GRAMMAR BOOKNikki
TABLE OF CONTENTS   Imperfect………………………………………………………………………………………………...Slide 3   Preterite………………………………………………………………………………………...
*USES*                -ongoing action(was/were)                -repeated action(used to)                -no definite begin...
Preterite         used for past actions that have been already completed            AR                                    ...
CAR, GAR, ZARS – IRREGULAR PRETERITES               Tocar     Jugar     Comenzar      Yo      Toqué      Jugué     Comencé...
SPOCK VERBS  ir-to go ser-to be        dar-to give ver-to see                       ir                               d/v-i...
CUCARACHA VERBS     •e     •iste          Andar / anduv-                    Estar / estuv –     •o             Poder / pud...
SNAKE                Y   SNAKEY    ei venir, servir,                oy    pedir                         oir    ou      ...
MODAL VERBS  Ir + a + infinitive  going to do something Poder + infinitive  are able to do something Querer + infinitive...
ADVERBS            • Claro            When two adverbs modify the            • Constante        same verb, only the 2nd   ...
PROGRESSIVE PRESENT TENSE                               The General Rule                               1. Conjugate Estar ...
PROGRESSIVE PAST TENSETake the verb in the infinitive form…                     trabajar     comer      partirDrop the inf...
EL FUTURO       Pronoun + infinitive form of verb + ending                      Yo + infinitivo + é     -ar, -er, and –...
EL FUTURO IRREGULARS    decir- dir    hacer- har    poner- pondre    salir- saldr        Yo diré    tener- tend      ...
CONDITIONAL The conditional tense is used to express probability in the  future tense. To conjugate regular -ar, -er and...
SUPERLATIVES                                                      **Be sure    The Most                                  ...
COMMANDS    Los Mandatos Formales (Ud)   -ar    put in yo     change                                     Irregulars  verbs...
DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES   Adjectives whose function is to point at something.   English- this, that, these, those   Sp...
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS   Acts as the equivalent of ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘these’, and ‘those’   They stand for nouns rather th...
2nd Semester Grammar Book
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2nd Semester Grammar Book

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2nd Semester Grammar Book

  1. 1. GRAMMAR BOOKNikki
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Imperfect………………………………………………………………………………………………...Slide 3 Preterite……………………………………………………………………………………………. …..Slide 4  car, gar, zar………………………………………………………………. ……………….Slide 5  Spock……………………………………………………………………………………… Slide 6  Cucaracha………………………………………………………………………………… Slide 7  Snake y snakey……………………………………………………………………………Slide 8 Modal…………………………………………………………………………………. …………….…..Slide 9 Adverbs………………………………………………………………………………………... ………..Slide 10 Progressive Present Tense…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Slide 11 Progressive Past Tense……………………………………………………………………….. ………Slide 12 Future ……………………………………………………………………………………………………Slide 13  Irregulars………………………………………………………………………………....Slide 14  Conditional………………………………………………………………………………..Slide 15 Superlatives…………………………………………………………………………………………..….Slide 16 Formal Commands…………………………………………………………………………………..….Slide 17 Prepositions………………………………………………………………………………………………Slide 18 Demonstratives Adjective…………………………………………………………………………………………………..Slide 19 Demonstratives Pronoun………..…………………………………………………………………………………………..Slide 20
  3. 3. *USES* -ongoing action(was/were) -repeated action(used to) -no definite beginning or end -time/date/age/feelings/description -interrupted activity(cuando)REGULAR HABLAR COMER ESCRIBIR Yo hablaba comía escribía Tú hablabas comías escribíasÉl/ella/Ud. hablaba comía escribíaNosotros hablábamos comíamos escribíamosVosotros hablabais comíais escribíaisEllos/ellas/uds. hablaban comían escribían
  4. 4. Preterite used for past actions that have been already completed AR ER0e 0i0 aste 0 iste0o 0 io0 amos 0 imos0 aron 0 ieron
  5. 5. CAR, GAR, ZARS – IRREGULAR PRETERITES Tocar Jugar Comenzar Yo Toqué Jugué Comencé Tú Tocaste Jugaste Comenzaste Ud Tocó Jugó Comenzó Nos Tocamos Jugamos Comenzamos Uds Tocaron Jugaron Comenzaron
  6. 6. SPOCK VERBS ir-to go ser-to be dar-to give ver-to see ir d/v-i d/v-imos fui fuimos d/v-iste d/v- isteís fuiste fuisteís fue fueron d/v-io d/v- ieronhacer-to make or do hice hicimoshiciste hicisteís hizo hicieron
  7. 7. CUCARACHA VERBS •e •iste Andar / anduv- Estar / estuv – •o Poder / pud- •imos Poner / pus- Querer / quis- •isteis Saber / sup- Tener / tuv- •ieron Vener / vin- Conducir / conduj- Producir / produj- Traducir / traduj- Decir / dij- Traer / traj-
  8. 8. SNAKE Y SNAKEY ei venir, servir, oy pedir oir ou eydormir, morir leer, creerIrregular preterite Irregular preterite thatthat changes in the changes in the third third person person buy adding a ‘y’
  9. 9. MODAL VERBS Ir + a + infinitive  going to do something Poder + infinitive  are able to do something Querer + infinitive  want to do something Deber + infinitve  should do something Tener que + infinitve  to have to do something
  10. 10. ADVERBS • Claro When two adverbs modify the • Constante same verb, only the 2nd adjective uses the –mente.Adjective • Dificil EX: Javier lee rapida y claramente • Clara Irregulars • Constante • MuchoFeminine • Bien Form • Dificil • Ya • Muy • Mal • Claramente • Tan • Constantemente • BastanteAdverb • Dificilmente • Siempre
  11. 11. PROGRESSIVE PRESENT TENSE The General Rule 1. Conjugate Estar 2. Change the –ar verbs to –ando OR Change the –ir/-er verbs to -iendo-AR PresentVerbs Participlecomprar comprandoesperar esperando -ER Present Verbs Participleenseñar enseñando correr corriendoestudiar estudiando -IR Present tener teniendo Verbs Participle beber bebiendo vivir viviendo comer comiendo pedir pidiendo abrir abriendo salir saliendo
  12. 12. PROGRESSIVE PAST TENSETake the verb in the infinitive form… trabajar comer partirDrop the infinitive ending…2 trabaj- com- part-Add the verb ESTAR (to be) and past progressive ending…3 Yo estaba I was trabajando comiendo partiendo Tú estabas You were (informal) trabajando comiendo partiendo Usted You were (formal) estaba trabajando comiendo partiendo Él – Ella s-he was Nosotros estábamos We were trabajando comiendo partiendo Ellos estaban They were trabajando comiendo partiendo
  13. 13. EL FUTURO  Pronoun + infinitive form of verb + ending  Yo + infinitivo + é  -ar, -er, and –ir verbs all have the same ending -é -emos -ás -éis -á -án  Yo estudiaré  Tú estudiarás  Ella estudiará  Nos estudiaremos  Vos estudiaréis  Ellos estudiarán
  14. 14. EL FUTURO IRREGULARS  decir- dir  hacer- har  poner- pondre  salir- saldr Yo diré  tener- tend Tú sabrás  valer- valdr El tendrá venir- vendr  Nos valdremos  poder- podr  querer- quer Ellos podrán  saber- sabr  caber- cabr  haber- habr
  15. 15. CONDITIONAL The conditional tense is used to express probability in the future tense. To conjugate regular -ar, -er and -ir verbs in the conditional, simply add one of the following to the infinitive: -ía -íamos -ías -íais -ía -ían
  16. 16. SUPERLATIVES **Be sure  The Most the  The Least  el más… adjectives  el menos… matches the  los “ “  la “ “ … or …  los “ “ noun in both  la “ “ gender and  las “”  las “ “ number When you want to say that something has the most or the least of a certain quality. To use a noun with the superlative form, put it after the ** article example: Luis es el chico más alto. Luis is the tallest boy When you use an idea or concept, use the neuter article loIrregulars: el/la mejor(best) el/la poer(worst)el/la meyor(oldest) el/la menor(youngest)
  17. 17. COMMANDS Los Mandatos Formales (Ud) -ar put in yo change Irregulars verbs form ending to -e Tener- tenga Venir- vengo -er put in yo change Dar-de verbs form ending to -a Ir- vaya Ser- seya Hacer- haga -ir put in yo change Estar- este verbs form ending to -a Saber- sepa
  18. 18. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES Adjectives whose function is to point at something. English- this, that, these, those Spanish- three sets They are typically placed before the noun they modify. Singular Plural Singular Plural Masculine Masculine Feminine Feminine • este (this) • estos (these) • esta (these) • estas (those) • ese (that) • esos (those) • esa (that) • esas (that) • aquel (that) • aquellos (those) • aquella (that) • aquellas (those) Me gusto este perro. (I like this dog) Voy a comprar ese coche. (I’m going to buy that car) Me gustan aquellas casas. (I like those houses) Prefiero estas computadoras. (I prefer those computers)
  19. 19. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Acts as the equivalent of ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘these’, and ‘those’ They stand for nouns rather than modifying them Singular Masculine •éste (this) •ése (that) •aquél (that) Plural Masculine •éstos (these) •ésos (those) •aquéllos (those) Singular Feminine •ésta (this) •ésa (that) •aquélla (that) Plural Feminine •éstas (these) •ésas (those) •aquéllas (those)
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