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Spanish grammar book

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  • 1. Table of Context Verbos ComoQué vs. Cuàl Acabar de inf. Gustar Ser Triggers Hacer Expressions Estar Imperfect Reflexive Preterite Tu Command • Affirmative Gustar Transitional Words • Negative DOP y Placement • Irregulars
  • 2. Qué vs. Cuàl Qué Cuàl0 Used when asking 0 Usually use before for definitions es and other forms0 Most often used of ser when not before nouns seeking for a0 Same singular and definition plural forms 0 Use to suggest a selection or choice from among a group 0 Plural form: Cuàles
  • 3. • ¿Que es? DescriptionSo • ¿De dónde es? Originy • ¿Como es? CharacteristicsSER Time • ¿ Qué hora es? • ¿Qué hace? Occupation • ¿Quéin es? Relationship • ¿De quiénes? Possession • ¿Cuándo/Dónde es? Events • ¿ Qué día es hoy?/Cuál es la Dates fecha?/Cuándo es tú cumpleaños?
  • 4. H • ealth • Como estas? E • motions • Como estas?Estar L • ocation • Donde estas? • resent P Condition • Como Esta? • When you want to add -ing ING • Ar: ando • Er/Ir: endo
  • 5. le nos (him/her/it) (we) te os (you) (y’all)me Gusta- les(I) Like/please (they/them)
  • 6. GUSTAR para clasificarnegative phrase: a mi = me gusta“no __ gusta…” a ti = te gustaGusta singular:Me gusta el boligrafo. a usted/a él/a ella = le gustaGusta antes de uninfinitive : a nosotros = nos gustaMe gusta hablar español. a ustedes/a ellas/aGustan antes de un ellos = les gustasustantivo plural:Me gustan los boligrafos. a vosotros = os gusta
  • 7. Transitional Words
  • 8. *USES* -ongoing action(was/were) -repeated action(used to) -no definite beginning or end -time/date/age/feelings/description -interrupted activity(cuando) REGULAR HABLAR COMER ESCRIBIR Yo hablaba comía escribía Tú hablabas comías escribíasÉl/ella/Ud. hablaba comía escribíaNosotros hablábamos comíamos escribíamosVosotros hablabais comíais escribíaisEllos/ellas/uds. hablaban comían escribían
  • 9. Imperfect cont.IRREGULAR IR SER VER Yo iba era veía Tú ibas eras veías Él/ella/Ud. iba era veíaNosotros Íbamos éramos veíamosVosotros ibais erais veíaisEllos/ellas/uds. iban eran veían
  • 10. generalmente • generallylos lunes todos los dias• mondays • everydaymuchas a menudoveces • often• more often a veces • sometimes
  • 11. Acabar De + Infinitive --to just have done something • I just… • We just… • Acabo de beber Acabamos • Acabamos de tocarAcabo de mi favorito jugo de un • You just… • Y’all just…Acabas de Acabais de • She, He, It just… • They just...Acaba de Acaban de
  • 12. Hacer + time +que + conjugated verb --it has been (time) since…• Hace+time+que+conjugated verb--talks about how much time you’ve been doing something.Ex: Hace treinta y cinco minutos que Paula espera al autobús.• Hay+que+infinitive--talks about what needs to be done or what must be done.Ex: Hay que estudiar para sacar buenas notas.• Se prohibe+infintive  present tense  since & for--tells what is prohibited  preterite tense  agoEx: Se prohibe fumor.• Ir+a+infintive--tells what someone is going to do; conjugate ir.Ex: Roberto va a hablar por teléfono con Lisette.
  • 13. Verbos con gustar importar molestar Ex: No me importa lo Ex: Perdone que to import que piense la gente. to bother le moleste. disgustar doler Ex: Disgusto to dislike hamburguesas. to hurt Ex: Me molesta la pierna. faltar encantar Ex: Le faltato be lacking experiencia. to love Ex: Nos encanta la casa.
  • 14. ReflexiveReflexive pronouns 0 reflexive verb: Examples of reflexive verbs verb whose subject and despertanse- to wake oneself up me object are one in afeitarse- to shave oneself the same te 0 “se” will be acostarse- to go to bed attached to the se end ducharse- to take a shower 0 subject is both levantarse- to get up os the do-er of the action and the dormirse- to fall asleep nos receiver of the lavarse- to wash oneself action.
  • 15. 12. Affirmative tú commandsTo tell a friend, family member, child, or pet to do something, use the affirmative tú command.Then, simply drop the “s”
  • 16. Negative tú commandsUsed to tell friends, family members, or young people what NOT to do. Ex: Don’t eat it. 1) Conjugate the verb to 1st person= como 2) “Comer” is an er verb, so change the “o” to an “a” 3) Add an “s” and put the word of it (lo) in front of the verb = ¡No lo comas! ar  e er/ir  a
  • 17. Irregular tú commands0 Note that these irregularities only occur with affirmative tú commands. As with all other verbs, to form negative informal commands with these verbs, use the "tú" form of the present subjunctive.
  • 18. DOP & PlacementDirect Object Pronouns – takes the place of a noun and answers to the question “what?” me nos te os lo los la las add an ‘ mark to the 3rd to last syllable  DROP THE “S” – Ex: ¡Cómelo!  DOP & IOP only attach in 3 ways: (1) Infinitive (2) affirmative command (3) present progressive
  • 19. Preterite used for past actions that have been already completed AR ER0e 0i0 aste 0 iste0o 0 io0 amos 0 imos0 aron 0 ieron