Sprinkler system

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Sprinkler system

  1. 1. Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering Department of Naval Architecture And Marine Engineering Search for: Under supervision of; PROF.Dr.AHMED SHAHER SABIT PROF.DR.ADEL BANAWAN Presented from: Mohammed Taha Ahmed Mohammed Fourth year No, 38
  2. 2. Seminar contentsSeminar contents --PrefacePreface.. --Chapter one : Sprinkler systemChapter one : Sprinkler system.. --Chapter two : Multi-spray system for theChapter two : Multi-spray system for the machinery spacesmachinery spaces.. --Chapter three: ApplicationChapter three: Application for sprinkler systemfor sprinkler system.. --Chapter fourChapter four :: Rules for (Automatic SprinklerRules for (Automatic Sprinkler system) from (A.B.Ssystem) from (A.B.S(.(. --ConclusionConclusion..
  3. 3. PrefacePreface:: --A number of fatal accommodation fires haveA number of fatal accommodation fires have been started by people falling asleep whilstbeen started by people falling asleep whilst smokingsmoking.. --The sprinkler system provides protectionThe sprinkler system provides protection against this type of incidentagainst this type of incident.. --The combination of structural fire protectionThe combination of structural fire protection and an installed sprinkler system whichand an installed sprinkler system which incorporates detection, alarm and fire-fightingincorporates detection, alarm and fire-fighting capability, has proved very successful incapability, has proved very successful in combating the outbreak of fire in passenger shipcombating the outbreak of fire in passenger ship accommodationaccommodation..
  4. 4. --But the main advantage of sprinkler system isBut the main advantage of sprinkler system is that we use the water for fire fighting, that isthat we use the water for fire fighting, that is because the water is a good medium whichbecause the water is a good medium which protect the object and give a cooling to it andprotect the object and give a cooling to it and as a result of cooling the object we prevent itas a result of cooling the object we prevent it from reaching its ignition point. By this way wefrom reaching its ignition point. By this way we can release the firecan release the fire --In the time that water has these advantages itIn the time that water has these advantages it also has its disadvantagesalso has its disadvantages::
  5. 5. Fire Extinguishing Agents Agent Advantages Disadvantages Water •- Always Available •- Excellent cooling properties •- water Provides protection, cooling for fire party •- Best choice for Class A •- Not to be used on Electrical Fires •- Can reduce stability •- Can spread Class B fires •Damages/destroys equipment
  6. 6. --Really it is very useful to find rules andReally it is very useful to find rules and regulations control this system and make sureregulations control this system and make sure of right Installation to give best performanceof right Installation to give best performance for sprinkler systemfor sprinkler system.. --The (A.B.S) rules and other maritimeThe (A.B.S) rules and other maritime societies do this role and improve itsocieties do this role and improve it..
  7. 7. Types of water spraying systemsTypes of water spraying systems:-:- 11--Automatically operated systemsAutomatically operated systems:: --Automatically pressure water spraying systemAutomatically pressure water spraying system ((Sprinkler systemSprinkler system(( 22--Manually operated systemsManually operated systems:: A) - Pressure water spraying system for machinery spacesA) - Pressure water spraying system for machinery spaces.. B) - Pressure water spraying system for exhaust gas firedB) - Pressure water spraying system for exhaust gas fired thermal oil heatersthermal oil heaters.. C) - Pressure water spraying system for special categoryC) - Pressure water spraying system for special category spaces and Ro/Ro cargo spacesspaces and Ro/Ro cargo spaces.. D) - Pressure water spraying system for the cargo areas ofD) - Pressure water spraying system for the cargo areas of tankerstankers.. Note:Note: (B, C, D) are similar to (A(B, C, D) are similar to (A((..
  8. 8. CHAPTER ONE Sprinkler system
  9. 9. Description of the systemDescription of the system:: --The automatic spray or sprinkler systemThe automatic spray or sprinkler system provides a network of sprinkler heads (whichprovides a network of sprinkler heads (which both detect and extinguish fires) throughout theboth detect and extinguish fires) throughout the protected spacesprotected spaces.. --This system may be used in accommodationThis system may be used in accommodation areas, and in machinery spaces with certainareas, and in machinery spaces with certain variations in the equipment used and the methodvariations in the equipment used and the method of operationof operation..
  10. 10. How is the system workHow is the system work?? ---The sprinkler head is closed by a quartzoid bulbThe sprinkler head is closed by a quartzoid bulb which contains a liquid that expands considerablywhich contains a liquid that expands considerably on heatingon heating.. ---When excessively heated the liquid expands,When excessively heated the liquid expands, shatters the bulb and water will issue from theshatters the bulb and water will issue from the sprinkler head. A deflector plate on the sprinklersprinkler head. A deflector plate on the sprinkler head causes the water to spray out over a largehead causes the water to spray out over a large areaarea..
  11. 11. Section in sprinkler headSection in sprinkler head
  12. 12. Sprinkler head specificationsSprinkler head specifications
  13. 13. Sprinkler head ringsSprinkler head rings
  14. 14. How is the system work?How is the system work? ContCont.. --The water is supplied initially from aThe water is supplied initially from a tank pressurized to 8 bars by compressedtank pressurized to 8 bars by compressed air Once the tank pressure falls below 5.5air Once the tank pressure falls below 5.5 bars , as a sprinkler issues water, a saltbars , as a sprinkler issues water, a salt water pump cuts in automatically towater pump cuts in automatically to maintain the water supply as long as ismaintain the water supply as long as is necessarynecessary..
  15. 15. Sprinkler system componentsSprinkler system components
  16. 16. How is the system work?How is the system work? ContCont.. --When. The water lifts theWhen. The water lifts the non-returnnon-return valvevalve exposing an annular groove which connects toexposing an annular groove which connects to a diaphragm alarm switcha diaphragm alarm switch ---This switch is coupled to an alarm and to anThis switch is coupled to an alarm and to an indicator panel on the bridge which givesindicator panel on the bridge which gives audible and visual warning that a sprinkler hasaudible and visual warning that a sprinkler has operated and fire has probably broken out inoperated and fire has probably broken out in the section indicatedthe section indicated.. ---Fires have frequently been found to haveFires have frequently been found to have been extinguished by the system alonebeen extinguished by the system alone..
  17. 17. Flow alarm switchFlow alarm switch
  18. 18. Flow alarm switchFlow alarm switch
  19. 19. How is the system work?How is the system work? ContCont.. --When any occurrence has been dealtWhen any occurrence has been dealt with the stop valve, which is usuallywith the stop valve, which is usually locked open, may be closed to replace thelocked open, may be closed to replace the sprinkler head which has operated and tosprinkler head which has operated and to enable the section to be drained of saltenable the section to be drained of salt water before being filled with fresh fromwater before being filled with fresh from the systemthe system
  20. 20. The installation of the systemThe installation of the system --The complete installation is dividedThe complete installation is divided into several sections, each containinginto several sections, each containing about 150 to 200 sprinklers andabout 150 to 200 sprinklers and having an alarm valvehaving an alarm valve --When one or more sprinklersWhen one or more sprinklers operate water flows through theoperate water flows through the section valve and sounds an alarmsection valve and sounds an alarm and also provides a visual displayand also provides a visual display identifying the section containing theidentifying the section containing the firefire..
  21. 21. Alarm valveAlarm valve
  22. 22. Alarm valveAlarm valve
  23. 23. lists or planslists or plans A list or plan is to be displayed atA list or plan is to be displayed at each indicating unit, showing theeach indicating unit, showing the spaces covered and the location of thespaces covered and the location of the zone in respect of each section.zone in respect of each section. Suitable instructions for testing andSuitable instructions for testing and maintenance are to be availablemaintenance are to be available
  24. 24. lists or planslists or plans
  25. 25. Kind of water used in the systemKind of water used in the system The system is initially charged with fresh waterThe system is initially charged with fresh water to reduce corrosion effects, and It is often found,to reduce corrosion effects, and It is often found, in new ships, that the bilges and sprinklerin new ships, that the bilges and sprinkler systems have not been thoroughly cleaned withsystems have not been thoroughly cleaned with the result that wood, nuts, bolts, rags and otherthe result that wood, nuts, bolts, rags and other debris are found inside valves and pipes afterdebris are found inside valves and pipes after initial Fire fighting process. These choke theinitial Fire fighting process. These choke the valve-chests and prevent the valves from beingvalve-chests and prevent the valves from being properly closed. They also block strainersproperly closed. They also block strainers..
  26. 26. Cleaning the systemCleaning the system --It is Important to clean the system with freshIt is Important to clean the system with fresh water after initial Fire fighting process to avoidwater after initial Fire fighting process to avoid salt water problemssalt water problems --It is vital to clean before the sprinkler system isIt is vital to clean before the sprinkler system is tested to ensure that all suction pipes, joints,tested to ensure that all suction pipes, joints, valves and glands are free from air leaksvalves and glands are free from air leaks.. ---Pipes too must be cleaned and checked as beingPipes too must be cleaned and checked as being clear before and after assemblyclear before and after assembly.. ---Damage to any electrical equipment by the saltDamage to any electrical equipment by the salt water is dealt with by washing with hot freshwater is dealt with by washing with hot fresh water before drying outwater before drying out
  27. 27. Testing of the systemTesting of the system The system should be regularlyThe system should be regularly checked by creating fault conditionschecked by creating fault conditions at the various section control valvesat the various section control valves by opening a test valve, and checkingby opening a test valve, and checking for audible and visual alarmsfor audible and visual alarms..
  28. 28. Maintenance of the systemMaintenance of the system --Any maintenance on a section is carried outAny maintenance on a section is carried out with the stop valve closed. The test valve canwith the stop valve closed. The test valve can be opened to create flow and cause the non-be opened to create flow and cause the non- return section alarm valve to open, to test thereturn section alarm valve to open, to test the alarmalarm.. --Regular maintenance of the system consistsRegular maintenance of the system consists of greasing the various valves and checkingof greasing the various valves and checking their freedom of movement, logging thetheir freedom of movement, logging the pressure gauge reading, before and after eachpressure gauge reading, before and after each alarm valve (thus checking the tightness ofalarm valve (thus checking the tightness of the non-return valves) and checking the alarmthe non-return valves) and checking the alarm systemsystem
  29. 29. Maintenance of the systemMaintenance of the system --The pressure tank level is checked andThe pressure tank level is checked and recharged, if necessary, with fresh water andrecharged, if necessary, with fresh water and airair.. --The centrifugal salt-water pump should alsoThe centrifugal salt-water pump should also be tested by closing the isolating valves andbe tested by closing the isolating valves and draining the pressure switch circuit, when thedraining the pressure switch circuit, when the pump should start automaticallypump should start automatically.. --Delivery pressure should be logged. In theDelivery pressure should be logged. In the event of a fire, when a normal situation isevent of a fire, when a normal situation is recovered the section and system are drainedrecovered the section and system are drained and flushed out; then recharged with freshand flushed out; then recharged with fresh water and airwater and air..
  30. 30. Kinds of Sprinkler Heads 1-Depending on the existence of heat sensitizer 2-Depending on the installation direction 3-Depending on the form of fuse
  31. 31. Kinds of Sprinkler HeadsKinds of Sprinkler Heads:-:- 11--Depending on theDepending on the existenceexistence of heat sensitizerof heat sensitizer:: --Open type.Open type. (With detection device(With detection device(( --Closed typeClosed type. (Without detection device. (Without detection device((
  32. 32. Kinds of Sprinkler HeadsKinds of Sprinkler Heads:-:- 22--Depending on theDepending on the installationinstallation directiondirection:: --Upright typeUpright type --Sidewall typeSidewall type --Pendent typePendent type
  33. 33. Kinds of Sprinkler HeadsKinds of Sprinkler Heads:-:- 33--Depending on theDepending on the formform of fuseof fuse:: --Fusible link typeFusible link type.. --Metal piece typeMetal piece type.. --Glass bulb typeGlass bulb type.. --Chemical piece typeChemical piece type..
  34. 34. We will show the mostWe will show the most common sprinkler headscommon sprinkler heads used in the marine fieldused in the marine field Glass bulb typesGlass bulb types
  35. 35. Bulb color due to its temperatureBulb color due to its temperature:-:- ---Red bulb:Red bulb: 6868°C°C.. -))For accommodation spacesFor accommodation spaces(( --Yellow bulb:Yellow bulb: 8080°C°C.. --Green bulb:Green bulb: 9393°C°C.. ---Blue bulb:Blue bulb: 141141°C°C -))For engine room, galleyFor engine room, galley……etcetc(( -NoteNote:: we often addwe often add 3030°C to the space°C to the space temperaturetemperature
  36. 36. Types of Sprinkler systemsTypes of Sprinkler systems:-:- A) Wet-pipe TypeA) Wet-pipe Type B) Dry-pipe TypeB) Dry-pipe Type C) Pre-action TypeC) Pre-action Type D) Alternate-typeD) Alternate-type E) Deluge and recycling typeE) Deluge and recycling type
  37. 37. A) Wet-pipe TypeA) Wet-pipe Type --A wet-type sprinkler system is one in whichA wet-type sprinkler system is one in which the piping between the outlet side of the mainthe piping between the outlet side of the main sprinkler valve and the sprinkler heads issprinkler valve and the sprinkler heads is charged with fresh watercharged with fresh water.. --Once the system is activated, the fresh water isOnce the system is activated, the fresh water is immediately discharged and replaced by saltimmediately discharged and replaced by salt waterwater.. --Although wet-type sprinkler systems doAlthough wet-type sprinkler systems do contain quite a few more components than dry-contain quite a few more components than dry- type systems, they function on similartype systems, they function on similar principlesprinciples..
  38. 38. A) Wet-pipe type ContA) Wet-pipe type Cont.. --The main advantage of wet systems is aThe main advantage of wet systems is a very rapid response time. Sprinkling startsvery rapid response time. Sprinkling starts approximately 1 second after activation. Andapproximately 1 second after activation. And these are the most common systems and arethese are the most common systems and are used in ships where there is no risk ofused in ships where there is no risk of freezingfreezing.. ---They are quick to react because water isThey are quick to react because water is always in the pipes above the sprinkleralways in the pipes above the sprinkler headsheads.. ---Wet systems are required for multi-storeyWet systems are required for multi-storey or high-rise ceiling and for life safetyor high-rise ceiling and for life safety
  39. 39. Wet pipe systemWet pipe system
  40. 40. B) Dry-pipe TypeB) Dry-pipe Type --The pipes are filled with air underThe pipes are filled with air under pressure at all times and the water is heldpressure at all times and the water is held back by the control valve. When aback by the control valve. When a sprinkler head opens, the drop in airsprinkler head opens, the drop in air pressure opens the valve and water flowspressure opens the valve and water flows into the pipe work and onto the fireinto the pipe work and onto the fire.. --Dry pipe systems are used where wet orDry pipe systems are used where wet or alternate systems cannot be usedalternate systems cannot be used..
  41. 41. Dry-pipe valvesDry-pipe valves
  42. 42. C) Pre-action TypeC) Pre-action Type --Like dry pipe systems the pipes are filledLike dry pipe systems the pipes are filled with air but water is only let into the pipeswith air but water is only let into the pipes when the detector operates (e.g. smokewhen the detector operates (e.g. smoke detectorsdetectors(.(. --Pre-action systems are used where it isPre-action systems are used where it is not acceptable to have the pipes full ofnot acceptable to have the pipes full of water unless there is a firewater unless there is a fire..
  43. 43. Pre-action valvesPre-action valves
  44. 44. D) Alternate-typeD) Alternate-type ---As the name suggest AlternateAs the name suggest Alternate systems can have the pipes full ofsystems can have the pipes full of water for the summer and bewater for the summer and be drained down and filled with airdrained down and filled with air (under pressure) for the winter(under pressure) for the winter.. ---This is important for buildingsThis is important for buildings that are not heatedthat are not heated
  45. 45. E) Deluge and recycling typeE) Deluge and recycling type These are not strictly sprinklerThese are not strictly sprinkler systems and are only used in specialsystems and are only used in special cases for industrial riskscases for industrial risks
  46. 46. Note: where an automatic sprinkler system is not fitted in accommodation spaces, it is necessary to install an automatic fire alarm system similar to that used for unmanned machinery spaces. (The system would consist of an electric circuit for srnoke detectors and possibly bimetallic temperature sensors. Warning is given by an audible alarm with visual indication showing the section in which the fire has occurred).
  47. 47. CHAPTER TWO Multi-spray system for the machinery spaces
  48. 48. Multi-spray system for the machinery spaces --This system is similar to the sprinkler used inThis system is similar to the sprinkler used in accommodation areas but the spray heads areaccommodation areas but the spray heads are not operated automaticallynot operated automatically.. ---The section control valves are opened byThe section control valves are opened by hand to supply water to the heads in one orhand to supply water to the heads in one or more areasmore areas.. ---Ready to use hoses can also be suppliedReady to use hoses can also be supplied.. ---Fresh water is used for the initial chargingFresh water is used for the initial charging and the system is brought to working pressureand the system is brought to working pressure by means of the compressed air connectionby means of the compressed air connection..
  49. 49. Multi-spray system for the machinery spaces Cont. --The air bottle provides a cushion and prevents cut-in of the pump due to any slight leakage of the water. --The pump is automatically operated by pressure drop in the system when the control valve to one section is opened -The pump must have either an independent drive or an electric motor with a supply via the emergency generator switchboard. It must be able to maintain working pressure when supplying all the sections simultaneously in one compartment. It is installed outside the compartment it serves
  50. 50. Multi-spray system for the machinery spaces Cont. -Spray nozzles are designed to give the correct droplet size for fires in flammable liquids such as fuels and lubricating oils, when working at the correct pressure. They are located so as to give adequate water distribution over the tank top and all fire risk areas.
  51. 51. Water spray is a potentially goodWater spray is a potentially good fire-fighting medium becausefire-fighting medium because:: ))a) It produces a large quantity of steama) It produces a large quantity of steam which has a smothering actionwhich has a smothering action;; ))b) In producing the steam, a large amountb) In producing the steam, a large amount of heat is required (latent heat) and thisof heat is required (latent heat) and this gives a cooling effectgives a cooling effect;; ))c) The spray will protect personnel in thec) The spray will protect personnel in the compartmentcompartment
  52. 52. Note:Note: The accommodationThe accommodation and machinery spaceand machinery space systems may be combined bysystems may be combined by a valve which is normallya valve which is normally kept locked shutkept locked shut
  53. 53. Water mist (fogWater mist (fog(( ---Water mist (fog) Sprinklers are being used as anWater mist (fog) Sprinklers are being used as an alternative to, the now banned, Halon fire suppressionalternative to, the now banned, Halon fire suppression systemssystems.. ---The mist system delivers very small water particles,The mist system delivers very small water particles, which are able to remain suspended in the airwhich are able to remain suspended in the air.. ---The water particles are evaporated by the heat of theThe water particles are evaporated by the heat of the fire and the expanding vapor displaces oxygenfire and the expanding vapor displaces oxygen.. ---The combined cooling and oxygen starvation effectsThe combined cooling and oxygen starvation effects quickly extinguish a firequickly extinguish a fire.. ---Less water is used than with sprinkler systems and theLess water is used than with sprinkler systems and the mist has proved effective against liquid fuel fires,mist has proved effective against liquid fuel fires, making it suitable for use in machinery spacesmaking it suitable for use in machinery spaces..
  54. 54. Water mist (fog)Water mist (fog) ContCont.. ---Research is continuing, in particular as toResearch is continuing, in particular as to the effectiveness of mist in a large machinerythe effectiveness of mist in a large machinery spacespace.. ---Water mist is accepted as a fireWater mist is accepted as a fire extinguishing agent, with respect toextinguishing agent, with respect to SOLASSOLAS fire protection requirementsfire protection requirements
  55. 55. CHAPTER THREE Application for sprinkler system
  56. 56. Example for sprinkler system:-Example for sprinkler system:- Applied on Anile floating hotelApplied on Anile floating hotel ((NILE DOLPHINENILE DOLPHINE((
  57. 57. Pipe DimensionsPipe Dimensions:: No, of Sprinkler Pipe DN in mm Sprinkler1 15)1/2(" Sprinkler2 20)3/4(" Sprinkler3 25)1(" 4Sprinkler 32)1/1/4(" 5Sprinkler 40)1/1/2(" 6:200Sprinkler 50)2("
  58. 58. The sprinkler stationThe sprinkler station
  59. 59. Note: The (ND50 mm) pipe has to be (60.3 mm) "Outside diameter" at the flow switch
  60. 60. General arrangementGeneral arrangement Data for general arrangement of sprinkler system 1-Overboard 2-Fire pump 3-Riser 4-Sea chest 5-Tunnel 6-Sprinkler head 7-Section valve 8-Flow switch 9-Lobby 10-Frist deck 11-Second deck 12-Third deck 13-Fourth deck
  61. 61. Sprinkler head spacingSprinkler head spacing
  62. 62. sprinkler ( 1/2 )" 68 sprinkler ( 1/2 )" 141 Valve ND50 with remote indication Flow switch Main Dimensions L.O.A L.W.A B ext B mld D mld d Total fixed height Claas 72.00 mt 69.38 mt 14.60 mt 14.00 mt 3.70 mt 1.50 mt 11.50 mt System Description
  63. 63. Fire pump 2X +ND50 ND65 Frist Deck
  64. 64. Section valve Second Deck 2X -ND50 ND65 Flow switch
  65. 65. 2X +ND50 ND65 Third deck
  66. 66. 2X -ND50 ND65 Flow switch Section valve Fourth Deck
  67. 67. CHAPTER FOUR Rules and Regulations
  68. 68. We will show the mostWe will show the most Important rules forImportant rules for sprinkler systemsprinkler system
  69. 69. Location of SprinklerLocation of Sprinkler Pump and TankPump and Tank The sprinkler pump and tank areThe sprinkler pump and tank are to be situated in a positionto be situated in a position reasonably remote from anyreasonably remote from any machinery space of category Amachinery space of category A and are not to be situated in anyand are not to be situated in any space required to be protected byspace required to be protected by the sprinkler systemthe sprinkler system
  70. 70. Power SourcesPower Sources There are to be not less than twoThere are to be not less than two sources of power supply for thesources of power supply for the sea water pump and automaticsea water pump and automatic alarm and detection systemalarm and detection system
  71. 71. Connection with the FireConnection with the Fire MainMain The sprinkler system is to have aThe sprinkler system is to have a connection from the vesselconnection from the vessel’’s fires fire main by way of a lockable screwmain by way of a lockable screw downdown non-return valvenon-return valve at theat the connection, which will prevent aconnection, which will prevent a backflow from the sprinklerbackflow from the sprinkler system to the fire mainsystem to the fire main..
  72. 72. Spare PartsSpare Parts --A quantity of spare sprinkler heads is to be provided for allA quantity of spare sprinkler heads is to be provided for all types and ratings installed on the vessel, as followstypes and ratings installed on the vessel, as follows - The number of spare sprinkler heads of any type need not exceed the total number of heads installed of that type.
  73. 73. ConclusionConclusion:: Now we all proof that sprinkler system is the bestNow we all proof that sprinkler system is the best system for firefighting in this field but to give thesystem for firefighting in this field but to give the best performance of this system we must apply allbest performance of this system we must apply all its rulesits rules.. Fortunately,Fortunately, in the marine field this system doesn'tin the marine field this system doesn't give it performance because the power source ofgive it performance because the power source of the fire pump isn't available all the time orthe fire pump isn't available all the time or because of the broken bulb of sprinkler head orbecause of the broken bulb of sprinkler head or forfor…………etc, All this result in huge disasteretc, All this result in huge disaster Like( ASLAM 98Like( ASLAM 98((
  74. 74. Thank YouThank You

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