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An introduction to Ethnography

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An internal presentation that was given to provide an overview of what ethnography is and how it relates to service design.

An internal presentation that was given to provide an overview of what ethnography is and how it relates to service design.

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  • An overview of what ethnography is and how it relates to service design.
  • What is Ethnography?At its simplest – studying people
  • The word itself can be broken down to ethnos and graphy.
  • And further to; A people or a race, and writing or field of study.
  • A qualitative research methodology – the basis of social anthropology (learning about a community/specific group).Historically a rigorous and lengthy process used to learn about cultures. Businesses have seen the value in consumers and consumptionThe image shows Bronisław Malinowski with friends (Trobriand Islands, circa 1918).An Early anthropologist – importance of participant observation.
  • How do you do it?
  • How do you do it?Fieldwork – participant observation, interviews and questionnaires.Data is primarily the notes of the researcher, but also video/audio recording, images, surveys and diary studies.
  • First-hand source - what people actually do as opposed to what they say they do.
  • (Gold’s Continuum: Complete Observer – Observer-as-participant – Participant-as-observer – Complete Participant)The film‘Kitchen Stories’ portrays the influence of the observer, gaining trust and different types of observerObserve impartially, but you need to participate and engage with people to learn about their worldEthics and responsibilities of the researcher.
  • Analysis & Synthesis. Coding and building themes to build insight, the synthesis can be compared to funnelling to reduce the data.
  • Communicating findings – anecdotes and visual storytelling.
  • Why do you do it?
  • Empathy for end users.Knowledge of needs, motivations and behaviour in development process of a product/service – useful and successful.
  • Ethnography versus other methods.Computing shift from cognitive functions, usability and allowing the user to reach their end goal or complete a task.This was based on testing software and very ‘system’ oriented.
  • Now have to consider the social context and external factors.Ubiquitous computing and mobile devices.Deeper understanding within context/environment.
  • The before, during and after.Motivations, intrinsic behaviour, barriers and workarounds.
  • When do you use it? (and some barriers).
  • Exploratory and often up front stage of design process.
  • Exploratory and
  • Commonly backed up with quantitative data. Matching the left and right sides of the brain.
  • Barriers and predominantly time and cost.Occasionally it is misrepresented i.e. contextual enquiry vs. ethnography.
  • How does it relate to service design?
  • Relationship to service designUser centred design, and including the people the design is intended for in the process. Service design is no different.
  • Services are more physical which leads to qualitative methods rather than quantitative.It is more holistic and looks at the bigger picture and strategic decisions.
  • Combination of design led and research led methods, plus ‘users’ as the subject or co-creators.
  • Interconnections between Technology, Business and Human Values.Ethnography can lead to innovation at the overlap of these three areas.
  • Who does what?Problem solving through a creative mindset and ‘strategic design thinking’.
  • Things to remember.
  • People in their own environment.
  • Qualitative.
  • Empathy for end users.
  • Computing has shifted.
  • Social context.
  • Exploratory.
  • Design is a way of thinking.
  • Sam Tilston.sam@nilehq.com
  • Transcript

    • 1. An introduction to Ethnography and how it relates to Service Design 18 September 2012 Sam Tilston
    • 2. What is ethnography?
    • 3. At its simplest, it means studying people Ethnography
    • 4. The word itself can be broken down to ethnos and graphy.Ethnography (ethnos) (graphy)
    • 5. And further to; A people or a race, and writing or field of study.Ethnography (ethnos) (graphy) (people) (writing)
    • 6. A qualitative research methodology – the basis of social anthropology (learning about a community/specific group). Historically a rigorous and lengthy process used to learn about cultures. Businesses have seen the value in consumers and consumption The image shows Bronisław Malinowski with friends (Trobriand Islands, circa 1918). An Early anthropologist – importance of participant observation. Qualitative research methodology http://www.latriennale.org/en/sites/default/files/imagecache/desktop_full/journal_4/le-journal-de-la- triennale--4--on_ne_reste_pas_au_meme_endroit--melaniebouteloup_V10_img_50.jpg Specific groups in their environment
    • 7. How do you do it? How do you do it?
    • 8. Fieldwork – participant observation, interviews and questionnaires. Data is primarily the notes of the researcher, but also video/audio recording, images, surveys and diary studies. Fieldwork and collecting data http://mhowardthomas.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/touristinfo.jpg
    • 9. First-hand source - what people actually do as opposed to what they say they do. “If you want to understand what motivates a guy to pick up skateboarding, you could bring him into a sterile laboratory and interrogate him… or you could spend a week in a skatepark observing him interacting with his friends, practicing new skills and having fun. Ethnography is observing people’s behaviorin their own environments so you can get a holistic understanding of their world - one that you can intuit on a deeply personal level.” LiAnneYu, cultural anthropologist First-hand source http://www.stlucieco.gov/images/skatepark_image_large8.jpg
    • 10. (Gold’s Continuum: Complete Observer – Observer-as-participant – Participant-as- observer – Complete Participant) The film ‘Kitchen Stories’ portrays the influence of the observer, gaining trust and different types of observer Observe impartially, but you need to participate and engage with people to learn about their world Ethics and responsibilities of the researcher. Influence of the observer Trust and ethics http://kimslab.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/salmer-fra-kjkkenet-original.jpg
    • 11. Analysis & Synthesis. Coding and building themes to build insight, the synthesis can be compared to funnelling to reduce the data. Analysis and Synthesis
    • 12. Communicating findings – anecdotes and visual storytelling. Communicate findings Anecdotes and storytelling http://tedconfblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/tg12_46078_d31_9603.jpg?w%3D530%26h%3D36 4
    • 13. Why do you do it? Why do you do it?
    • 14. Empathy for end users. Knowledge of needs, motivations and behaviour in development process of a product/service – useful and successful. Empathy for end users
    • 15. Ethnography versus other methods. Computing shift from cognitive functions, usability and allowing the user to reach their end goal or complete a task. This was based on testing software and very ‘system’ oriented. Computing has shifted http://www.rumeurslnhenimages.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/ibm-pc.jpg
    • 16. Now have to consider the social context and external factors. Ubiquitous computing and mobile devices. Deeper understanding within context/environment. Social context Environmental factors
    • 17. The before, during and after. Motivations, intrinsic behaviour, barriers and workarounds. The before, during and after Motivations & intrinsic behaviour
    • 18. When do you use it? (and some barriers). When do you use it? (and some barriers)
    • 19. Exploratory, but can be tactical. User Research Strategy ConceptPrototype Evaluate Exploratory, but can be tactical
    • 20. Often done at the up front stage of the design process. User Research Strategy ConceptPrototype Evaluate Traditionally up front
    • 21. Commonly backed up with quantitative data. Matching the left and right sides of the brain. http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_Yc8tBVQxr-s/TTgdSTNub0I/AAAAAAAAAH8/STVCoZbsXCY/s1600/Left_right_brain.png Matching the left and right brain
    • 22. Barriers and predominantly time and cost. Occasionally it is misrepresented i.e. contextual enquiry vs. ethnography. Time and cost Misrepresented http://www.automatesystems.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/Car-Park-barrier-2-1024x768.jpg
    • 23. How does it relate to service design? How does it relate to service design?
    • 24. User centred design, and including the people the design is intended for in the process. Service design is no different.User Research Strategy ConceptPrototype Evaluate Include people in the development process
    • 25. Services are more physical which leads to qualitative methods rather than quantitative. It is more holistic and looks at the bigger picture and strategic decisions. Tools Provenance Map - Roberta Tassi Holistic and bigger picture More physical and environmental
    • 26. Combination of design led and research led methods, plus ‘users’ as the subject or co- creators. Map of design research—Liz Sanders Research and Design
    • 27. Interconnections between Technology, Business and Human Values. Ethnography can lead to innovation at the overlap of these three areas. Innovation through ‘design thinking’ Venn diagram of Multi disciplinary approach - Stanford University
    • 28. Who does what? Problem solving through a creative mindset and ‘strategic design thinking’. User Experience Designer Design Management AnalystUser Experience Researcher Design Ninja Design Innovator Service Strategy Service Designer Experience Designer Information Architect Web Developer Web Designer Design Anthropologist Design Researcher UX Consultant Customer Experience Design Strategist Human Factors Design Consultant Design Ethnographer Digital Guru User Research Specialist UX Architect Industrial Designer Problem solving through a creative mindset
    • 29. Things to remember. Things to remember…
    • 30. People in their own environment. Things to remember… •People in their own environment
    • 31. Qualitative. Things to remember… •People in their own environment •Qualitative
    • 32. Empathy for end users. Things to remember… •People in their own environment •Qualitative •Empathy for end users
    • 33. Computing has shifted. Things to remember… •People in their own environment •Qualitative •Empathy for end users •Computing has shifted
    • 34. Social context. Things to remember… •People in their own environment •Qualitative •Empathy for end users •Computing has shifted •Social context
    • 35. Exploratory. Things to remember… •People in their own environment •Qualitative •Empathy for end users •Computing has shifted •Social context •Exploratory
    • 36. Design is a way of thinking. Things to remember… •People in their own environment •Qualitative •Empathy for end users •Computing has shifted •Social context •Exploratory •Design is a way of thinking
    • 37. Our Address 13-15 Circus Lane,Edinburgh, EH3 6SU T: +44(0)131 220 5671, www.nilehq.com Contact Details Sam Tilston sam@nilehq.com

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