepared ends of piping components to be joined shall be aligned as accurately as is practicable within commercial tolerances on diameter, wall thickness, and out-of-roundness. Alignment shall be preserved during welding. 927.4.3 FilletandSocketWelds (a)Welding. Theapplicableprovisions of para. 927.4.2(a) shall be followed. (b) Contour. Fillet and socket welds mayvaryfrom convex to concave. The size of a fillet weldis determined as shown in Fig. 927.4.3A. ( c ) Details. Minimum fillet welds for slip-on flanges and socket welding components are shown in Figs. 927.4.3Band C. 927.4.4 Seal Welds. If seal welding of threaded joints is performed,the surfaces shall be cleaned and all exposed threads shall be covered by the seal weld. Seal weldingshall be done by qualifiedwelders. 39 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 927.4.5-927.4.1 Surface of vertical member Surface of horizontal member Theoretical throat (a) Equal Leg Fillet Weld GENERAL NOTE: The size of an equal leg fillet weld is the length of the largest inscribed isosceles right triangle. (Theoretical throat = 0.707 X size. 1 Surface of vertical member Surface of horizontal member I i Theoretical throat (b) Unequal Leg Fillet Weld GENERAL NOTE. The size of an unequal leg fillet weld is the leg length of the largest right triangle which can be inscribed within the weld cross section fe. 9.. 1/2 in. X 3i4 in.) FIG. 927.4.3A FILLET WELD SIZE 927.4.5 Welded Flat Heads. Typical minimum weld sizes for attachment offiatheadsare shown in Fig. 927.4.5A. Attachment methods shown in Fig. 927.4.5B are not acceptable. a good fit and that permit will a fully penetrated groove weld. ( d ) Reinforcement. In branch connections having reinforcement pads or saddles, the reinforcement shall be attached by weldsaroundthebranchpipeandthe outer periphery, as shown in Fig. 927.4.6A, sketch (b). A ventholeshall be provided (at theside,not at the crotch) inthering or saddle toreveal leakage in the weld between branch and main and to provide venting during welding or heat treatment. Rings or saddles may be madeinmorethan one piece if the joints between the pieces have adequate strength and if each piece is provided with a vent hole. A good fit shall be provided betweenrings or saddles andthepartstowhichthey are attached. 927.4.6WeldedBranches (a) Branch Connections. Figure 927.4.6A illustrates welded branch connections with without and added reinforcing. No attempt has been made to show all acceptable types of constructions. The fact that one type of construction is illustrated does not indicate that it isrecommended over other types not shown. ( b ) Weld Details. Figure 927.4.6B shows basic types ofweldsused in fabricating branch connections. The locations and minimum sizes of weldsshallconform totherequirements of thisfigure. ( c ) Branch Contours. Branch connections (including integrallyreinforcedwelding outlet fittings) thatabut the outside surface of themain pipe wall, or which are inserted into an opening in the pipe main wall, shallhaveopeningandbranch contours thatprovide 927.4.7StructuralAttachmentsandSupports. Welds for structural attachments and supports shall be fully penetrated groove welds or fillet welds, unless otherwise specified in the engineering design. Attachmentweldsshall be madebyqualifiedwelders. 40 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 927.4.8-927.5.3 (a) Front and Back Weld (b) Face and Back Weld ' in. approximate before welding ( c ) Socket Welding Flange a = the lesser of 1 .I or the thickness of the hub, but not less than 1/8 in T, 6 = the lesser of T, or 1/4 in. FIG. 927.4.3B MINIMUM WELDS FOR DOUBLE-WELDEDSLIP-ONANDSOCKET-WELDING FLANGES 927.4.8 Weld Defect Repairs. Defects in welds shall be removed to sound metal. Repairare welds to be for the madein accordance withtheprocedureused original welds, or by another weldingmethodonly if it is to a qualified procedure, recognizing thatthe cavity to be repaired may differ in contour and dimensions from the original joint. Tn 927.5Qualification 927.5.1 General. A Welding Procedure Specification shall be preparedandtheprocedure shall be qualified before any welding is done. Qualification of the procedures tobeusedandoftheperformance of welders and welding operators shall be in accordance withthe ASME BPV Code, Section IX. 927.5.2WeldingResponsibility. Each employer is responsible for allwelding done by his employees. a = the greater of 1.1 T, or 1/8 in. FIG. 927.4.3C MINIMUM WELDING DIMENSIONS FOR SOCI<ET-WELDING COMPONENTS OTHER THAN FLANGES 927.5.3 Responsibility Qualification (u) Procedures. Each employer is responsible for qualifying any procedure welding that he intends to 41 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-19% Edition 927.53-921.6 Greater of: 2 X required pipe thickness, or 1.25 X actual pipe thickness, but need not exceed required min. thickness of 4 5 deg. min. 45 deg. min. T min. Pipe may project beyond weld. Closure may be beveled (45 deg. max.) beyond weld. FIG. 927.4.54, ACCEPTABLE WELDS FOR FLAT HEADS Incomplete penetration FIG. 927.4.5BUNACCEPTABLEWELDS use. To avoid duplication of effort, welding procedures qualified by a technically competent group or agency maybeused, providedall ofthefollowing conditions aremet. ( I ) The group or agency qualifying the procedure shall have met all of the procedure qualification requirements of thisCode. (2) The employer shall accept responsibility for theprocedurethusqualified. (3) The employer has qualified at least one welder or welding operator using the procedure thus qualified. (4) The employer shall assume responsibility for the procedure qualification workdone for him by signing therecordsrequired in para. 927.6. (b) Welders and Welding Operators. Each employer shall be responsible for qualifying the welders and welding operators employed by him. To avoid duplication of effort, he may accept a welder or welding operator qualification made by a previous employer or a technically competent group or agency (subject to approval of the owner or his agent) on pipingusing the same or equivalent procedure wherein the essential variables are within the limits of the ASME BPV Code, Section IX. An employer accepting such a qualification shallobtain a copy the of performance qualification testrecordshowing by whomthewelder or welding operator was qualified, the date of qualification, and a history of the welder or welding operator showing continued performance to maintain qualification. the The employer shall thenprepareandsigntherecord required in para. 927.6, accepting responsibility for the ability of thewelder or welding operator. 927.6 Qualification Records The employer shall maintain records, certified by him and available tothe owner or his agent, of the or welding operators procedures usedandthewelders he employs, showing the date and results of procedure and performance qualifications. 42 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services FOR FLAT HEADS
    • ASME B31.9-1% Edition Figs. 927.4.6A, 927.4.6B hole +"+--L --- - """" Reinforcement Added (a) Without Reinforcement Added (b) With (cl Angular Branch Without Added Reinforcement FIG. 927.4.6A TYPICAL WELD BRANCH CONNECTIONS in. Main 1/16 in. to 118 in. 1/16 in. to 118 i n . + b Branch Set-on Branch Inserted 6 = the lesser of T, (branch) or 1/4 in, FIG. 927.4.6B TYPICALWELDDETAILS 43 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ~ S T D - A S M E B 3 1 1 9 - E N G L 179b m O759670 0580237 7 7 0 928-934.1.2 928BRAZINGANDSOLDERING m ASME 831.94996 Edition results in formed surfaces that conform to specified dimensions andwhich are uniform and free of cracks and tears. OF METALS 928.1Brazing 928.1.1BrazingMaterials ( a ) Filler Metal. The brazingfillermetal shall conformtoan applicable AWS classification. (b) Flux. When required, fluxes shall be compatible with the materials brazed with filler and the metal used. Flux residue should be removed when joints are completed. 931 HEATTREATMENT The materials material and thicknesses permitted underthis Code do not requireheat treatment. If the engineering design specifies heat treatment after welding, these requirements shall be made part of the Welding Procedure Specification. 928.1.2 Preparation and Technique. The technique for brazing in the Copper Tube Handbook of the Copper DevelopmentAssociationshall be followed. 934FABRICATION 934.1JoiningThermoplasticPiping 928.1.3 Brazing Qualification. Brazing procedure and performance qualification are not required. If qualification is specified in the engineering design, the requirements in the ASME BPV Code, Section IX are acceptable. 934.1.1Materials. Adhesives, cements, and sealers used to join piping components be shall compatible withthematerialsbeing joined and shall conform to applicable ASTM specifications.Joining materials which have deteriorated by exposure to air, which are beyond the shelf life recommended by the manufacturer, or whichwillnot spread smoothly shallnot beused. 928.2Soldering 928.2.1Materials ( a ) FillerMetal. Fillermetalshallconform to the applicable ASTM specification. Solder shall meltand flow freelywithinthespecified temperature range. ( b ) Flux. Flux should beusedto preventoxidation during soldering andtopromote surface wettability. 934.1.2SolventCementedJoints ( a ) Preparation. PVC CPVC and surfaces to be solvent cementedshallbe cleaned. Cleaning for ABS shallconformtoASTM D 2235.Cuts shall be free of burrs. Circumferential cuts shall be as square as those obtained by use of a saw miter with box. A slight interference fit betweenpipeandfittingsocket is preferred, and diametral clearance between pipe and entrance of socket shallnotexceed 0.04 in. This fit shall be checkedbefore solvent cementing. (b) Procedure. Solvent cemented joints shall be made in accordancewithASTM D 2855. Solvent cements for thermoplastics shall conform to the following specifications: 928.2.2 Preparation and Technique. The technique the for soldering in the Copper Tube Handbook of Copper DevelopmentAssociationshall be followed. 929 BENDING 929.1General Pipe may bebenttoanyradius by anyhot or cold methodthatresults in a bend surface free of cracks and substantially free of buckles. Such bends shall meet the design requirements of para. 904.2.1. This shall not prohibit the use of creased or corrugated bends if specified in the engineering design. Material ASTM Specification PVC CPVC ABS D 2564 D 2846 D 2235 Application of cement to both surfaces and assembly ofthe surfaces shall produce a continuous bond and a smàll fillet of cement at the outside of the joint. For branch connections not using a tee, a full reinforcement saddle withintegralbranch socket shall be cemented to main the pipe over its entire contact surface. In addition, the saddle shall be further secured the to mainpipe by wrapping glass fiber tape saturated with epoxyresinaroundthe saddle andthe circumference 930 FORMING 930.1General Piping components may be formed (by swaging, lapping, or upsetting of pipe ends, by extrusion of necks, etc.) byany suitable hot or coldmethodthat 44 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services OF NONMETALS
    • 94129524 3..-3.. ASME B31.9-1996 Edition of the pipe. Solvent cement shall be handled as recommended in ASTM F 402. used. The branchshallproject enough to complete a nozzle or to join to the branch pipe. The cut edges in the main shall pipe be sealed with of the hole cement at the the time saddle is cemented to the main pipe. 934.1.3HeatFusion Joints ( a ) Preparation. Surfaces to be heat fused together shall be cleaned free of foreignmaterialand surface film. Cuts shall be free from burrs, and circumferential cuts shall be as square as those obtained by useof a saw miter with box. Fixtures shallbeused to align pipeandfitting whenthe joint ismade. (b) Technique. Heat fusion joints for polyethylene, polypropylene,andotherthermoplasticscommonly joined by heat fusion shall be made in accordance with procedures inASTM D 2657, Techniques I - Socket Fusion or II - Butt Fusion, and as recommended by the manufacturer. Uniform heating of both surfaces and their assembly shall produce a continuous homogeneous bond between them and a small fillet of fused material at the outside of the joint. Branches shall be made only by useofmoldedfittings. 934.2.4HandLay-Up Joints. Application of plies of reinforcement saturated with catalyzed resin to the surfaces to be joined shall producea continuous structure with them. Cuts shall be sealed to protect the reinforcementfrom the contents of the pipe. Thickness of the be at least equal to pipe the laid-up portion shall thickness. 934.3 RepairofDefective Work Defective material, joints, and other workmanship in nonmetallicpipingthat fails tomeetthe requirements of para. 936 and the of engineering designshall be repaired by an acceptable method or shall be replaced. Repair of defects in plastic piping by use of a patching saddle is an acceptable method. 934.1.4FlaredJointsandElastomericSealed Joints ( a ) Flared Joints. Flared joints shall be made in accordancewithASTM D 3140. (b) Elastomeric Sealed Joints. Elastomeric sealed joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 3 139. 935 ASSEMBLY 935.1General The assembly of piping components, either in a shop or as field erection, shall be done so that the completely erected piping conforms to the requirements of this Codeand of the engineering design. 934.2ReinforcedThermosettingResinPiping Joints 934.2.1Materials. The provisions of para. 934.1.1 shall also apply to reinforced thermosetting resin pipe. 934.2.2 Preparation. Cutting of pipeshall be done without chipping or cracking it,particularlytheinner surface of centrifugally cast pipe. Pipe shallbe preheated if necessary comply the to with above requirement. Cuts shall be free from burrs, and circumferential cuts shallbeas square as thoseobtained by useof a saw withmiterbox. For branch connections, holes in the main pipe shall be made with a hole saw. Mold release agentand other materialwhichwould interfere with adhesionshall be sanded or otherwise removedfrom surfaces to be cemented. 935.2BoltingProcedure 934.2.3 Chemical Setting Adhesive Joints. Chemical setting adhesive joints shall be made in accordance withthe manufacturer’s recommendations. Application of adhesive to the surfaces andtheirassemblyshall produce a continuous bondbetween them. For branch connections, a fullreinforcement saddle having an integral short length of branch pipe shall be 935.2.3 Steel-to-Iron Flanged Joints. When bolting raised-facesteelflangestoflat-face cast ironflanges, care shall beused to prevent damage to the cast iron flanges. 935.2.1 Alignment. Flanged joints shall be fitted up so that the gasket contact faces, prior to bolting, bear uniformly the on gasket, and then shall be up made with relativelyuniformbolt stress. 935.2.2 Gasket Loading. In bolting gasketed flanged joints, the gasket shall be uniformly compressed in accordance with the design principles applicable to the type of gasketused. 935.2.4 BoltEngagement. All bolts andnutsshall be fully engaged. 45 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME 8319-1996 Edition 935.3-935.13 935.3Belland Spigot Joints 935.7Compression Joints Ends of tubing shall be cut squareand deburred. on No scratches, breaks, or mars are permitted the outside ofthetube at thefitting. 935.3.1 Caulked Joints. Caulked bell and spigot joints shall be assembled using oakum and poured lead or other joint compounds suitable for the service. Assembly of cast ironbellandspigotpressurepiping shallmeettherequirements of ANWAWWA (2600. 935.8 OtherMechanicalandProprietary Joints Grooved, expanded, rolled, O-ring, clamp, gland, and other joints permitted by para. 913 shall be assembled in accordance withthemanufacturer’s instructions. 935.3.2ElastomericJoints. Belland spigot joints using elastomeric gaskets shall be assembled in accordance withthemanufacturer’srecommendations. 935.9Borosilicate Glass Piping 935.4ThreadedPiping Glass-to-glass connections shall be made with clamp compression type couplings. Closure pieces should preferablybe furnished to exact dimension. If necessary, pipe may be field cut and beaded according to manufacturer’s instructions. Beaded-to-plain end connections may be made with couplings specially designed for this purpose. Alignment and support for all glass piping shall be verified and adjusted in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions before joints are tightened. 935.4.1 Threading. Dimensions of threaded joints shall conform to the applicable standard listed in Table 926.1. Threads shall becleanand free of breaksand tears. 935.4.2 Joint Compound. Any compound or lubricant used in threaded joints shall be suitable for the service conditions, and shall not react unfavorably with either the service fluid or thepipingmaterials. 935.10EquipmentConnections 935.4.3 Seal Welded Joints. Threaded joints which are to be seal welded shall be assembled without thread compound. When connections are made to equipment or strainsensitive piping components, care should betaken to avoid misalignment which can introduce undesirable end reactions. 935.4.4 Backing Off. Backing off of threaded joints to facilitate alignment ofthepipeisnotpermitted. 935.11ColdSpring 935.4.5ThreadedPlasticPipe. Strap wrenches or other full circumference wrenches be shall used to tightenthreaded joints. Tools and other devices used to hold or apply forces shall leave not the surface scored or deeply scratched. For RTR piping,threads shall be coated with sufficient catalyzed resin to cover the threads and completely fill the clearance between pipe andfitting. 935.5 Flare Joints Ends of tubing shall be cut square and deburred. No scratches, breaks, cracks, or other mars at the sealing surface oftheflareshallbe permitted. 935.6FerruleBite Before assembling joints to be cold sprung, supports, guides, and anchors shall beexaminedtoverify that they will not interfere with desired movement or cause undesired movements. The gap or overlap prior to final assembly ,shall be checked and corrected if necessary to conform tothatshownonthe drawing. 935.12ValveInstallation hori-Installation ofwith the stem the valves below zontalisnotrecommended. 935.13 ~~~~i~ of Defective Work Joints that leak during test shall be tightened within limits of procedures or manufacturer’s instructions. Do notattempttotightenleaking joints withpneumatic testpressureon ;he system. Joints which cannot be safely tightened shall be replaced. Assemblies rejected during examination shall be repairedandreassembled or replaced.Replaceany glass pipingcomponentthat is chipped or scratched. Joints Ends of tubing shall be cut square deburred. and No scratches, breaks, or other mars the on outside surface ofthetubing at thefittingshall be permitted. In tightening the nut, onlysufficienttorqueshall be used to “bite”lightlyanduniformly into thetube. 46 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 936936.6.1 CHAPTER VI INSPECTION, EXAMINATION, AND TESTING 936INSPECTIONANDEXAMINATION 936.4 Methods of Examination 936.1General The methods described herein shall be performed by competent personnel. Inspection applies to quality assurance functions performed by the owner, or for the owner by persons other than the manufacturer, fabricator, or erector. Examination applies to quality control functions performed by personnel employed by the manufacturer, fabricator, or erector of the piping. 936.4.1 Visual Examination. Visual examination is observation of the portions of materials, components, joints, supports, and other piping elements that areor can be exposed to view before, during, or after manufacture, fabrication; assembly, or erection. This examination includesverification of, Code and engineering design requirements for materials and components, dimensions, joint preparation, alignment, joining practices, supports, assembly, and erection. 936.1.1 Quality System Program. A quality system programis not required by this Code. If a systemis required by the engineering design, the program in Appendix E or a similar program acceptable to the owner maybeused. 936.5TypeandExtent Unless otherwise specified in the engineering design, the type of examination shall be visual examination in accordancewiththemethod in para.936.4.1. If thedegreeofexaminationandinspection or the basis for rejection is to be more rigorous than required by this Code, it shall be a matter of prior agreement betweenthe fabricator or installer andthepurchaser. 936.2 RequiredInspection Prior to initial operation, it is the owner’s responsibility toverifythatallrequired examination andtesting have been completed and to inspect the piping, or have it inspected, to the extent necessary to satisfy himself that it conforms toall applicable requirements of this Code andtheengineering design. 936.6AcceptanceCriteria 936.2.1Access to Work. the The owner and his representatives shallhave access to place any where work concerned with the piping being performed. This is includes manufacture, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, andtesting of thepiping. Imperfections or indications revealed by examination shall evaluated be in accordance with the following criteria. They are acceptable unless they exceed the specified limitations. Those that exceed the stated limits are defects, and the work shall be repaired or replaced in accordance the with appropriate requirements in Chapter V. Acceptance criteria in para. 936.6 not detectable by visual examination are included to indicate a minimum quality levelacceptableunder this Code. 936.2.2 Rights of Owner. The owner and his representatives shall have the right to audit any examinations, to inspect the piping using examination methods specified in the engineering design, and to review all certifications andrecords. 936.6.1GirthWeldsand Groove Welds. Limitations on imperfections are as follows. (a) Cracks. None permitted. (b) Luck of Fusion. The length of unfused areas shallnot be morethan 20% of the circumference of thepipe, or of thetotallength oftheweld,and no morethan 11/2 in. inany 6 in. of weld. (c) Incomplete Penetration. The total joint penetra- 936.3Responsibility for Examination Inspection does not relieve the manufacturer, fabricator, or erector of responsibility for performing all required examinations and preparing suitable records for the owner’s use. 47 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services of RequiredExamination
    • ASME B31.9-19% 936.6.1-937.2.1 tion shall not be less than the thickness of the thinner of the components being joined, except that incomplete root penetration is acceptable if it does not exceed the lesser of 1/32 in. or 20% of the required thickness, and its extent is not more than I 1/2 in. in any 6 in. of weld. ( d ) Undercut and Reinforcement. Undercut shall not exceed the lesser of 1/32 in. or 12'/,% of wall thickness. Thickness ofweldreinforcementshallnotexceedin. ( e ) Concave Root. Concavity of root the surface shall not reduce the total thickness of the joint, including reinforcement, to less than the thickness of the thinner of the components being joined. ExcessRootPenetration. The excess shallnot exceed the lesser of '/8 in. or 5% of the inside diameter of thepipe. (g) Weld Surfaces. There shall be no overlaps or abrupt ridgesand valleys. to align pipe axes shall not exceed 10 lb/ft per in. of NPS. (b) Boltsandnutsshall be fully engaged. 936.6.7 Flared, Flareless, and Compression Joints. Limitations on imperfections in flared, flareless, and compression joints are as follows. ( a ) There shall beno cracks in flare or tube end. (6) Tube ends shall be cut square (visual). (c) Tube ends shall be free of distortion or grooves thatwouldhinderassembly or sealing. ( d ) Negligible force shall be required to align ends. v) 936.6.8 Mechanical and Proprietary Joints. Imperfections in mechanicalandproprietary joints shall be within the limitations established by the manufacturer. 936.6.9 Solvent-Cemented, Adhesive, Heatand Fusion Joints. Limitations on imperfections in solventcemented, adhesive and heat-fusionjoints are as follows. ( a ) Internal protrusion shall not exceed 50% of wall thickness for solvent-cemented and 25% for adhesive and heat-fusion joints. (b) There shallbenovisibleunfilled or unbonded areas. 936.6.2 FilletWelds. Limitations on imperfections in fillet, socket, and welds seal are the same as in para.936.6.1 for cracks, lack of fusion, undercut,and weld surfaces. 936.6.3 Brazed Soldered and Joints. Limitations on imperfections in brazedandsoldered joints are as follows. ( a ) Penetration of fillermetalinsidethepipeshall not exceed 100% of thewallthickness. (b) Thereshall be no visibleunfilled joint space. ( c ) There shall beno visible evidence of excessive overheating. 936.6.10HandLay-UpJoints. Limitations onimperfections in handlay-up joints are as follows. (u) There shall be novisible evidence of lack of bonding. (b) The length ofthelaid-up joint shall beatleast the lesser of 4 in. or the nominal diameter of the pipe. ( c ) The thickness of thelaid-up joint shall be at leastequaltothe wall thickness ofthethinnerpipe. 936.6.4Threaded Joints. Limitations on imperfections for ASME B 1.20. I threadedpipe joints are as follows. (u) No morethansixandno less thantwothreads shall bevisible after makeup of the joint. (6) There shall be no severe chipping or tearing of visible threads. 937 LEAK TESTING 937.1General Priortoinitial operation, eachpipingsystemshall be tested for leakage. Hydrostatic testing in accordance with para. 937.3shall be employed if possible.Pneumatic testing may be used in lieu of hydrostatic testing only in accordance withthelimitations in para.937.4. Initial service testing may be used within the limitations of para. 937.5. 936.6.5 Caulked Leaded and Joints. Limitations on imperfections in caulkedandleaded joints are as follows. ( a ) The finished joint shall be within of in. the rim of thebell. (b) In the finished joint, the spigot shall be centered in the b e l l within 1/8 in. ( c ) The joint shall bemade in a continuous pour. 937.2 Preparation for Testing 936.6.6 Flanged Joints. Limitations on imperfections in flanged joints are as follows. (a) When observed during assembly, the flange faces shall be parallelwithin I deg.,and the force required 937.2.1 Exposure of Joints. All joints including welds shall be left uninsulated and exposedfor examinationduringthe test. 48 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services Edition
    • 97229748 3..-3.. ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 937.2.2TemporarySupports. Pipingdesigned for vapor or gas may be provided with temporary supports if necessary to support theweight of test liquid. (I) 90% ofspecified minimum yield strength; (2) 1.7 times the SE value in Appendix A(for brittle materials). 937.2.3ExpansionJoints. Expansion joints which cannot sustain the reactions due totestpressureshall or they maybe be providedwithtemporaryrestraint, isolatedfromtesting. 937.3.5 Examination Leakage. for Following the application of hydrostatictestpressureforatleast 10 min, examination shall be made leakage for of the piping,and at all joints and connections. I f leaks are found, they shall be eliminated by tightening, repair, or replacement, as appropriate, and the hydrostatic test repeated until no leakageis found. 937.2.4 Equipment Not Subject to Testing. Equipmentthatisnottobe subjected tothetestpressure shallbe isolated fromthepiping. If a valveis used toisolatethe equipment, its closure shall be capable of sealing against the test pressure without damage to thevalve.Flanged joints at which blinds areinserted toisolateequipment neednotbe tested. 937.4Pneumatic Testing 937.4.1 General. Compressed gas posesthe risk of sudden release of stored energy. For that reason, pneumatictestingshall be used only within the following limitations. (a) The piping system does not contain iron cast pipe or plasticpipe subject to brittle failure. (b) The system does not contain soldered or solvent cement joints over NPS 2. ( c ) The testpressure does not exceed 150 psig. (d) The system will be used in gas service, or for other reasons cannot be filledwithwater. ( e ) Traces of a testliquidwouldbe detrimental to the intended useofthepiping. 937.2.5PrecautionsAgainstOverpressure. If the testpressure is to be maintained for a period of time during which the test Auid is subject to thermal expansion or any other source of overpressurizing during the test, precautions such as the installation of a relief device shall be takentoavoid excessive pressure. 937.3HydrostaticTesting 937.3.1 Test Medium. Water at ambient temperature shallbeused as thetestmedium except wherethere isriskof damage due to freezing. Another liquid may beused if it is safe for workmen and compatible with thepiping. 937.4.2 Test Medium. The gas shall be nonflammableand nontoxic. 937.4.4 Preliminary Test. Prior to application of full pneumatictestpressure, a preliminarytest ofnot morethan I O psigshallbeapplied to revealpossible major leaks. (This preliminary test is not subject to the limitations in para. 937.4. I , and be may used in conjunction withhydrostatictesting or initial service testing.) 937.3.2 Vents and Drains. Vents shall be provided at high points in the system to release trapped air whilefillingthesystem.Drainsshallbeprovidedat low points for complete removal of the testliquid. 937.3.3 Preliminary Check. The system shall be examined to see that all equipment and parts that cannot withstandthetestpressureareproperly isolated. Test equipment shall be examined to ensure that it is tight andthatlowpressurefillinglines are disconnected. 937.4.5Pneumatic Test Pressure ( u ) Except as limited in (b) below, the test pressure shall not exceed 1.25 times the design pressure. Pressure shall be applied in several stages, allowing time for thesystem to reach equilibrium at each stage. (b) The test pressure shall not exceed the maximum allowable pneumatic test pressure for any vessel, pump, valve, or other component in thesystemunder test. 937.3.4HydrostaticTestPressure (a) Minimum Pressure. Except as limited in (b) below, a pipingsystemshall be subjected to a hydrostatic test pressure which at every point in the system is not less than 1.5 timesthedesign pressure. (b) Maximum Pressure. The test pressure shall not exceed the maximum testpressure for any vessel, pump, valve, or other component in the system under test. A checkshall be made to verifythatthe stress due to pressure at the bottom of vertical runs does not exceed either of the following: 937.4.8 Examination for Leakage. After the preliminary test, pressure shall be raised in stages of not 25% up to full pneumatic test pressure, more than allowing time for equalization of strains and detection of major leaks at each stage. Following the application of testpressureforatleast IO min,thepressure may 49 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • S T D * A S M E B31.7-ENGL 179b 0757b70 0580293 T79 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 97489752 3..-3.. ble, nonflammable liquids at pressures not over 100 psig and temperatuies not over 200"F, it is permissible to conduct the system testing with the service fluid as outlined in para. 937.5.2. be reduced to designpressureandexaminationshall be made for leakage of the piping. Leaks may be detected by soap bubble, halogen gas, scented gas, test gage monitoring, ultrasonic, or other suitable means. If leaks are found, pressure shall be vented, appropriate repair or replacement shall be made, and the pneumatic testrepeated until no leakage is found. 937.5Initial 937.5.2 Service Testing. A preliminary test with air at lowpressure(para. 937.4.4) may beused. In any event, the piping system shallbe brought up to operating pressure gradually with visual examination at a pressure between one-half and two-thirds of design pressure. A final examination shall be made at operating pressure. If the piping system is free of leaks, it willhavemet the requirements of para. 937.1. Service Leak Test 937.5.1 General. For gases and steam andcondensate service not over 15 psig, and for nontoxic, noncombusti- 50 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Appendix A APPENDIX A Table A-I begins on next page. 51 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services is Spiral .. .. Welded Pipe and Tube Butt Welded Pipe and Tube . . .. . Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube .* .. . , . Carbon Steel Seamless Pipe and Tube .. Material A B API A25 5L 5L API ASTM ASTM ASTM 5L API API A 211 A 211 A 211 . . . . . . . A570-40 . . A570-30 A570-33 A B .. . , *. . .. E B A25 A 53 A 135 A 135 ASTM ASTM ASTM . . E . . A 53 ASTM F . . . . S S . * Class B A A ASTM A 53 API 5L 5L B A B A A 53 No. ASTM A 53 ASTM A 106 ASTM A 106 API 5L ASTM Spec. Type or Grade 0.60 0.60 (1) 1 1 1 1 (1) (3) (3) (3) (1) 1 1 1 1 0.75 0.75 0.75 ... . . . . . . . . . (1) 1 1 1 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 (2) 1.00 1.00 1.00 . . (1) (1) 1.00 1.00 1.00 . . . . . ... Notes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 P-No. Factor Eor F TABLE A-l ALLOWABLE STRESSES 49.0 52.0 55.0 48.0 60.0 48.0 60.0 45.0 48.0 60.0 45.0 45.0 48.0 60.0 48.0 60.0 48.0 60.0 Min. Tensile, ksi Strengths Min. 40.0 30.0 33.0 30.0 35.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 30.0 35.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 30.0 35.0 30.0 35.0 Yield, ksi 10.3 9.2 9.8 10.2 12.8 9.5 10.2 12.8 10.2 12.8 6.8 6.7 12.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 100 0 to 9.4 8.4 9.9 10.2 12.8 9.5 10.2 12.8 10.2 12.8 6.8 6.7 12.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 150 10.3 9.2 9.8 10.2 12.8 9.5 10.2 12.8 10.2 12.8 6.8 6.7 12.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 200 . . . . . . .a. 10.2 12.8 9.5 10.2 12.8 10.2 12.8 6.8 6.7 12.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 250 .., . . . 10.2 12.8 9.5 10.2 12.8 10.2 12.8 6.8 6.7 12.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 300 . . . . . . . . 10.2 12.8 9.5 10.2 12.8 10.2 12.8 6.8 6.7 12.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 350 Max. Allowable Stress Value in Tension SE, ksi, for Metal Temperature, OF, Not Exceeding . . . . . . 10.2 12.8 9.5 10.2 12.8 10.2 12.8 6.8 6.7 12.0 15.0 15.0 12.0 15.0 12.0 406 B s! s : P F E %
    • COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services E Fittings Iron Pipe 18Cr-13Ni-3Mo 18Cr-13Ni-3Mo 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo lbCr-12Ni-2Mo 18Cr-8Ni 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 18Cr-8Ni 18Cr-8Ni 18Cr-8Ni Tube and Studs and Couplings Nuts, Stainless Steel Seamless Pipe and , . . . . . . Ductile Bolts, A 312 A 312 A 395 A 536 A 377 A 307 A36 A 181 A 234 A 234 A 105 A 181 A 312 A 312 A 312 A 312 A 312 A 312 A 312 A 312 ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM Structurals . . . (12) ASTM ASTM ASTM Fittings . . and ASTM ASTM Forgings .. . . ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM . .. s30400 530400 s30403 s30403 531600 531600 S31603 531603 s31700 s31700 65-45-12 60-49-18 . .. B WPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~ . .. .. . .. . .. 60 70 WPB . . 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 ,.. . . . 1 . . (10) (1) (l)(lO) .. (10) (1) (l)(lO) (1) (l)(lO) , . . (l)(ll) .. . (l)(3) ... . . ... .. . . . 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.80 0.80 . . . .. .. . . . . . 1.00 1.00 . 75.0 75.0 70.0 70.0 75.0 75.0 70.0 70.0 75.0 75.0 60.0 65.0 . . . 55.0 58.0 70.0 60.0 70.0 60.0 70.0 30.0 30.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 40.0 45.0 . . . . 36.0 36.0 30.0 36.0 35.0 40.0 continues (Table . . . . . . . 9.6 10.4 7.0 12.6 17.5 15.0 17.5 15.0 17.5 16.0 16.0 13.3 13.3 16.0 16.0 13.3 13.3 16.0 16.0 9.6 10.4 7.0 12.6 17.5 15.0 17.5 15.0 17.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0 .2.6 17.5 15.0 17.5 15.0 17.5 12.0 14.1 10.2 13.0 12.4 15.6 10.1 13.3 12.4 15.6 . . . . . . . . . 7.0 12.6 17.5 15.0 17.5 15.0 17.5 on next page and Notes 13.3 15.1 11.4 13.3 13.8 16.0 11.3 13.3 13.8 16.0 7.0 12.6 17.5 15.0 17.5 15.0 17.5 follow . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7.0 12.6 17.5 15.0 17.5 15.0 17.5 Table) 11.0 13.8 9.3 12.5 11.4 15.4 9.2 13.2 11.4 15.4 . . . . . . . . 7.0 12.6 17.5 15.0 17.5 15.0 17.5 E C : s 5 E .1 %
    • COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services WI P and Aluminum Alloys Seamless Pipe and Tubes 210 210 210 210 210 210 and No. B 241 B 241 B 241 B 241 B 241 B 241 ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM Seamless Pipe and Seamless Extruded Tube ASTM 6 241 ASTM B 241 ASTM B 241 ASTM B 241 Aluminum Drawn ASTM 6 ASTM 6 ASTM 6 ASTM 6 ASTM B ASTM I3 Material Spec. 0 T4 T6 T4,T6 6061 6061 6061 6063 6063 6061 6061 6061 5.000 5.000 21 All All All 74,T6 T6 T5, Tb 23 23 23 23 23 25 25 T4 T6 21 -cl Up thru Up thru All All 21 All 21 21 21 21 21 21 P-No. All 3003 3003 5083 5083 0.025-0.500 0.025-0.500 0.025-0.500 0.010-0.500 0.010-0.500 0.018-0.500 in. 0 H112 H18 H112 3003 H14 0 0 Temper 3003 3003 5050 Alloy Size or Thickness, Welded; (l)(5) Welded; (l)(5)(7) (l)(5)(7) (l)(9) (l)(9) (1) (l)(4) (l)(4) Welded;(i)(8) (l)(5) (l)(5) (1) (l)(4) (1) 38.0 24.0 30.0 17.0 (l)(8) 14.0 39.0 39.0 26.0 14.0 27.0 30.0 42.0 24.0 20.0 18.0 14.0 Min. Tensile, ksi Strengths (l)(7)(8) Notes TABLE A-l (CONT’D) ALLOWABLE STRESSES 1.. 16.0 35.0 . . . 16.0 16.0 16.0 5.0 24.0 5.0 16.0 35.0 . . . 5.0 17.0 6.0 Min. Yield, ksi 7.5 4.3 6.5 9.5 6.0 9.8 9.8 3.4 6.8 3.3 6.0 7.5 10.5 3.4 5.0 4.0 0 to 100 4.3 6.5 9.5 6.0 7.5 9.8 9.8 3.4 6.8 3.3 7.5 10.5 6.0 3.4 5.0 4.0 150 4.3 6.5 9.5 6.0 7.4 . . . . . . 3.4 6.7 3.3 7.5 10.5 6.0 3.4 5.0 4.0 200 4.2 6.4 9.1 5.9 6.8 . . . . . . 3.0 6.3 3.0 9.9 5.9 3.0 4.9 4.0 7.4 250 3.9 6.0 7.9 5.5 5.0 . . . . . 2.4 5.4 2.4 6.9 8.4 5.5 2.4 4.3 4.0 300 3.0 5.8 6.3 4.6 3.4 . . ,.. 1.8 3.5 1.8 6.3 6.3 4.6 1.8 3.0 2.8 350 Max. Allowable Stress. Value in Tension SE, ksi, for Metal Temperature, “F, Not Exceeding 2.0 3.5 2.0 .. . 4.5 4.5 2.5 1.4 . . . 1.4 4.5 3.5 2.4 1.4 4.5 1.4 400
    • COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services Copper and Copper Alloys Seamless Pipe and Tube Copper Pipe Size range NPS 1/8-Z incl Copper Pipe Size range NPS 1/8-2 incl Copper Pipe Size range NPS 2l/e-12 incl Red Brass Pipe Copper Tube Copper Tube Copper Tube Copper Tube Copper Tube Copper Tube Brass Tube Copper Tube Copper Pipe, Threadless Material B 42 No. B 0 B B B B B B B B B ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM 42 43 68 75 75 75 88 88 335 280 302 B 42 ASTM Spec. 102, 230 102, 102, 102, 102, 102, 102, 230 102, 102, 102, 102, Alloy 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 No. drawn Light drawn Annealed Annealed Annealed Light drawn Hard drawn Annealed Drawn Annealed Annealed Drawn Hard Annealed Condition . 31 32 . 31 31 31 . . . . .. 32 31 31 P-No. . (1) . . . (6) (6) (1) (l)(6) . . . (1) (1) (6) (6) ... Notes TABLE A-l (CONT’D) ALLOWABLE STRESSES 36.0 40.0 30.0 30.0 36.0 45.0 30.0 36.0 40.0 30.0 36.0 45.0 30.0 Min. Tensile, ksi Strengths 30.0 12.0 9.0 9.0 30.0 40.0 9.0 30.0 12.0 9.0 30.0 40.0 9.0 Min. Yield, ksi 250 300 350 400 9.0 8.0 6.0 6.0 9.0 11.3 6.0 9.0 8.0 6.0 9.0 11.3 6.0 9.0 8.0 6.0 5.1 9.0 11.3 5.1 9.0 8.0 5.1 9.0 11.3 5.1 9.0 8.0 5.9 4.8 9.0 11.3 4.8 9.0 8.0 4.8 9.0 11.3 4.8 (Notes 9.0 8.0 5.8 4.8 9.0 11.3 4.8 9.0 8.0 4.8 9.0 11.3 4.8 follow 8.7 8.0 5.0 4.7 8.7 11.0 4.7 8.7 8.0 4.7 8.7 11.0 4.7 on next 8.5 7.0 3.8 4.0 8.5 10.3 4.0 8.5 7.0 4.0 8.5 10.3 4.0 page) 8.2 5.0 2.5 3.0 8.2 4.3 3.0 8.2 5.0 3.0 8.2 4.3 3.0 t 200 100 150 6 E P G x 0 to Max. Allowable Stress Value in Tension SE, ksi, for Metal Temperature, “F, Not Exceeding % 5 E .-
    • COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services NOTES: (1) This material is not acceptable for boiler external piping. See Fig. 900.1.28. (2) ASTM A 53 Type F pipe shall not be used for flammable or toxic fluids. (3) These stress values include a quality factor of 0.92 for structural material used in fabricating pressure containing components. Materials used in supports shall have an allowable stress value in tension of one-fifth the specified minimum tensile strength. (4) The stress values given for this material are not applicable when either welding or thermal cutting is employed; in such cases, use the value for 0 temper. (5) The stress values for this material are not applicable when either welding or thermal cutting is employed; in such cases, use the values for the welded condition. (6) Where brazed construction is employed, stress values for the annealed condition shall be used. (7) For stress-relieved tempers (T351, T3510, T3511, T451, T4510, T4511, T651, T6510, T6511), stress values for material in the basic temper shall be used. (8) Strength of reduced-section tensile specimen is required to quality welding procedure. See the ASME BPV Code, Section IX, QW-150. (9) The supplier of material shall be consulted as to the ability of the alloy to withstand stress corrosion cracking under design conditions and combinations of stress and corrosive environments. (10) Due to the relatively low yield strength of these materials, these higher stress values were established for use at temperatures where the short-time tensile properties govern, in order to permit the use of these alloys where slightly greater deformation is acceptable. The stress values in this range exceed 62’/,% but do not exceed 90% of the yield strength at temperature. Use of these stresses may result in dimensional changes due to permanent strain. These stress values are not recommended for the flanges of gasketed joints or other applications where slight amounts of distortion can cause leakage or malfunction. (11) The specification provides wall thicknesses appropriate to the various diameters and combinations of pressure and laying condition. See ANSIlAWWA C150/A 21.50, Manual for the Thickness Design of Ductile Iron Pipe. (12) Materials such as pipe listed elsewhere in Appendix A may be used as structural material in accordance with para. 921. GENERAL NOTES: (a) See para. 902.3 for discussion of allowable stress values. (b) The tabulated specifications are ASTM, except as noted. For boiler external piping, the corresponding ASM E specifications shall be used. See Section II of the ASME BPV Code. tc) The stress values may be interpolated to determine allowable stresses for intermediate temperatures. (d) The P-Numbers indicated in this Appendix are identical to those adopted in Section IX of the ASME BPV Code. (e) All stress values are shown in units of thousands of pounds-force per square in. (ksi). Multiply by 1000 to obtain values in psi. tf) Materials listed in Table 926.1 for which allowable stress values are not tabulated in Appendix A may be used at allowable stresses found in ASME 831.1 or in Section I or Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME BPV Code. However, the temperature limits in this Code shall apply. TABLE A-l (CONT’D)
    • Table A-2 ASME 8319-1996 Edition TABLE A-2 HYDROSTATIC DESIGN STRESSES (HDS) AND RECOMMENDED TEMPERATURE LIMITS FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPE Recommended Temperature Limits [Notes (l), (2)l Hydrostatic Design Stress at 73°F ASTM Spec. No. Maximum, Minimum, D D D D D 2513 2662 2666 3000 3309 D 2104 "F ABS1210 ABS1316 ABS2112 -30 -30 -30 180 180 180 CPVC4120 O 210 0.5 2.0 1.6 P62110 O 210 0.5 1.0 0.8 PE2306 PE3306 PE3406 PE3408 -30 -30 -30 -30 140 160 180 180 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.80 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 PP } t D 2239 D 2447 D 2513 D 2737 D 3035 ... D 1785 D 2241 D 2513 D 2672 "F 30 210 Material D 1527 D 2282 D 2513 D 2846 F 441 F 442 [Note (3)1, 180°F, 100°F, ksi ksi { PVCllZO PVC1220 PVCZllO PVC2120 150 150 130 150 1.0 1.6 1.25 ... ... 2.0 2.0 1 .o 2.0 0.8 1.25 1.0 ksi ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.6 1.6 0.8 1.6 ... ... ... ... NOTES: (1) Theserecommended limits are for lowpressure applications with waterandotherfluids that do not significantly affect thepropertiesofthethermoplastic.Theuppertemperature limits arereduced at higherpressures,dependingonthe combination of fluid andexpectedservicelife.Lowertemperature limits are affected more by the environment, safeguarding, and installation conditions than by strength. (2) These recommended limits apply only to materials listed. Manufacturers should be consulted for temperature limits on specific types and kinds of materials not listed. (3) Usethese hydrostatic design stress ( H D S ) values at all lower temperatures. 57 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME 631.9-19% Edition Tables A-3, A-4 TABLE A-3 DESIGN STESS VALUES FOR CONTACT MOLDED (HAND-LAY-UP) PIPE MADE FROM REINFORCED THERMOSETTING RESINS Material Resin No. Spec. ASTM C 582 Values Reinforcing Glass Polyester fiber Stress [Note (M, psi Thickness, in. B /' - 916 900 1200 1350 1500 '14 51 6 / '/B b NOTE: (1)Stress values apply in the range -2OOF to 18OoF. TABLE A-4 HYDROSTATIC DESIGN BASIS STRESS FOR MACHINE-MADE THERMOSETTING RESIN PIPE Grade Material Designation ASTM Spec. No. Type D 2517 filament wound HoopStress, psi Hydrostatic Design Basis [Note U)], 73°F (ASTM 2310) Glass-fiber reinforced epoxy resin, gas pressure pipe [Note 5000 No liner RTRP-1lAD RTRW-11AW No liner 1 RTRP-11AD RTRP-11AW Epoxy resin liner, reinforced ¡ Polyestelresin Iiner rnrl reinfotr L.su I ¡ ... 5000 (2)l Static [Note (3)l ... 16,000 Glass-fiber reinforced polyester resin I D 2997 centrifugally cast Glass-fiber reinforced polyester resin ... RTRP-11FE RTRP-1lFD 6300 ... i RTRP-12EC RTRP-12ED RTRP-12EU 4000 { D 2996 filament wound G Iass-fi ber reinforced epoxy resin ... RTRP-12AD RTRP-12AU 5000 ... 12,500 RTRP-22BT RTRP-22BU ... ... 10,000 12,500 RTRP-21CT RTRP-21CU ... 10,000 12,500 Polvester resin liner reinforced Epoxy resin liner, nonreinforced { NOTES: (1) Service (design) factor must be applied to these values to obtain a hydrostatic design stress. (2) When using the cyclic design basis, the service factor shall not exceed 1.0. (3) When using the static design basis, the Service factor shall not exceed 0.5. 58 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services 5000 5000 ... ... 16,000 ... ... ... 12,500 ...
    • STD-ASME 31-7-ENGL B L97b m 0759b70 0 5 8 0 2 5 2 T87 m ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Table B-1 APPENDIX B TABLE B-1 ALLOWABLE PRESSURES FOR NONMETALLIC, NONPLASTIC PRESSURE PIPING Allowable Gage ASTM C 3 6 1 Class AWWA Cconcrete 300 Reinforced water pipe, steel cylinder type AWWA C 301 Prestressed concrete pressurepipe,steel cylinder type, for water and other liquids AWWA C 302 water concreteReinforced pipe, noncylinder type ... ... 40 ... 50 ... 260 ... ... Lined cylinder Embedded cylinder 250 350 ... 45 59 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services 10 20 30 ... Reinforced concrete low head pressure pipe O F 25 ft 50 ft 75 f t Material Pressure, psi 100 ft 125 f t Spec. No. Maximum Temperature, ...
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Appendix C APPENDIX C REFERENCE STANDARDS' Specific editions of standards incorporated in this Code by reference and the names and addresses of the sponsoring organizations are shown in this Appendix. This Appendix will be revised as needed.Thenames and addresses of the sponsoring organizations are also shown in this Appendix. An asterisk (*) indicates that the standard has been approved as an American National Standard by the AmericanNational Standards Institute (ANSI). AGA *A2 1 .14-84 *A21.52-82 *Z223.1-92 API 5L, 38th Ed., 1992 594, 3rd Ed., 1993 609, 3rd Ed., 1993 ASME *B1 .l-89 & Bl.la-84 *B1.20.1-83(R92) *B1.20.3-76(R82) *B1.20.7-91 *B16.1-89 *B1 6.3-92 *B1 6.4-92 *B1 6.5-88 *B1 6.9-93 'B16.10-92 *B16.11-91 'B16.14-91 *B1 6.1 5-85 B1 6.1 8-84 '616.21-92 *B16.22-89 *B16.24-91 *B1 6.25-92 '816.26-88 *B1 6.28-94 *B1 6.33-90 *B1 6.36-88 & B16.36a-79 *B1 6.39-86 *B16.42-87 *B18.2.1-81 *B18.2.2-87(R93) *B31.1-95 ASME (Cont'd) '831.3-96 'B31.4-92 'B31.5-92 *B36.1 OM-95 *B36.19M-85(R94) *BPV Code, 1995 Ed. Section I Section II SectionVIII, Division 1 SectionVIII, Division 2 Section IX ASTM A 36lA 36M-89 A 47-84(R89) A 48-83 A53-90a A105-87a A106-90 A126-84 A135-89a A181/A 181M-87 A183-83(R90) A 193lA193M-90 A 194lA 194M-88a A197-87 A 2 1 1 -75(R85) A 234lA 234M-90a A 254-90 A278-85 A307-90 A312-89a A377-89 A395-88 A403/A403M-89 A536-84(R93) A539-90a B 26-88 B 32-89 61 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services ASTM(Cont'd) B 42-89 B43-88 B 61-86 B 62-86 B 68-86 B 75-86 B 88-88a B 135-91 B 210-88 B 241-88 B 247-88 B 251-88 B 280-86 B283-89 B 302-87 B361-88 B547-88 C361-93 C 582-87'' *D 93-90 D 1527-89 D 1598-86 D 1694-87(91") D 1785-93 D 2 104-93 D 2 143-69(R87) D 2235-93a D2239-93 D 2241-93 D 2282-89 D 2310-91 D 2447-93 D 2464-93 D 2466-94 D 2467-93 D 2468-93 D 2513-93a D 251 7-81 (87) D 2564-93
    • Appendix C ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Federal Covt. W - P 4 2 1 D-76 ASTM(Cont'd) D 2609-93 D 2657-90 D 2662-89 D 2666-89 D 2672-89 D 2683-90 D 2737-89 D 2774-72(R83) D 2837-90 D 2846-90 D 2855-90 D 2992-87 D 2996-88 D 2997-90 D 3000-89 D 3035-89a D 3 138-93 D 3 139-89 D 3 140-90 D 3261-90 D 3309-93 E 488-90 F 402-93 F 412-93 F 437-93 F 438-93 F 439-93a F 441-93 F 442-93 F 493-93a AWWA *CllO/A21.10-93 *C111/A21.11-90 *Cl 50/A21 .50-91 *C151/A21.51-91 C152-81 [Note (2)1 *C207-94 *C208-83 & C208a-83 *C300-89 *C301-92 C302-87 *C500-93 *C600-93 *C606-87 *C900-89 AWS *A5.1-91 *A5.2-92 *A5.3-91 CDA Copper Handbook, Tube AWS(Cont'd) *A5.4-92 *A5.6-84(R91) *A5.8-92 *A5.9-93 *A5.10-92 *A5.12-92 *AS. 17-89 *A5.18-93 *A5.20-94 *A5.22-80(R89) *A5.23-90 D l 0.9-80 MSS SP-6-90 SP-25-92 SP-42-90(R92) SP-43-91 SP-45-92 SP-51-91(R95) SP-58-93 SP-67-95 SP-69-95 SP-70-90 SP-71-90 SP-72-92 SP-78-87(R92) SP-79-92 SP-80-87 SP-83-95 SP-84-90 SP-85-94 SP-88-93 NFPA *3 1-92 *J51 1980 SAE *J513f-92 4-92 NOTES: (1) In general, the issuedate shownimmediatelyfollowing the hyphen afterthe number of the standard (e.g., B16.10-73, A47-84, J514-80) is the effective date of the issue (edition)of thestandard. Anyadditionalnumbershownfollowing the issue date and prefixedbythe letter "R" is thelatestdate of reaffirmation [e.g., 81.20.3-76(R82), D1503-73(R78)]. A component or pipe conforming to an earlier material specification edition purchased by the user prior to the date of issuance of this Edition of the Code may be used, provided the component or pipe is inspected and determined, to be satisfactory for the service intended. (2) Out-of-print. 62 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • S T D * A S M E B 3 1 - 9 - E N G L 297b m 0757b70 0560255 77b m Appendix C ASME B31.%1996 Edition Specifications and standards of the following organizations appear in this Appendix: AGA API ASME ASTM AWS AWWA American Water Works Association 6666 W. Quincy Avenue, Denver, 80235 303 794-771 1 Colorado American Gas Association 1515 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia 22209 703 841 -8558 ... AmericanPetroleumInstitute PublicationsandDistribution Section 1220 L Street,N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005 202 682-8375 Federal Specifications: Superintendent of Documents United States Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402 202783-3238 CDA Copper Development Association, Inc. 260Madison Avenue, 16th fi. New York, New York 10016-2401 212251-7200 MSS Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry 127 Park Street, N.E., Vienna, Virginia22180 703 281-661 3 NFPA National Fire ProtectionAssociation Batterymarch Park, Quincy,Massachusetts 02269 61 7 770-7000 SAE Society of Automotive Engineers 400CommonwealthDrive, Warrendale,Pennsylvania 15096 412776-4841 The American Society of Mechanical Engineers Order Department 22Law Drive, P.O. Box2300,Fairfield, New Jersey 07007-2300 201 882-1 167 American Society for Testing and Materials 100 Barr Harbor Drive WestConshohocken, PA 19428-2959 610 832-9500 American Welding Society 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, P.O. Miami,Florida33135 305443-9353 Box 351040, 63 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • D-1-D-3 ASME B 1 9 1 9 Edition 3.-96 APPENDIX D PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL INQUIRIES D-1 INTRODUCTION rules in the scope of the Code. An inquiry letter concerning unrelatedsubjectswill be returned. (b) Background. State the purpose of the inquiry, whichwould be either toobtain an interpretation of Code rules, or to propose consideration of arevision to the present rules. Provide concisely the information needed for the Committee’s understanding of the inquiry, being sure to include reference to the applicable Code Section, Edition, Addenda, paragraphs, figures, and tables. If sketches provided, are they shall be limited to the scope of theinquiry. ( c ) Inquiry Structure ( I ) Proposed Question(s). The inquiry shall be stated in a condensed precise and question format, omittingsuperfluousbackgroundinformation, and, where appropriate, composed in such a way that “yes” or ‘ho” (perhaps with provisos) would be an acceptable reply. The inquiry statement should be technically and editorially correct. (2) Proposed Reply(ies). Provide a proposed reply stating what it .is believed that the Code requires. Ifin the inquirer’s opinionarevision to the Code is needed, recommended wording shall be provided in addition to information justifying the change. The ASME B31 Committee, Code for Pressure Piping, will consider written requests for interpretations and revisions of the Code rules, and develop new rules if dictated by technological development. The committee’s activities in this regard are limited strictly to interpretations ofthe rules or to the consideration of revisions to thepresentrulesonthe basis ofnew data or technology. As amatterofpublished policy, ASME does not approve, certify, rate, or endorse any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity, and, accordingly, inquiries requiring such consideration will be returned. Moreover, ASME does not act as a consultant on specific engineering problems or on the general application or understanding of the Code rules. If, based on the inquiry informationsubmitted, it is the opinion of the Committee that the inquirer should seek professional assistance, the inquiry will be returned with the recommendationthatsuch assistance be obtained. Inquiries that do not provide the information needed for the Committee’s full understanding will be returned. The Introduction to this Code states, “It is the owner’s responsibility to select the Code Section that most nearly applies toaproposedpiping installation.” The Committee will respond not to inquiries requesting assignment of a Code Section to a piping installation. D-3 SUBMITTAL Inquiries should be submitted in typewritten form; however, legible handwritten inquiries will be considered. They shall include the name and mailing address of the inquirer, and be mailed to the following address: Secretary ASME B31 Committee 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017 D-2 REQUIREMENTS Inquiries shall be limited strictly to interpretations of the rules or to the consideration of revisions to the present rules on thebasis ofnew data or technology. Inquiries shallmeetthe following requirements: (a) Scope. Involve a single rule or closely related 65 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • S T D * A S M E B3Lm7-ENGL L77b m 0757b70 0580257 5b7 m Appendix E ASME B31.9-1996 Edition APPENDIX E NONMANDATORY QUALITY SYSTEM PROGRAM (See para. 936. I . I .) lines for the Application of I S 0 9001, IS0 9002, and IS0 9003 (c) I S 0 9000-3:1991. Quality Management andQualityAssurance Standards - Part 3: Guidelines for the Application of IS0 9 0 0 1 to the Development, Supply, andMaintenance of Software (d) I S 0 9001:1994. Quality Systems - Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Production, Installation, and Servicing ( e ) I S 0 9002:1994. Quality Systems - Model for Quality Assurance in Productionand Servicing @J I S 0 9003:1994. Quality Systems - Model for Quality Assurance in FinalInspectionand Test Organizations performing Design, Fabrication, Assembly, Erection, Inspection, Examination, Testing, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance for B31.9 piping systems shall have a written Quality System in accordance with applicable I S 0 9000 Series documents. Registration or certificationofthe Quality System shall be by agreement 'between contracting parties invblved. Reference I S 0 9000 Documents (a) I S 0 9000-1:1994. Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards - Part l: Guidelines for Selection and Use (b) I S 0 9000-2: 1993. Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards - Part 2: Generic Guide- 67 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ~~ S T D * A S M E B3L.S-ENGL . L77b m 0759b70 0580258 ASME 631.9-1996 Edition qT5 Index INDEX abbreviations ................................. .926.3 .927.1 acceptance standards.......................... .936.2.1 access to the work .......................... acetone .................................. 934.1.2(a) adhesive bond........................ .900.2, 934.1.1 alarms ..................................... .922.1.2 alignment, bolting .......................... .935.2.1 allowances ............................. 902.4, 902.1 aluminum pipe ................ Fig. 921.1.3D, 923.2.4 ambient influences ............................ .901.4 anchor., ........... 900.2, 901.7, 920.1, 921.2, 935.11 annealed temper............................ .923.2.4 assembly .............................. 900.2, 935.1 automatic welding ............ 900.2; see also welding axes ....................................... .904.3.1 .Fig. 904.3.3 branch intersection ..................... branch opening ............................. .904. 3.2 branch pipe ................ .904.3.1, 927.4.6, 934.2.3 braze welding ................ 900.2; see also welding .928.1.3 brazing qualification ........................ brine ........................................ .900.2 brittle failure ................. .900.2, 9 19.2.2, 923.3.2 92 1.2.1 buckling .................................... building services piping def ................. .900.1.2 butt fusion................. 934.1.3; see also welding .900.2, 927.3.1 butt joint ............................ .902.2.2. Table 902.4.3, butt weld .................... 911.1.1, 926.3, 927.3.1 backing ...................................... .900.2 backing off ................................ .935.4.4 backing ring ................. .900.2, 91 1.1.1, 927.2.2 .900.2 ball joint .................................... bars, hanger.............................. 921.2.2(a) base material ........................... 900.2, 9 17.1 base metal ........................... .900.2. 927.2.2 bead. stringer ................................ .go0.2 bead.weave ................................. .90 0.2 bellows .............................. .900.3, 921.2.1 bending ....................................... 929 bending and torsion ......................... .902.3.2 bends ............................... .906.2. 9 19.2.2 bevel angles ................... 904.5.1, 904.5.3, 908 blanks ......................... 904.5.1, 904.5.3, 908 boiler external piping ......... .900.I .2. Fig 900.1.2B, . 926. 1.1 bolting engagement......................... .935.2.4 materials ................................ .902.3.1 procedure.................................. .93 5.2 .908.3 torque ..................................... ....................... .935.9 borosilicate glass piping branch connection definition .................................. .900 .2 .904.3 general .................................... full size ............................. .Fig. 904.3.3 nonmetallic .............................. .934. 1.2 welded ................................ Fig . 904.3 69 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services capacity .................... 9 19.2.3, Table92 1.2.2A caps ....................................... .904.4.1 cast ..................................... 904.3.1(b) cast iron ................. 902.3.l(b) and (d), 904.1.2, 923.2.1, 923.2.2, 926.3 cathodic protection ......................... ,902.4.1 cellulose-acetate-butyrate ............. .926.3. 934.1.2; see also plastic pipe .934. 1.1 cements ................................... centrifugally cast pipe ....................... .934.2.2 ceramics................................... .923.3.1 certifications ............................... .936.2.2 chemical setting adhesive joints .............. 934.2.3; see also joint chilled water ................................. .900.2 chlorinated poly (vinyl chloride) ......... Table 926.1, 926.3, 934.1.2(a) and (b); see also plastic piping ................................ 913 clamp-type joint 92 1.2.2(c), 1.3.1 92 clamps .......................... cleaning ...................... .927.3.1(b), 934.1.2(a) clevises..................................... 92 1.3.1 .904.4.1 closures ................................... coalescence .................................. .90 0.2 coatings ........................... .902.4.1, 923.3.2 Code computations ....................... 902.3.1(a) cold spring ............................ 919.9, 935.1 1 column buckling strength .................. 921.2.1(c) combustible liquid ................. .900 .1.2(a), 900.2 commercial wall thickness ...................,904.1.2
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Index components .........902.2.1(b). 902.2.2, 902.2.3, 903. 926.1, Table 926.1 compressed gas ..................900.1.2(d). 905.2.1, 917.3.2, 923.3.2 concrete ........................... .921.5.1. 921.5.2 .904.6.1 conical section ............................. ..900 .2 consumable insert ........................... continuous weld ........................... .see weld .924.4.8. 927.4.3 contour ............................ contractor.................................... .900 .2 .900.2. 901.4.1 cooling .............................. copper pipe ............905.2.3, Fig . 921.1.3, 923.2.3, Table 926.1, 928.1.2 corrosion allowance ............ .902.4.1. Fig . 904.3.3 .902.4.1 control .................................. crack ........................................ .90 0.2 .921.3.1 cradles .................................... crevice corrosion ............................. .91 4.2 crosses .................................. 904.3.l(a) cylindrical attachments ....................... 92 1.3.2 dampeners ................................. .920. 1.3 dead weight................................ .920. 1.1 defect ....................................... .900.2 definitions ................................... .900.2 deflection ........................ 92 1.1.2(b), 92 1.1.3 deposited metal .............................. .900.2 derating ................................... .900.2.4 design hydrostatic...................... 902.3.1(e) and (f) joint ...................................... .900 .2 minimum requirements for ................. 900.1.1 pressure ........................ ........ .903. 904 special ........................ ............. 903 design conditions ................. ..... 901. 902.2.4 design criteria .................... ........ .902. 903 design methods................... ..........902.4.5 design philosophy ................ ..........904.7.2 design pressure .........900.2, 901.1 904.1.2(a), 926.2 ............91 9.1 design requirements ............... design temperature ............. 900.2, 901.1, 902.2.3 design thickness .............................. .900 .2 deterioration in service ........................ .923.5 detrimental material ...................... 927.3.1 (b) diameter ................................ .904.2.1(b) dimensional standard ......................... .900 .3 direct connection ......................... 904.3.l(c) division valve .............................. .902.2.4 .937.3.2 drains ..................................... drip lines .................................. .922.2.1 ductile iron pipe ...............904.1.2, 923.2.2, 926.3 .............................. .90 1.5 .921.3.2 ears ....................................... earthquake loads ....................902.3.3, 920.1.1 elbows ........................ .919.2.2, Table 926.1 Table 902.4.3 electric resistance weld ................. 902.3.2(e) end force ................................ end preparation........................... 927.3.1 (a) engineer .............. .900.2. 904.1.2(a), 92 1.6, 923.5 .904.7.2 engineering calculations..................... engineering design .................900.2, 904.2.1(b), 927.1, 928.1.3, 929.1, 934.3, 935.1, 936.2 equipment connections .................900.2. 935.10 erection ...................... .900.2, 921 .1.2, 935.1, 936.2.1, 936.4.1 .914.2. see also corrosion erosion .................... examination ...................... 900.2, 935.13, 936 examiner .................................... .900.2 exclusions ................................. .900. 1.3 expansion .............................. 919, 921.5.1 expansion joint .................. 900.2, 913, 919.2.2, 920.1.2(b), 921.2.1(b) .902.4.1 expected life ............................... explosive actuated fasteners ..................92 15.4 extended outlets ............................ .904.3.1 external alignment ........................ 927.4.2(b) extruded outlets .......................... 904.3.l(a) fabrication ........................ .900.2, 927, 936.3 fatigue ....................................... 9 19.1 .935.1 field erection................................. . filler metal ................... .900.2, 927.2.1, 9281.1 fittings ................904.3.1(a), 906.1, Table 926.1 butt welding ........... 902.2.2, 926.3, Table 926.1 closure .................................. .904.4.1 forged steel or alloy threaded.............. .902.2.2 outlet ................................. 904.3.2(b) fixtures ............................ 92 1.2, 934.1.3(a) .917.3.2 flammable gas .............................. flammable liquid ........ 900.2, 905.2.1, 906.3, 913.1, 917.3.2, 923.3.2 flange facing ................................. .908.3 flanges ...................... .904.5. 908, 921.2.2(c), Table 926.1, 927.4.3(c) .927.4.5, Fig. 927.4.5 flat heads ...................... 919 flexibility ...................................... fluid, expansion effects ..................... .901.4.2 fluid, incompressible........................ .904.5.3 .900.2, 928.1.1(b) flux .............................. forged couplings ......................... 904.3.l(b) . 70 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services dynamic effects
    • Index ASME 831.9-1996 Edition forming ....................................... 930 formulas................................. 904.2.2(a) foundry tolerances .......................... .904. 1.2 frictional forces .................. 920.1.2, 92 1.2.1(d) fusion ............................... .900.2. 936.6.1 flared. flareless. and compression .............. 9 15. 934.1.4(a), 935.7, 936.6.7 hand lay-up ....................... 934.2.4, 936.10 .934. 1.3 heat fusion .............................. limitations ............... .905.1 .l, 906.1.1, 907.1.1 mechanical ..................... .900.2. 9 13, 935.8 piping ....................................... 910 proprietary........................... 913.1, 935.8 9 16.2 push-type................................... rotary., ................................. .919.2.2 slip ................................... 920.1.2(b) socket-type ............................... 911.1.2 solvent-cemented......................... .934. 1.2 .935. 2.3 steel-to-iron.............................. swivel ........................... 900.2, 921.2.2(c) threaded ....... 91 1.1.4, 914, 923.2.4, 927.4.4, 935.4 welded .......................... 9 11, Appendix A joint compound ............................ .935.4.2 920.1.2(b) joint deflection ........................... 900.3, 902.3.1(a), Table 902.4.3 joint factor ........... .900.2. 936.6.1 joint penetration ...................... .900.2 gas pocket ................................... gases ........................................ .91 3.1 .908, 9 16.2 gasket .................................. gasket loading .............................. .935.2.2 .900.3 gasket moment arm........................... 913 gland-type joint ................................ .923.3.1, 935.9 glass ................................ .935.9 glass-to-glass connections ..................... 913 grooved joint ................................... .see threading grooving allowance .................... 920.1, 921.2.1, 935.11 guides ........................ hangers .............................. .920.1. 92 1.2.2 heat affected zone ............................ .900.2 heat fusion................................... .90 0.2 heat treatment............... .923.1.2. 927.4.6(d), 93 1 hydraulic shock ............................... 901.5 hydrostatic design stresses ............... Appendix A hydrostatic testing ........... 921.1.l(b). 937.1, 937.3, 937.4.4 lapping ...................................... .930.1 laterals .................................. 904.3.l(a) leak testing .................................... 937 limits .900.1.2 pressure ................................. ............................ 900.1.2(b) temperature linings....................................... .92 3.4 .900.2 liquidus ..................................... .920. 1.1 live weight .................................. loads .............. 902.3.2, 920.1, 921.2.1(a), 923.2.1 loops ....................................... 9 19.2.2 .935.4.2 lubricant ................................... imperfection .................... .900.2. 927.1, 936.6 indicators ................................ 92 1.2.3(c) .900 .2 inert gas ..................................... initial operation ................. .919.6, 936.2, 937.1 inquiries ............................... Appendix D inlet temperature ........................... .922.1.4 inspection .............................. .900.2. 936 inspector .............................. 900.2, 936.2 insulation. ......................... .920.l . I . 921.3.1 .919.6 intentional displacement ....................... internal alignment ........................ 927.3.1(~) internal pressure tests ....................... .904.3.2 interpolation .................. Table 904.2.1, 904.7.2 iron supports ................................ 92 I .2.2 machined surfaces .......................... .902.4.2 900.2,904.3 main .................................. main pipe wall ........................... 927.4.6(c) malleable iron................. 902.3.1 (c).92 1.2.2(c), Table 926.1, 926.3 .93 6.3 manufacturer ................................. manufacturer’s recommendations............. ,907.1.2 manufacturing tolerance ................... 904.1.2(a) marking ..................................... .90 7.2 . . materials ............... ,902.3.1(d). 905 1.1, 9071.1, 9 19.4.1, 922.3.1, 923. 934.1.1 .900.2 may ......................................... mechanical strength................ .902.4.4. 903. 910 .900.2. 923.2.3 melting range ........................ 92 1.2.l(d) metal temperature ........................ .934. 1.2 methylethyl ketone ......................... joints bell and spigot. ....................... .916. 935.3 brazed and soldered ............. .917. Table 917.3 caulked or leaded .................. ,916.1, 935.3.1 .935.7 compression ............................... copper .............................. .Table 9 17.3 corrugated ............................. 920.1.2(b) flanged .............................. 912,935.2.1 71 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Index minimum .thickness......................... .W. 4.1 misalignment..................... 921.2.3(b), 935.1.0 .904.2.2 miter angles................................ miter joint .............900.2, 904.2.2, 906.2, 927.3.1 moduli of elasticity .................... Table 919.3.1 .900 .3 moment of inertia ............................ moments ....................... .901.7. 919.6, 921.1 movements ................................... 9 19.8 multiaxial loading .........P ................ .921. 3.2 904.3.3(c) multiple openings ........................ 900.3, Fig. 904.2.2 nomenclature..................... nominal ..................................... .900.2 nominal thickness ............................ .900.2 nonflammable. nontoxic liquid service .........904.2.2 nonmetals. fabrication of NPS ...................934 904.3.1(b) nozzles .................................. nuts ......................................... .908.5 operation ........................ 902.3.3(a), 920.2.2 operation conditions ............................ 9 13 “orange peel“ reducer ......... see reducer. segmented 913 O-ring joint .................................... overpressure ............................... .937.2.5 overstress............... 919.1, 921.1.1(b), 921.2.3(b) owner, rights of ............................ .936.2.2 oxidizing flame .............................. .900.2 oxygen cutting .............900.2, 923.3.2, 927.3.1(a) pivots ................................... 921.2.1(a) plugs ...................................... .904.4.1 .937.1, 937.4 pneumatic testing...................... Poisson’s ratio ............................... .900.3 914.2, 926.1 polybuthylene .......................... polyethylene ................. 9 14.2, 926I , 934. I .3(b) . polypropylene ..................... .926. I , 934.1.3(b) PVC ................................ .926.1. 934.1.2 porosity ..................................... .900.2 postheating .................................. .900.2 preheating ................ .900.2, 927.4.1(b), 934.2.2 pressure containing components ............... .904.7. 923.1.1, Appendix A .902.3.1. 926.2 pressure design....................... .922.1 pressure reducing system ...................... 902.2, 903, pressure-temperature .................... 913. 915. 923.2.2, Table 926.1 .............................. 90 1.2.1 pressure surges pressures .......... .901.2.1. 902.3.2, 904.1.2, 922.1.1 procedure ................... .900.2. 904. I .2, 904.2.2, 92 1.3.2, 934.1.2(b) .904.7.2 proof test .................................. proportioning .............................. .904.3.3 purge gas.................................... .900.2 .927.6 qualification records .......................... quality control ............... .907.1.2. 923.1.2, 936. I quality system program ......... .936. I .1. Appendix E 72 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services ......................... .923.3.3. Table 926.I . 926.3, 934.2 Table 902.4.3 radiography ........................... radius of gyration ............................ .900.3 ratings ....................... .902.1. 902.2.3, 907.1 .1 recommend .................................. .900.2 reducer, segmented ......................... .904.6.2 reducing flame ............................... .900.2 reference standards ..................... .Appendix C reinforcement ............. .900.2. 904.3.3, 927.4.6(d) repair of defective work ................934.3. 935.13 reserved curve section ...................... .904. 6. 1 restraint ....................... 900.2, 90 .7. 2 0.1 .2 19 resultant thermal movement ................... .900.3 92 1.3.2 rings ....................................... 921 .1.1 (a) root area ................................. .900.2. 927.3. 1(d) root opening ...................... root penetration ...................... .900.2, 936.6. 1 root reinforcement............................ .900 .2 .900.2. 936.6. 1 root surface ........................... rubber ..................................... .923.3. 1 run ................................. .900.2,93 7.4(b) RTR P.Numbers ............................. Appendix A pads ..................................... 927.4.6(d) pass ......................................... .900.2 peel test ..................................... .900.2 peening ...................................... .900.2 permanent blank ........................... see blank Pipe asbestos-cement .............. .905.2.2, Table 926.1 discharge ................................ .922.2.2 905 limitations on ................................ metallic ..............902.4.2, 911.1, 914.2, 919.4, Table 926.1 nonmetallic ...... 904.1.2(c), 905.2.4, 911.2, 919.2.3 902.4.2, 904.1.2, plastic ........................... 914.2, 905.2.2, 921.1.3(d), Fig. 92 1.I .3D, 934.1 supporting elements ................... 900.2, 920, 921.1, Appendix A threaded ................................. .935.4.1 pipe alignment guide...................900.2, 902.3.1 pipe bends ................................. .904.2.1
    • S T D * A S f l E B3L.S-ENGL L7Sb m 0759b70 0 5 8 0 2 b 2 72b ASME B31.9-1996 Edition m Index saddles .................. 921.3.1, 927.6.4(d), 934.2.3 symbols ..................................... .900.3 safety valve................................ .922. 1.1 919.4.1(a) saw-tooth segments ....................... tapered pipe threads ........................... 9 14.1 .900.1 scope........................................ tees ..................................... 904.3.1 (a) sealers..................................... .934. 1.1 temporary supports ......................... .937. 2.2 .91 4.1 seating surface ............................... .902.3.l(b). 921.1.1, 926.3 tensile strength ............ service conditions ...... 907.2, 917.1, 923.3.1, 934.4.2 .919.5 terminal reactions ............................ service limitations ........................ 902.2.1(b) .................... 902.3.3(b), 904.5.3 test conditions service record ............................ 919.4.1(a) .920.2 test loads .................................... service testing................ .937.1. 937.4.4, 937.5.2 testing .............................. .see leak testing shall ........................................ .900.2 thermal cycling............................ .914, 915 shear lugs .................................. 92 1.3.1 thermal expansion and contraction .......901.7, 919.1, 914.2, 920.1.3, 921.2.3(c) shock ..................... Table 919.3.1, 920.1.1, 921.2.3 shoes ....................................... 92 1.3.2 thermoplastic...................... .900.2. 902.3.1(e), shop erection ................................. .935.1 91 1.2.1, 923.3.2; 905.2.5, should ........................................ 900.2 see also plastic pipe simplified analysis ........................ 919.4.1(a) thermosetting resin ................ .900.1.2(c). 900.2, skirts ....................................... 92 1.3.2 923.3.2, 926.1, 926.3 slag inclusion ................................ .90 0.2 threading .......... 902.4.2, 921.1.1(a), 926.3, 935.4.1 92 1.3.1 slings ...................................... thrust .................................... 921.2.1(a) socket fusion ............................. 934.1.3(b) thrust block ............................ 900.2, 901.7 solder ................ ,900.2, Table 917.3, 928.2.1(a) tolerance ........................ 902.4.2, 927.3.1 (c) soldering ....................... .900.2. 917.1, 928.2 .917.3.2.923. 3.2 toxic .............................. solidus ....................................... 900.2 tungsten electrode ............................ .900.2 solvent cement ................... 900.2, Table 926.1 turnbuckles ................................ .921. 1.2 spacer strip .................................. .90 0.2 spacing .......................... 92 1.1.3, 927.3.l(d) spatter ....................................... .90 u-bends 0.2 .................................. 919.4.1(a) specific ratings ............................. .902.2.1ultimatestrength ........................... .921.5.1 specifications and standards ............. 903,923.1.1ultrasonicexamination ................. Table902.4.3 specifieddepth of cut ....................... .902.4.2undercut ............................... 900.2, 936.1 springs .......................... 921.1.4, 921.2.3(c) stainless steel ...................... 900.1.2(c), 926.3 valve installation ............................ 935.12 standard dimension ratio ...................... .926.3 valves ........................ .907. 920.1.1, 921.1.l. standard practices ................ 926.2, Table 926.2 922.1.2, Table 926.1 Table 921.2.2 steel rods. threaded .................... .920. 1.2 vector forces ............................... stem service ....................... .904.1.2. 922.1.2 vents .................... 904.2.2, 927.4.6(d), 937.3.2 stiffening requirements............ 902.3.2(b), 904.1.2 vibration.......................... .901.5. 914.2, 915 straight pipe thread ........................... .91 4.1 visual examination.................... .935.2. 936.4.1 strap wrench ............................... .935.4.5 straps ........................... 921.2.2(a), 921.3.1 wall thickness ..................... 900.3, 902.3.2(b), stress analysis .............................. .904.7.2 904.2.1, Table 904.2.1A stress limits .................................. .90 2.3 washers ..................................... .908.5 .919.2.2, 919.2.3 stress-strain ........................ water hammer.............................. .904. 1.2 stresses ...................... 900.2, 902.3.2, 904.2.2, weight balance calculations................ 921.2.3(a) 906.1.1, 921.1.1, 923.1.2, Appendix A weld defect, repairs of ......................... .927.4.8 structural attachments ........... 900.2, 921.3, 927.4.7 fillet ............... 900.2, 911.1.3, 927.3.2, 936.6.2 900.2, 921.4 supplemental steel ...................... .900.2. 927.4.6,927.4.7 groove .................... support .................. 900.3, 919, 920.1, 921.l(b), longitudinal ........................ .900.3. 904.6.2 Fig . 921.1.3C. 926, 935.11 miter ..................... 911.1.1, 927.3.1, 927.4.2 swaging ...................................... 930.1 73 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services
    • ASME B31.%1996 Edition Index seal.. . . . . . . .. . .900.2, 911.1.4, 914.1, 935.4.3 4 and weld details.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .927.4.6(b), Fig. 927.4.6 weld joint efficiency factor.. . . . . . . . . .902.4.3, 904.6.2 weldability.. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .923.1.2, 928.2.1 welder.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900.2, 91 l . 1 welder certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .900.2 welder performance qualification. :. . . . . .900.2, 927.4.2 welding .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. 900.2, Table 902.4.3, 904.3.1, 911.2, 926.3, 927.4.2 welding dimensions. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fig. 927.4.3 74 COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers Licensed by Information Handling Services welding operator . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . 900.2, 91 l . I , 927.5.I welding procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .900.2, 9I 1. I , 927.5.1, 927.5.3(a), 1 93 wetting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .900.2 working pressure . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . 900. i .2(d), 922. I .2 working temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900.1.2(e) yield strength . . . . . . . . . .902.3.1(b), 904.5.3, 92 i .1. I (b)