• External power source (ifrequired) through patch wornon skin• Power transmission throughinduction• Communication protocols(Bluetooth, Zigbee, RF,NFC)• Intravenous & oral deliveryunder research• Usually sub-dermal• Most still in development!
Sensory Implants• Usually Subcutaneous• Remote Monitoring• Mostly used as Bio-Feedback Devices• Research on for use as InterfacingDevices• Geo-tracking and other Locational uses• Limited Life Span
Memory Implants• Usually passive (no power requirement)• Identification• Authorization & Validation• Record Keeping• Re-writeable• Mainly RFID• Obamacare 2013 hoax
Organ Chips• Artificially Synthesized• Regulates bodily functions• Limited life span• Controlled release of enzymes• Programmable Machine• Targeted Delivery of medicine• Intravenous/Oral insertion
Sensory Devices• Useful for mapping brain function irregularities• Diagnostic tool for Brain Diseases such as Alzheimers,Dementia• Research tool for monitoring brain activity• Enzyme coated to cause reaction• Short life span
Memory Implants• Prosthetic chip that uses electrodes to enhance and expandmemory abilities.• Capable of storing neural signals, basically functioning asan electronic memory, allowing learning more and keepingit in the devices.• Allows for user to instantly know things• From the study of chemical interactions that allow short-term learning and memorization in rats• Tested successfully on rats and monkeysMemory Expansion
Memory Implants• Prosthetic chip that allows interfacing with devices• Also used to interpret neuronal inputs from one part of thebrain and effectively communicate those outputs to anotherbrain region• Enables thought based control• Enables paralyzed patient’s to move wheelchair• Utilizes bone conductive hearing devices for communication• Tested successfully on humansBrain-Machine Interface
Sensory Implants• Referred to as Cognotechnology• Replacement/Augmentation of bodysenses• Usually used for sight (vision) andhearing (cochlear)• Research in progress on enhancingsenses
Regulatory Implants• Regulates and Corrects bodily function• Can be neural as well as body implant• Utilizes Hatpin Electrodes for neuralimplant• Used in conjunction with other devicesfor body implant• Pacemakers (Parkinsons, Cardiac)
• Intercommunicating network of implants• Sensor Devices• Communication Protocols (Bluetooth, Zigbee)• Power Supply• Seamless Connectivity with WAN• Inter-BAN Communication• Applications
Case Study 1: Bio Enhancement• Implantable version of devicessuch as Google Glass• Connected Devices (Connected tothe Internet)• Utilization of Bone ConductiveDevices• Targeted Information Retrieval• Device can be miniaturized towearable contact lenses
Case Study 2: Brain Machine Interface• Implanting Sensory Devices• Measurement of Brain Function tooperate machines• Also possible for body implantscontaining sensors such asaccelerometers, gyroscope• Less prospective (only utilized foraiding people with disabilities)• Devices such as Kinect (computervision) and Wii (Sensors) havemade this technology unpopular
Bio-Enhancement• Enhancement / Improvement of body functions• Expansion of cognitive function• BAN connected devices• Mental Learning• Direct Information retrieval• Scheduled Drug Release (Insulin release devices)• Mostly theoretical. Some undergoing animal testing
Healthcare• Corrective devices for people with disabilities• Sensory Devices for Monitoring• Regulatory devices for regulation of body function• Nano-medicine• Targeted Drug Delivery• Scheduled Drug Release (Insulin release devices)• Undergoing human testing
Monitoring/Tracking• Useful for Geo-tracking, accomplished by insertion ofGPS/GLONASS compatible sensor• Remote monitoring of patient vitals• Allows for signaling in case of distress• Monitoring patients, convicts, immigrants• Currently used for tracking/ monitoring animals
Identification / Authentication / Validation• Utilizes RFID• Usually passive devices• Record Keeping Activitiessuch as Medical History• As a unique identificationmechanism• Implantable credit cards /licenses
• DARPA funding $32 million " human body-on-a-chip"research project• Uses micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)• Mimic peoples reactions to substances-of-interest.• Used to test drugs, vaccines and• Accelerate the pace and efficiency of pharmaceutical drugdiscovery• Method for testing the toxicity of unknown substances.
Fig. Proposed MEMS Microfluidic “Human Body on a Chip” System
• User Acceptance• Religious controversy ( Mark of the Beast (Christianity), Haram(Islam))• Easy Insertion• Reliability• Durability• Better power supply• Better method of transmission of power
Privacy/Security Concerns• Snooping on Information / Illegal Monitoring• Unauthorized control• Enforcement of stricter protocols• Reliability• Durability
Health Concerns• Method of Insertion• Research shows increase in tumor growth• Leakage of components• Malfunctioning of device• Power transmission mechanism
• R. Colin Johnson, “MEMS enable Human Body on a Chip”.Available at: http://www.eetimes.com/electronics-news/4391805/MEMS-enable--human-body-on-a-chip-• Min Chen,Sergio Gonzalez , Athanasios Vasilakos, Huasong Cao,Victor C. M. Leung, “Body Area Networks: A Survey”. Available at:http://www.ece.ubc.ca/~minchen/min_paper/Min-0-JNL-2-9-BAN-MONET2010.pdf• http://www.technologyreview.com/news/427939/brain-chip-helps-quadriplegics-move-robotic-arms-with-their-thoughts/• http://gizmodo.com/5813821/scientists-create-first-memory-expansion-for-brain
• http://www.emqus.com/index.php?/emq/article/credit_credit_chips_embedded_into_the_human_body_134• Schwarz, M, “Single chip CMOS image sensors for a retinaimplant System”. Available at:http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?reload=true&arnumber=705445&contentType=Conference+Publications• http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2013/feb/20/retinal-implant-sight-blind-people• “Sensor Chip for Monitoring Tumors”. Available at:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110826112020.htm
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