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  • 1. Greece – Hellenic RepublicΕλλάδαBy Nikola Kohout
  • 2. Contents• Basics• Population– Religion and languages• History• Greece and Turkey today• The economic/financial crisis• Greek islands• Culture– Archaeoligical sites and food• Sources
  • 3. Basics
  • 4. Basics• Capital: Athens• Official language: Greek• Currency: €• Population: 10 815 197 (2011)• Parliamentary constitutional republic• President: Karolos Papoulias• Prime Minister: Antonis Samara• Independence Day: 25th March• National Celebration: 28th October
  • 5. Population• Languages:– 97.4% of the Greekpopulation speakmodern Greek– Minorities: 2.6 %(Turkish,Macedonian,Aromanians, Pomaks)– Ancient Greek:School subjectChurch service
  • 6. Population• Religion:– Attribute of identification– State religion: Orthodox Catholic Church– Confessions:around 97% orthodox catholic0.2 % atheists1.7 % no confessionGreek muslims: ancestors of the Greek thatconverted to the Islam during the Ottoman Empire
  • 7. History• Ancient Greece = “cradle of Europe”• 120 000 – 10 000 B.C.: First traces of humaninhabitation• 9th – 8th century B.C. = Greek Renaissance Years:Greek alphabet, city-states, Homer• After 395 B.C.: part of the Byzantine Empire• 1453: capture of Constantinople through theOttomans
  • 8. History• 1821: Greek Revolution• 1830: Independence• World War I followed by the Greco-Turkish War(1919-1922)• 1922: Asia Minor catastrophy• World War II: rejection of the Italian Ultimatum
  • 9. Greece and Turkey today• Discussions about the territorial waters, air corridor,demilitarization, resources of the Aegean• Biggest discussion: CYPRUS -> where does it belong to?– Until 16th century: connection to the culture of Greece– 1573: conquest of the Ottomans– London Protocol: Independence of Cyprus– Makarios became President of the Republic– 1974: Turkish Invasion– today: north still Turkish, south still Greek– Admission of Cyprus to the EU could cause new problems
  • 10. Greece and Turkey today• Positive aspects:– Turkey and Greece are partners in the NATO– Turkey wants to become part of the EU– Process of “confidence-building measures”– Since 2002: leader of the two populations inCyprus are working together on acommon base
  • 11. The economic/financial crisis• Reasons/origins:– Greece lives above its financial circumstances– Brightened figures– 2011: debt of € 350 billion (160% of the GDP)– Weakness of the economy and Greek mentality– Missing control of the EU– Deficient statistics -> no working fiscal authorities– No supervision of the budget; deficit of 15%– Tax evasion and manipulation of tax returns– corruption: “Fakelaki”
  • 12. The economic/financial crisis• Where you see the crisis/what Greek populationthinks:– Rich people don’t pay taxes– Nepotism– A lot of restaurants/bars close– Football stadiums & holiday houses are empty– Suicide rate increases: 2009 = 677 suicides2011 = 1000 suicides– 62 % unemployment rate among young people– Growing dissatisfaction with the political parties– People would like to have back the “Junta”
  • 13. Greek islands• 6 000 islands• only 227 inhabited• 7 500 km of thecountry’s total16 000 km coastline• 58.5% of thecountry’s hotel unitsare located on theislands
  • 14. The Cyclades – Delos, Naxos,Mykonos, Santorini• most famous islandgroup in the Aegean Sea• group of 56 islands• architecture in whiteand blue• “Cyclades” refers to theislands forming a circle
  • 15. Delos – birth place of Apollo & Artemis
  • 16. Naxos Mykonos
  • 17. Santorini - Thira• Cousteau looked there for the lost city of Atlantis• Crescent-shaped• Southernmost island of the Cyclades• Still an active volcano• Last big eruption: 3600 years ago• Capital: Fira -> very turistic• “wedding destination”• Red, black and white beaches
  • 18. Santorini
  • 19. Crete – the largest island of Greece• 4 regions: Chania, Rethymno, Heraklion, Lasithi• Heraklion:– most densely populated region on Crete– Between “Idí “ and “Dikti”– Unique mixture of civilizations– Palace of Knossos• The island of Zeus
  • 20. Crete
  • 21. Culture – Archaeological sites• Acropolis:– In Athens– Parthenon:dedicated to AthenaParthenos– Part of the UNESCOworld heritage since1986
  • 22. Culture – Archaeological sites• Delphi:– “navel of the world”– Most importantoracle in the classicalGreek world– Temple of Apollo– Castalian spring
  • 23. Culture – Archaeological sites• Olympia:– Birthplace of theOlympic Games– First list of winners: 776B.C.– Temple of Zeus
  • 24. Culture – Archaeological sites• Epidauros:– Theatre in themountains of Argolis– Constructed for14 000 spectators– “acoustic test”– Part of the UNESCOWorld Heritage
  • 25. Culture - Food
  • 26. Culture - Food
  • 27. Sources••••••••••
  • 28. Thank you for your attention!Σασ ευχαριςτώ για την προςοχή ςασ