Going mobile - an intro to developing web apps for mobile devices
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Going mobile - an intro to developing web apps for mobile devices



Internal training sessions at Workable for mobile development of web applications

Internal training sessions at Workable for mobile development of web applications



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Going mobile - an intro to developing web apps for mobile devices Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Going Mobile the well grounded mobile developer
  • 2. Newsroom Smartphone market drives 600% growth in mobile web usage PayPal is seeing up to $10 million in mobile payment volume per day eBay global mobile sales generated nearly $2 billion in 2010 The average smartphone user visits up to 24 websites a day and the top 50% of websites only account for 40% of all mobile visits Mobile phones will overtake PCs as the most common web access devices worldwide by 2013
  • 3. 2013 shipments by Segment 2012 PC + Notebooks Ultramobile Tablet Mobile Phone 2013 2014 341,273 303,100 281,568 9,787 18,598 39,896 120,203 184,431 263,229 1,746,177 1,810,304 1,905,030 2,217,440 2,316,433 2,489,723 Source: Gartner (October 2013)
  • 4. 2013 shipments by OS 2012 2013 2014 Android 505,509 879,910 1,115,289 Windows 346,468 331,559 363,803 iOS/MacOS 212,875 271,949 338,106 RIM 34,584 23,103 19,297 1,118,004 809,912 653,228 2,217,440 2,316,433 2,489,723 Others Source: Gartner (October 2013)
  • 5. Thinking Mobile
  • 6. Mobile is not ● about shrinking things ● about fitting things ● a movable desktop ● just another interface
  • 7. Mobile is ● to focus on what truly matters ● to make sure that what stays on the screen is the most important set of features ● to emphasize content (over navigation) ● to know your business & customers ● about obtaining new abilities
  • 8. Mobile Usage Patterns
  • 9. “The fact that the user has a small screen in their hand is one thing - the fact that it is in their hand at all is another. The fact that the user may be walking, driving, or lounging is yet another. In fact, it’s quite likely that they really deserve different content and services altogether - or, at least, a differently prioritized version of the default desktop experience.” James Pearce
  • 10. “I like to imagine people as one eyeball and one thumb.” Luke Wroblewski
  • 11. Mobile Behaviours ● micro tasking (repetitive now) ● I am local (urgent now) ● I am bored (bored now)
  • 12. Mobile Interaction Types Lookup/Find I need an answer to something now - frequently related to my current location in the world. urgent/local Explore/Play I have some time to kill and just want a few idle time distractions. bored/local Check In/Status Something important to me, keeps changing or updating and I want to stay on top of it. Edit/Create I need to get something done now that can’t wait. repeat/micro-tasking urgent/micro-tasking
  • 13. Mobile is about embracing constraints & new capabilities
  • 14. Constraints ● screen size ● low or unstable bandwidth ● battery life ● performance* ● different behaviour/actions?
  • 15. New Capabilities ● camera ● mic ● gps ● gyroscope ● accelerometer ● light awareness ● different behaviour/actions?
  • 16. show us the way
  • 17. Native vs Hybrid vs Web
  • 18. Native Specific to a given mobile platform, using the development tools and language that the respective platform supports
  • 19. A Native App ● Multi touch ● Fast graphics API ● Fluid animation ● Built-in components ● Ease of use ● Full Device Capabilities
  • 20. Hybrid Embed HTML5 apps inside a thin native container, combining the best & worst elements of native and HTML5
  • 21. A Hybrid App ● runs inside a native container ● uses the device’s browser engine [WebView] but not the browser ● has access to device capabilities that are not accessible in Mobile Web applications through a web-to-native abstraction layer
  • 22. Local Hybrid Package HTML and JavaScript code inside the mobile application binary, in a manner similar to the structure of a native application. In this scenario you use REST APIs to move data back and forth between the device and the cloud.
  • 23. Server Hybrid Implement the full web application on the server (with optional caching for better performance), simply using the container as a thin shell over the UIWebview.
  • 24. Sencha Touch Allows your web apps to look and feel like native apps. Beautiful user interface components and rich data management, all powered by the latest HTML5 and CSS3 web standards. Keep them web-based or wrap them for distribution on mobile app stores.
  • 25. PhoneGap Allows your web apps to look and feel like native apps. Beautiful user interface components and rich data management, all powered by the latest HTML5 and CSS3 web standards. Keep them web-based or wrap them for distribution on mobile app stores.
  • 26. Web Create sophisticated apps with HTML5 and JavaScript alone, while several limitations remain like secure offline storage and access to native device functionality
  • 27. “Web links don’t open apps, they go to web pages.” Jason Grigsby
  • 28. Web Strategies ● device optimized website (subdomain per device) ● responsive design ● responsive design + server side components (RESS)
  • 29. Device Optimized
  • 30. the Strategy ● each desktop URL has an equivalent different mobile URL ● only send what a client needs ● optimized source order ● optimized URL structure ● relies on user agent redirects to device-specific code templates ● templates per device class ● high duplication of code
  • 31. Example Basecamp
  • 32. Example Twitter
  • 33. Example Facebook
  • 34. Example Flow
  • 35. Responsive Design
  • 36. “Rather than creating disconnected designs, each tailored to a particular device or browser, we should instead treat them as facets of the same experience. In short, we need to practice responsive web design.” Ethan Marcotte
  • 37. When to Use You can benefit from serving one document up to multiple contexts or devices You want to support the largest growing market of Internet users You want the cleanest, fastest, and most maintainable code base You understand that experience can and should be subtly different across different browsers You require the design to look identical across all browsers, including IE 8 and lower versions 70 percent or more of the current or expected visitors to the site likely to use Internet Explorer 8 or lower versions
  • 38. Ingredients ● A flexible, grid-based layout ● Flexible images and media ● CSS3 Media queries
  • 39. Flexible Layout & Media
  • 40. The Flexible Grid 1. The browser is your new canvas 2. DIY with “target / context = result” 3. Fluid grid system (columnal, semantic, skeleton) 4. Typography - percentages & custom fonts 5. Images & Videos (max-width & different resolutions) 6. Iframes (Youtube/Vimeo) need JS
  • 41. CSS3 Media Queries
  • 42. Viewport 980px wide by default
  • 43. Viewport defacto <meta name="viewport" content="width=320" /> <meta name="viewport" content="initial-scale=1.0, width=device-width" />
  • 44. Media Queries <link rel="stylesheet" media="screen (min-width: 320px)" href="mobile.css" /> @import url("phone.css") screen and (max-width:360px); @media screen and (max-width: 320px) { body { background-color: green; } }
  • 45. Queried Features width The width of the display area height The height of the display area device-width The width of the device’s rendering surface device-height The height of the device’s rendering surface orientation Accepts portrait or landscape values aspect-ratio Ratio of the display area’s width over its height. For example: on a desktop, you’d be able to query if the browser window is at a 16:9 aspect ratio device-aspect-ratio Ratio of the device’s rendering surface width over its height. For example: on a desktop, you’d be able to query if the screen is at a 16:9 aspect ratio
  • 46. Queried Features color The number of bits per color component of the device. For example, an 8-bit color device would successfully pass a query of (color: 8) color-index The number of entries in the color lookup table of the output device. For example, @media screen and (min-colorindex: 256) monochrome Similar to color, the monochrome feature lets us test the number of bits per pixel in a monochrome device resolution Tests the density of the pixels in the device, such as screen and (resolution: 72dpi) or screen and (max-resolution: 300dpi) scan For tv based browsing. progressive or scan grid Tests whether the device is a grid-based display, like feature phones with one fixed-width font
  • 47. Identifying Breakpoints
  • 48. Device Based 320 pixels For small screen devices, like phones, held in portrait mode 480 pixels For small screen devices, like phones, held in landscape mode or ultra phones 600 pixels Smaller tables like Amazon Kindle 768 pixels Tech-inch tables like iPad, iPad mini & Nexus 1024 pixels iPad in landscape mode 1200 pixels Widescreen displays, primarily laptop and desktop browsers
  • 49. “Remove yourself from the device based breakpoints mindset. And get into the design based breakpoints mindset.” Stephen Greig
  • 50. “Pull your browser window out and see when the design starts to break – that’s your first breakpoint.” Stephen Greig
  • 51. Build for the future
  • 52. CSS3 is your friend ● Custom Typography ● Hover state animations ● Multiple background images ● Rounded corners ● Text shadows ● Gradients ● Animations/Transitions
  • 53. CSS3 is your friend ● Economy on low bandwidth ● Progressive Enhancement
  • 54. the Strategy ● 1 hyperlink = great experience across devices ● content adapted on the browser ● single URL structure ● single source order ● flexible media performance challenge
  • 55. Example Treehouse
  • 56. Example Adioso
  • 57. Example Skroutz
  • 58. RESS Best of Both Worlds. Combine adaptive layouts with server side component (not full page) optimization
  • 59. the Strategy ● consistent URLs ● one set of basic HTML markup ● layout covered by flexible grids & media queries ● optimized media <body> {{>header}} ● optimized source order [...document content...] ● optimized application design {{>footer}} </body> ● optimization happens on the server header.html mobile_header.html footer.html mobile_footer.html
  • 60. HTML 5
  • 61. Why HTML 5? ● Lighter codebase with better W3C validated semantic markup => Smaller footprint on low bandwidth devices ● APIs to use the exciting new abilities of mobile devices
  • 62. Semantic Markup ● ● ● ● ● HTML5 outline algorithm Sectioning content Sectioning roots Text level semantics Don’t be lazy, use Basic ARIA (i.e. landmark roles)
  • 63. HTML 5 APIs WebStorage Recommendation Offline Cache Working Draft Geolocation Candidate Recommendation Device Orientation and Motion Working Draft File & FileReader Working Draft getUserMedia/Stream API Working Draft Canvas Candidate Recommendation Video/Audio Working Draft Page Visibility Recommendation Web Workers Candidate Recommendation
  • 64. Synopsis Native HTML5 Hybrid Native APIs HTML, Canvas, SVG HTML, Canvas, SVG Fast Slow Slow Native Emulated Emulated Appstore Web Appstore Camera Yes No Yes Notifications Yes No Yes Contacts, calendar Yes No Yes Secure file storage Shared SQL Secure file system, shared SQL Yes Yes Yes Swipe Yes Yes Yes Pinch, spread Yes No Yes Connectivity Online and offline Mostly online Online and offline Development skills ObjectiveC, Java HTML5, CSS, Javascript HTML5, CSS, Javascript Features Graphics Performance Native look and feel Distribution Device Access Offline storage Geolocation Gestures
  • 65. “Always be best to start a design thinking about the mobile/small screen experience and building up from there. Until then, it's likely you'll need to take existing desktop designs and retro-fit them to work responsively.” Ben Frain
  • 66. Mobile with Rails
  • 67. options@rails ● create a new mobile app :) ● RESS ○ add custom MIME type ○ add alternative views path ○ use Rails 4.1 action pack variants
  • 68. Custom MIME type ● ● ● ● before_filter request.user_agent =~ /Mobile|webOS/ Mime::Type.register_alias "text/html", :mobile Separate Views *cannot share between types views/projects/show.html.erb views/projects/show.phone.erb views/projects/show.tablet.erb
  • 69. Alt view path ● ● ● ● before_filter request.user_agent =~ /Mobile|webOS/ Separate directory i.e ‘phone_views’ prepend_view_path Rails.root + 'app' + 'mobile_views' views/projects/show.html.erb phone_views/projects/show.html.erb tablet_views/projects/show.html.erb
  • 70. Action Pack Variants ● before_filter ● request.variant = :tablet if request.user_agent =~ /iPad/ views/projects/show.html.erb views/projects/show.html+tablet.erb views/projects/show.html+phone.erb
  • 71. Tools
  • 72. Modernizr ● Besides enabling HTML5 structural elements for IE, it also provides the ability to conditionally load further polyfills, CSS files, and additional JavaScript files based on a number of feature tests. ● Makes it easy for you to write conditional JavaScript and CSS to handle each situation, whether a browser supports a feature or not
  • 73. Polyfills ● css3-mediaqueries.js ● respond.js ● matchMedia.js ● modernizr ● html5-shiv ● picturefill
  • 74. Compass & Susy ● Replace Bootstrap bloat ● Only include the parts we need ● Lots of useful extensions available ● Susy makes creating flexible & fixed grids a (relative) breeze
  • 75. Icon Font (or SVG) ● No more sprite sheets ● Easier to update ● Flexible - one glyph, different states ● Browser support
  • 76. References
  • 77. Books Mobile First by Luke Wroblewski Responsive Web Design by Ethan Marcotte Responsive Web Design with HTML5 & CSS3 by Ben Frain
  • 78. Web ● http://www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/current-work/multipage/sections.html#outline ● www.alistapart.com/articles/responsive-web-design/ ● http://wiki.developerforce.com/page/Native,_HTML5,_or_Hybrid: _Understanding_Your_Mobile_Application_Development_Options ● https://developers.google.com/webmasters/smartphone-sites/details ● http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1390 ● http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1392 ● http://www.icenium.com/blog/icenium-team-blog/2012/06/14/what-is-a-hybrid-mobile-app- ● http://venturebeat.com/2013/11/20/html5-vs-native-vs-hybrid-mobile-apps-3500-developers-say-allthree-please/
  • 79. Web ● http://37signals.com/svn/posts/3257-backstage-basecamp-for-mobile ● http://www.theguardian.com/info/developer-blog/2013/oct/14/mobile-first-responsive-ie8 ● http://alistapart.com/article/smartphone-browser-landscape ● http://bradfrostweb.com/blog/web/mobile-first-responsive-web-design/ ● http://yiibu.com/about/site/ ● http://globalmoxie.com/blog/mobile-web-responsive-design.shtml ● http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1071