1. Cisco Certified Network Associate By Nikita Kaushal (0178EC091055)Industrial Training Completed at the HCL Career Development Center, Bhopal as a Compulsory Requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Electronics and Communication Engineering) June 01, 2012 to June 30, 2012Department of Electronics and Communication & Engineering Jai Narain College of Technology & Science Bhopal (M.P.)
2. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT-2013Jai Narain College of Technology & Science, Bhopal1. Name of Student :Nikita Kaushal2. University ID Number :0178EC0910553. Name of Training Place (Industry Institution, Govt. Department, etc) :HCL CDC4. Address of Training Place with Telephone No. and Email :143 ZONE 1 MP NAGAR , BHOPAL 0755 40948525. Name and Designation of Training Incharge (Under whom training was completed) :AMIT SHRIVASTAV6. Training Period : June 01 – June 30, 20127. Training Subject : CCNA
3. DECLARATION The Industrial Training on Cisco Certified network associate (CCNA)at the HCL CDC, Bhopal during June 01, 2012 to June 30, 2012 wascompleted by the undersigned. During this period, I was taught about theCCNA by an expert faculty and allowed to practice on computer with othersoftware related to design. Finally I was given a job for preparing a completenetworking . Thus, I completed the training successfully. …………….………............... Nikita KaushalProf. Amit Sawaskade (0178EC091055 )Training Incharge
4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I feel profound to attend my major training in CCNA in HCL CDC under the guidance ofMr. Amit Shrivastav who taught us networking and relevant things. He has also given us a briefknowledge in the training and also discuss various information to enhance our knowledge.I would like to thanks my training incharge Prof. Amit Sawaskade for guiding me at the time oftraining and boosting up required knowledge for training time to time. I would greatly indebted to Prof. Ashok Agrawal, Head, Department of Electronics andCommunication Engineering for his keen interest in this work and time to time guidance,encouragement and providing required facilities for training . We are grateful to Dr. MeghnaDubey, Principal, JNCTS for his guidance and critical comments which improved the quality ofthis report. Thanks are due to Dr. B D Shukla, Director, JNCTS for providing necessary helpand time to time necessary guidance in completion of this task. Then other faculty members, friends, etc, may be added accordingly in theacknowledgement to which the students want to acknowledge for their help and guidance in thetraining. Nikita Kaushal
5. 1. INTRODUCTIONAs the training arm of HCL Infosystems, HCL Career Development Centre (CDC) carries forth alegacy of excellence spanning across more than three decades. HCL CDC is an initiative thatenables individuals and organizations to benefit from HCLs deep expertise in the IT space.Among the fastest growing IT education brands in India, HCL CDC offers a complete spectrumof quality training programs on software, hardware, networking as well as global certifications inassociation with leading IT organizations worldwide.Empowered with strategic alliances with leading IT organizations in India and abroad, HCLCDC training solutions cater to diverse consumer profiles including individuals, enterprises,academic institutions and Government enterprises.As the fountainhead of the most significant pursuit of human mind (IT), HCL strongly believes,"Only a Leader can transform you into a Leader". HCL CDC is a formalization of this experienceand credo which has been perfected over three decades.VISION"Together we create the enterprises of tomorrow".MISSION"To provide world-class information technology solutions and services in order to enable ourcustomers to serve their customers better".OBJECTIVE"To fuel initiative and foster activity by allowing individuals freedom of action and innovation inattaining defined objectives."PEOPLE OBJECTIVE"To help people in HCL Infosystems Ltd. share in the companys successes, which they makepossible; to provide job security based on their performance; to recognize their individualachievements; and help them gain a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment from their work."CORE VAUE We shall uphold the dignity of the individual. We shall honor all commitments. We shall be committed to Quality, Innovation and Growth in every endeavour. We shall be responsible corporate citizens 1
6. A network is a system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or databetweenusers. The main field on which we were working was networking and the course was CCNAwhich includes all the parts of networking.In a typical LAN, there are various types of network devices available as outlined below. Hub Repeat signals received on each port by broadcasting to all the other connected ports. Repeaters Used to connect two or more Ethernet segments of any media type, and to provide signal amplification for a segment to be extended. In a network that uses repeater, all members are contending for transmission of data onto a single network. We like to call this single network a collision domain. Effectively, every user can only enjoy a percentage of the available bandwidth. Ethernet is subject to the "5-4-3" rule regarding repeater placement, meaning we can only have five segments connected using four repeaters with only three segments capable of accommodating hosts. Bridge A layer 2 device used to connect different networks types or networks of the same type. It maps the Ethernet addresses of the nodes residing on each segment and allows only the necessary traffic to pass through the bridge. Packet destined to the same segment is dropped. This "store-and-forward" mechanism inspects the whole Ethernet packet before making a decision. Unfortunately, it cannot filter out broadcast traffic. Also, it introduces a 20 to 30 percent latency when processing the frame. Only 2 networks can be linked with a bridge. Switch Can link up four, six, eight or even more networks. Cut-through switches run faster because when a packet comes in, it forwards it right after looking at the destination address only. A store-and-forward switch inspects the entire packet before forwarding. Most switches cannot stop broadcast traffic. Switches are layer 2 devices. Routers Can filter out network traffic also. However, they filter based on the protocol addresses defined in OSI layer 3(the network layer), not based on the Ethernet packet addresses. Note that protocols must be routable in order to pass through the routers. A router can determine the most efficient path for a packet to take and send packets around failed segments. Brouter Has the best features of both routers and bridges in that it can be configured to pass the unroutable protocols by imitating a bridge, while not passing broadcast storms by acting as a router for other protocols. Gateway Often used as a connection to a mainframe or the internet. Gateways enable communications between different protocols, data types and environments. This is achieved via protocol conversion, whereby the gateway strips the protocol stack off of the packet and adds the appropriate stack for the other side. Gateways operate at all layers of the OSI model without making any forwarding decisions. 2
7. Work assigned was: To design a coaxial cable and twisted cable. To design a LAN. To design a WAN. To design a MAN. To program router. To design network. To break password of router and switches.A computer network is a connection of two or more computers through a cable or wirelessconnection. Computer network enable computer users to share hardware, resources andinformation. Aside sharing information, the computer network enables users to share internetaccess. The importance of networking two or more computers can not be overemphasized.Networking in computer is unavoidable. We need networks in most things we do in life.I wonder what the world of computer will be without computer networks. In computing,networking is a way of connecting two or more computers together. When you networkcomputers together, the computers can share information and resources with one another.Networking is a very vital and delicate area in computing.We can not really quantify the importance of networking two or more PC. Computer network isvery important for every business, no matter how small a business may be. Computer networkhelps in sharing resources. With computer network, so many computers can share one printer,scanner and some other hardware, which might be expensive for a company to acquire for everycomputer user.It is quite obvious that computer network helps to save cost for an organization. Instead ofbuying all hardware for each computer, one can just share one via the computer network Inaddition to this, let us just think of additional space that will be occupied by providing printers orscanners for each of the computers in an organization. Networking two or more computer notonly saves money but also saves space. This in addition makes the users environment friendly.Do we ignore the communication aspect? No! Networking enhances effective communicationamong members of an organization or a company. With appropriate software, each computeruser can communicate with other members or staff of an organization or company. In addition tothis, Computer network gives users the opportunity to use remote programs and remote databaseseither of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources. The importance ofhaving a computer networks are really numerous. 3.
8. Thus, it is a necessity for every organization or company. It makes effective communicationpossible and helps to eliminate unnecessary waste of time and duplication or resources. The desire result was obtain in every experiments and work as a result we made a successfulnetwork capable of strong communications. A network engineer handles all of the “plumbing”for a company’s computers, connecting offices with T1 lines, hooking them up to the Internet,and configuring all internal systems such as net routers and firewalls. This was very interestingfield and we covered a subject know as Data Communication and Network which we havestudied in 6th sem. 4.
9. 2. TRAININGNetworking are Connection-oriented" and "Connectionless" communications.. A connection oriented communication has the following characteristics: A session is guaranteed. Acknowledgements are issued and received at the transport layer, meaning if the sender does not receive an acknowledgement before the timer expires, the packet is retransmitted. Phrases in a connection-oriented service involves Call Setup, Data transfer and Call termination. All traffic must travel along the same static path. A failure along the static communication path can fail the connection. A guaranteed rate of throughput occupies resources without the flexibility of dynamic allocation. Reliable = SLOW (this is always the case in networking).In contrast, a connectionless communication has the following characteristics: Often used for voice and video applications. NO guarantee nor acknowledgement. Dynamic path selection. Dynamic bandwidth allocation. Unreliable = FAST. The layer which is important for networking are2.1 OSI Model:The OSI model is a layered model and a conceptual standard used for defining standards topromote multi-vendor integration as well as maintain constant interfaces and isolate changes ofimplementation to a single layer. It is NOT application or protocol specific. In order to pass anyCisco exam, you need to know the OSI model inside and out.The OSI Model consists of 7 layers as follows: 5.
10. Layer Description Device Protocol Provides network access for applications, flow control and error recovery. Provides NCP, SMB, communications services to applications by SMTP, FTP,Application identifying and establishing the availability of Gateway SNMP, other computers as well as to determine if Telnet, sufficient resources exist for communication Appletalk purposes. Performs protocol conversion, encryption and data Gateway and NCP, AFP,Presentation compression redirectors TDI Allows 2 applications to communicate over a network by opening a session and synchronizingSession the involved computers. Handles connection Gateway NetBios establishment, data transfer and connection release Repackages messages into smaller formats, NetBEUI,Transport provides error free delivery and error handling Gateway TCP, SPX, functions and NWLink Handles addressing, translates logical addresses IP, IPX, Router andNetwork and names to physical addresses, routing and NWLink, brouter traffic management. NetBEUI Packages raw bits into frames making it transmitable across a network link and includes a cyclical redundancy check(CRC). It consists of the LLC sublayer and the MAC sublayer. The Switch,**Data MAC sublayer is important to remember, as it is bridge and NoneLink responsible for appending the MAC address of the brouter next hop to the frame header. On the contrary,
11. LLC sublayer uses Destination Service Access Points and Source Service Access Points to create links for the MAC sublayers. Physical layer works with the physical media for transmitting and receiving data bits via certain MultiplexerPhysical encoding schemes. It also includes specifications None and repeater for certain mechanical connection features, such as the adaptor connector. Table 2.1- OSI ModelHere is an easy way to memorize the order of the layers:All People Seem To Need Data Processing. The first letter of each word corresponds to the firstletter of one of the layers. It is a little corny, but it works.The table above mentions the term "MAC Address". A MAC address is a 48 bit address foruniquely identifying devices on the network. Something likes 00-00-12-33-FA-BC, we call thisway of presenting the address a 12 hexadecimal digits format. The first 6 digits specify themanufacture, while the remainders are for the host itself. The ARP Protocol is used to determinethe IP to MAC mapping. And of course, MAC addresses cannot be duplicated in the network orproblems will occur. For more information about ARP and related protocols, read Guide ToARP, IARP, RARP, and Proxy ARP.Data encapsulation takes place in the OSI model. It is the process in which the information in aprotocol is wrapped in the data section of another protocol. The process can be broken down intothe following steps:User information -> data -> segments -> packets/datagrams -> frames -> bits. 7.
12. When discussing the OSI model it is important to keep in mind the differences between"Connection-oriented" and "Connectionless" communications. A connection orientedcommunication has the following characteristics: A session is guaranteed. Acknowledgements are issued and received at the transport layer, meaning if the sender does not receive an acknowledgement before the timer expires, the packet is retransmitted. Phrases in a connection-oriented service involve Call Setup, Data transfer and Call termination. All traffic must travel along the same static path. A failure along the static communication path can fail the connection. A guaranteed rate of throughput occupies resources without the flexibility of dynamic allocation. Reliable = SLOW (this is always the case in networking).In contrast, a connectionless communication has the following characteristics: Often used for voice and video applications. Neither guarantee nor acknowledgement. Dynamic path selection. Dynamic bandwidth allocation. Unreliable = FAST.A computer network, or simply a network, is a collection of computers and other hardwarecomponents interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources andinformation. Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at leastone process residing in a remote device, then the two devices are said to be in a network. Simply,more than one computer interconnected through a communication medium for informationinterchange is called a computer network.Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics, such as the mediumused to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, and organizationalscope.Communications protocols define the rules and data formats for exchanging information in acomputer network, and provide the basis for network programming. Well-knowncommunications protocols include Ethernet, a hardware and link layer standard that is ubiquitousin local area networks, and the Internet protocol suite, which defines a set of protocols forinternetworking, i.e. for data communication between multiple networks, as well as host-to-hostdata transfer, and application-specific data transmission formats. 8.
13. 2.2 Computer networking Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of electrical engineering,telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since itrelies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines2.1.1 Local area networkA local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limitedgeographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory, office building, or closelypositioned group of buildings. Each computer or device on the network is a node. Current wiredLANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology, although new standards like ITU-TG.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables, phonelines and power lines) Fig 2.1- LANTypical library network, in a branching tree topology and controlled access to resources. Asample LAN is depicted in the accompanying diagram. All interconnected devices mustunderstand the network layer (layer 3), because they are handling multiple subnets (the differentcolors). Those inside the library, which have only 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the userdevice and a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the central router, could be called "layer 3 switches"because they only have Ethernet interfaces and must understand IP. It would be more correct tocall them access routers, where the router at the top is a distribution router that connects to theInternet and academic networks customer access routers. 9.
14. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (Wide Area Networks), include theirhigher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range and no need for leased telecommunicationlines. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at data transfer rates up to10 Gbit/s. IEEE has projects investigating the standardization of 40 and 100 Gbit/s. LANs can beconnected to Wide area network by using routers.2.2.2 Home area networkA home area network (HAN) is a residential LAN which is used for communication betweendigital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a small number of personal computersand accessories, such as printers and mobile computing devices. An important function is thesharing of Internet access, often a broadband service through a cable TV or Digital SubscriberLine (DSL) provider.2.2.3 Storage area networkA storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, blocklevel data storage. SANs are primarily used to make storage devices, such as disk arrays, tapelibraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locallyattached devices to the operating system. A SAN typically has its own network of storagedevices that are generally not accessible through the local area network by other devices. Thecost and complexity of SANs dropped in the early 2000s to levels allowing wider adoptionacross both enterprise and small to medium sized business environments.2.2.4 Campus area networkA campus area network (CAN) is a computer network made up of an interconnection of LANswithin a limited geographical area. The networking equipment (switches, routers) andtransmission media (optical fiber, copper plant, Cat5 cabling etc.) are almost entirely owned (bythe campus tenant / owner: an enterprise, university, government etc.).In the case of a university campus-based campus network, the network is likely to link a varietyof campus buildings including, for example, academic colleges or departments, the universitylibrary, and student residence halls.2.2.5 Backbone networkA backbone network is part of a computer network infrastructure that interconnects variouspieces of network, providing a path for the exchange of information between different LANs orsubnetworks. A backbone can tie together diverse networks in the same building, in differentbuildings in a campus environment, or over wide areas. Normally, the backbones capacity isgreater than that of the networks connected to it. 10.
15. A large corporation which has many locations may have a backbone network that ties all of theselocations together, for example, if a server cluster needs to be accessed by different departmentsof a company which are located at different geographical locations. The equipment which tiesthese departments together constitute the network backbone. Network performance managementincluding network congestion are critical parameters taken into account when designing anetwork backbone. A specific case of a backbone network is the Internet backbone, which is the set of wide-area network connections and core routers that interconnect all networks connected to the Internet.2.2.6 Metropolitan area networkA Metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually spans a city or alarge campus. Fig 2.2-Sample EPN made of Frame relay WAN connections and dialup remote access. 11.
16. Fig2.3-Sample VPN used to interconnect 3 offices and remote users2.2.7 Wide area networkA wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as acity, country, or spans even intercontinental distances, using a communications channel thatcombines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and air waves. A WAN oftenuses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WANtechnologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physicallayer, the data link layer, and the network layer.2.2.8 Enterprise private networkAn enterprise private network is a network built by an enterprise to interconnect variouscompany sites, e.g., production sites, head offices, remote offices, shops, in order to sharecomputer resources.2.2.9 Virtual private networkA virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links betweennodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., theInternet) instead of by physical wires. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network aresaid to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. One common application issecure communications through the public Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit securityfeatures, such as authentication or content encryption. VPNs, for example, can be used toseparate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strongsecurity features.VPN may have best-effort performance, or may have a defined service levelagreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. Generally, a VPNhas a topology more complex than point-to-point. 12.
17. 2.2.10 Virtual NetworkNot to be confused with a Virtual Private Network, a Virtual Network defines data traffic flowsbetween virtual machines within a hypervisor in a virtual computing environment. VirtualNetworks may employ virtual security switches, virtual routers, virtual firewalls and other virtualnetworking devices to direct and secure data traffic.2.2.11 InternetworkAn internetwork is the connection of multiple computer networks via a common routingtechnology using routers. The Internet is an aggregation of many connected internetworksspanning the Earth.2.3 TCP/IP:The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet ProtocolSuite. TCP is one of the two original components of the suite, complementing the InternetProtocol (IP), and therefore the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. TCP providesreliable, ordered delivery of a stream of octets from a program on one computer to anotherprogram on another computer. TCP is the protocol used by major Internet applications such asthe World Wide Web, email, remote administration and file transfer. Other applications, whichdo not require reliable data stream service, may use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), whichprovides a datagram service that emphasizes reduced latency over reliability.The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet andsimilar networks, and generally the most popular protocol stack for wide area networks. It iscommonly known as TCP/IP, because of its most important protocols: Transmission ControlProtocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first networking protocols defined inthis standard. It is occasionally known as the DoD model due to the foundational influence of theARPANET in the 1970s (operated by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department ofDefense).TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be formatted, addressed,transmitted, routed and received at the destination. It has four abstraction layers, each with itsown protocols. From lowest to highest, the layers are: The link layer (commonly Ethernet) contains communication technologies for a local network. The internet layer (IP) connects local networks, thus establishing internetworking. The transport layer (TCP) handles host-to-host communication. The application layer (for example HTTP) contains all protocols for specific data communications services on a process-to-process level (for example how a web browser communicates with a web server). 13.
18. The TCP/IP model and related protocols are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Fig 2.4- TCP/IPThe term logy used in network for networking are as follows: 14.
19. 2.4 ROUTINGThere are 2 main types of routing, which are static and dynamic, the third type of routing iscalled Hybrid. Static routing involves the cumbersome process of manually configuring andmaintaining route tables by an administrator. Dynamic routing enables routers to "talk" to eachother and automatically update their routing tables. This process occurs through the use ofbroadcasts. Next is an explanation of the various routing protocols.2.5 RIP:Routing Information Protocol(RIP) is a distance vector dynamic routing protocol. RIP measuresthe distance from source to destination by counting the number of hops(routers or gateways) thatthe packets must travel over. RIP sets a maximum of 15 hops and considers any larger number ofhops unreachable. RIPs real advantage is that if there are multiple possible paths to a particulardestination and the appropriate entries exist in the routing table, it will choose the shortest route.Routers can talk to each other, however, in the real routing world, there are so many differentrouting technologies available, that it is not as simple as just enabling Routing InformationProtocol (RIP).2.5 OSPF:Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state routing protocol that converges faster than adistance vector protocol such as RIP. What is convergence? This is the time required for allrouters to complete building the routing tables. RIP uses ticks and hop counts as measurement,while OSPF also uses metrics that takes bandwidth and network congestion into making routingdecisions. RIP transmits updates every 30 seconds, while OSPF transmits updates only whenthere is a topology change. OSPF builds a complete topology of the whole network, while RIPuses second handed information from the neighboring routers. To summarize, RIP is easier toconfigure, and is suitable for smaller networks. In contrast, OSPF requires high processingpower, and is suitable if scalability is the main concern.We can tune the network by adjusting various timers. Areas that are tunable include: the rate atwhich routing updates are sent, the interval of time after which a route is declared invalid, theinterval during which routing information regarding better paths is suppressed, the amount oftime that must pass before a route is removed from the routing table, and the amount of time forwhich routing updates will be postponed. Of course, different setting is needed in differentsituation. In any case, we can use the "show ip route" command to display the contents of routingtable as well as how the route was discovered. 15.
20. 2.6 IGRP and EIGRP:RIP and OSPF are considered "open", while IGRP and EIGRP are Cisco proprietary. InteriorGateway Routing Protocol(IGRP) is a distance vector routing protocol for the interior networks,while Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a hybrid that combines distancevector and link-state technologies. Do not confuse these with NLSP. Link Services Protocol(NLSP) is a proprietary link-state routing protocol used on Novell NetWare 4.X to replace SAPand RIP. For IGRP, the metric is a function of bandwidth, reliability, delay and load. One of thecharacteristics of IGRP is the deployment of hold down timers. A hold-down timer has a value of280 seconds. It is used to prevent routing loops while router tables converge by preventingrouters from broadcasting another route to a router which is off-line before all routing tablesconverge. For EIGRP, separate routing tables are maintained for IP, IPX and AppleTalkprotocols. However, routing update information is still forwarded with a single protocol.2.7 SwitchA network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connects networksegments or network devices. The term commonly refers to a multi-port network bridge thatprocesses and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Switches thatadditionally process data at the network layer (layer 3) and above are often referred to as layer-3switches or multilayer switches.A switch is a telecommunication device which receives a message from any device connected toit and then transmits the message only to the device for which the message was meant. Thismakes the switch a more intelligent device than a hub (which receives a message and thentransmits it to all the other devices on its network). The network switch plays an integral part inmost modern Ethernet local area networks (LANs). Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a numberof linked managed switches. Small office/home office (SOHO) applications typically use asingle switch, or an all-purpose converged device such as a residential gateway to access smalloffice/home broadband services such as DSL or cable Internet. In most of these cases, the end-user device contains a router and components that interface to the particular physical broadbandtechnology 16.
21. Fig 2.4- Showing the Switch IP Address 17.
22. 3. OUTCOME OF TRAININGWORK ASSIGNMENT -1ObjectiveDescribe the features and operation of static routing. Fig 3.1- Router(a) 18.
25. Static routing is a concept describing one way of configuring path selection of routers incomputer networks. It is the type of routing characterized by the absence of communicationbetween routers regarding the current topology of the network. This is achieved by manuallyadding routes to the routing table. The opposite of static routing is dynamic routing, sometimesalso referred to as adaptive routing.In these systems, routes through a data network are described by fixed paths (statically). Theseroutes are usually entered into the router by the system administrator. An entire network can beconfigured using static routes, but this type of configuration is not fault tolerant. When there is achange in the network or a failure occurs between two statically defined nodes, traffic will not bererouted. This means that anything that wishes to take an affected path will either have to waitfor the failure to be repaired or the static route to be updated by the administrator beforerestarting its journey. Most requests will time out (ultimately failing) before these repairs can bemade. There are, however, times when static routes can improve the performance of a network.Some of these include stub networks and default routes. 21.
26. WORK ASSIGNMENT -2ObjectiveStart a router and recognize the normal boot sequence. Fig 3.5-Bootup output from router. 22.
28. Fig 3.8- Setup Initial Protocol Configurations Fig 3.9- Setup Script Review and Use 24.
29. Fig 3.10- login to router 25.
30. WORK ASSIGNMENT -3 Objective Complete the initial device configuration, given a functioning router and Configure IPaddresses and IP subnet masks on router interfaces, given a functioning router. Fig 3.11- Router Module 26.
48. The above work done by us under different classes and the following work done in softwarewere an artificial network was establish.The work allotted was done successful with desired results and hence , the training wasbeneficial. 45.