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Blusters

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  • 1. A Presentation On “Problems of DEVELOPING INDIA”
  • 2. Problems of Developing India
    • Population
    • Poverty
    • Unemployment
    • Corruption
  • 3.
    • How do the environmental impacts of a growing population of a developed country, the United States, compares to the undeveloped country of India?
    Taken from: http://www.claybennett.com/pages/divide.html Population Growth
  • 4. [INTRO]duction
    • We predict that a growing population will cause:
        • Higher rate of deforestation
        • Greater loss of freshwater resources
        • More pollution
        • Increased global warming
        • Strains of natural resources
        • Social issues
  • 5. [M]ethods
    • We first searched to find what causes a growing population.
    • We then looked to see the effects of the growing population on the environment.
    • Stella and Excel were used to display the impacts of the population growth on:
        • Forest Area
        • Fresh Water Availability
      • We also compared the two different growing populations.
  • 6. What are we [model]ing?
    • India Population growth.
    • United States Growth.
    • Effects on Environmental Resources:
        • Fresh Water Availability
        • Forest Areas
    • Effects of varying levels of these subcategories.
  • 7. Why a [grow]ing population?
    • United States
        • Increased Immigration Rates
        • Better health care
        • Higher living standards
        • Abortion Laws
        • Unintended Pregnancies ~ 40% births
          • Teenage Pregnancies
    • India
        • Lack of Migration
        • Lack of Education
        • Desire for Male children
        • Fertility rate declining
          • Younger women having children
    Taken from: http://www.tashian.com/carl/archives/us-1896.gif Taken from: http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/asia/india/images/india-flag.jpg
  • 8. [Water] and [Forest] Factor
    • Freshwater Availability
        • Misconception of Oceans as freshwater
        • Human Bodies – 60% water
        • Sewage deposited in water
        • Health problems
        • Per Capita Water Use
    • Forests Area
        • Urbanization – more paved areas
        • Less parks and nature
        • Lack of Oxygen production
        • Increase Quantity of Carbon Dioxide (Greenhouse Gases)
        • Global Warming
    Taken from: http://static.flickr.com/33/38490644_41f946c4f2_b.jpg Taken from: http://pantransit.reptiles.org/images/1996-07-28/washington-rain-forest.png
  • 9. [Environ]mental Impacts
    • Pollution – increase in cars and emission of greenhouse gases into atmosphere
    • Deforestation – increase in paved areas to house increasing population
    • Freshwater Availability – increase in waste production and contamination of water
    • Natural Resources – increase burning of fossil fuels, excessive use of coal
    • Global Warming – overall increase in temperature and chances of natural disasters
    • Habitat Loss – change in ecosystems affecting trophic levels
  • 10. [Excel] Model
    • Comparing the Population of India and US with no external pressures
    • Both increasing.
    • India growth rate per year:
      • 1.51%
    • US growth rate per year:
      • 0.92%
    • India starts at a greater population.
  • 11. WHY DO THEY DIFFER?
    • EDUCATION
    • GNP
    • IMMIGRATION/MIGRATION
  • 12. [Sol]utions
    • Increase education programs
      • Later marriages
      • Contraceptive use
      • Less of a need for urbanization (jobs)
    • Be energy efficient (wind/ solar)
    • Organic farming
    • Sustainable development (build vertically)
    • Plant more trees!
    • Have better governmental regulations for an improved economy
  • 13. Poverty
    • Redefining Poverty
    • India Case Study
  • 14. Redefining Poverty A New Poverty Line for a New India
  • 15. The Government of India says that 24% of India’s population is below the poverty line.* * Planning Commission of India, 1999-2000, Government of India
  • 16. Despite such abysmal figures on India’s development, how can the government claim that only 24% of India is poor? Clearly something is amiss…
  • 17. The answer lies in how poverty is defined in India
    • The present poverty line is a conveniently low threshold based largely on only caloric norms.
    • In fact, it should be called the starvation line .
    • It does not factor in norms for nutrition, health, clothing, housing, education etc.
    • Even worse is that the Planning Commission recognizes this shortcoming and yet doesn’t do anything about it.
  • 18. “ I have learnt to seek my happiness by limiting my desires rather than attempting to satisfy them.” John Stuart Mill
  • 19. Table 1: Percentage and Number of Poor in India since 1973 * Year Percentage of Poor Number of Poor (crores) Annual Real Rate of Decline in the Number of Poor ^ 1973-74 54.9 % 32.13 - 1977-78 51.3 % 32.89 ( 0.59 %) 1983 44.5 % 32.29 0.31 % 1987-88 38.9 % 30.71 1.25 % 1993-94 36.0 % 32.03 ( 0.70 %) 1999-00 26.1 % 26.02 3.40 % 2004** 23.6 % 24.97 0.82 % * As per the Expert Group Methodology ^ A negative rate of decline means the number of poor increased ** Based on the estimated population of 2004 and poverty ratio calculated using the latest National Sample Survey in 2004. Source: National Institute of Rural Development (2004): Rural Development Statistics, 2002-03 .
  • 20. The redefined poverty line
    • Summing up minimum costs for nutrition (Rs. 573), health (Rs. 30), clothing (Rs. 17), energy consumption (Rs. 55) and miscellaneous expenditure (Rs. 164); the poverty line in India should be about Rs. 840 per capita per month*.
    • * The actual sum is Rs. 839; we round it off for convenience.
  • 21.
    • A person is poor in India if he or she has a monthly per capita expenditure lesser than Rs. 840 OR does not have access to either drinking water; proper shelter; sanitation; quality secondary education; or an all-weather road with public transport.
  • 22. Incidence of Poverty Interventions - Program, Technology Natural Resources Institutional/ Social Factor Labour & Capital Flow/Mobility Spatial Integration of Economic activities New Lively hood opportunities ECOLOGICAL AND INCOME POVERTY - DYNAMICS Databases on relationship to examine the direction of policies/interventions? Powerlessness of poor to gain access or use available natural resources Role of economic policies and interventions in altering the relationship Inequitable access land, Information, market and credit
  • 23. He and She are poor; Not because they are borne so; In fact, it is the failure of the institutions, polices and programme that they continue to be poor and marginalized. - A Perception
  • 24. EMPLOYMENT , UNEMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ISSUES
  • 25. Employment and Unemployment Scenario in the World
    • Almost all countries in the world have employment and unemployment problem.
    • A total number of 191.8 million persons were unemployed in the year 2005 in the world.The unemployment rate was around 6.3% of the labour force
    • 1.37 billion people though employed were earning less than US$2 a day.
    • 520.1 million people though employed were earning less than US$ 1 a day.
    • The problem therefore is of the order of 711.9 million if at least one dollar a day is considered.
  • 26.
    • S.No. Item 2004-2005
    • Total Population as on Jan. 2005 1092.96Million
    • Total Labour Force 469.94 Million
    • Total Employment 459.10 Million
    • Total number of open 10.84 Million Unemployment
    • Unemployment rate as percentage Around
    • of total labour force 2. 3 %
    • Employment in Organised Sector(2004) 26.4 Million
    S EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT SCENARIO IN INDIA Cont...
  • 27. STRUCTURE OF WORKFORCE
    • Sector World India
    • Agriculture 40.1% 58.5%
    • Industry 21.0% 18.1%
    • Services 38.9% 23.4%
    • Vast majority of workers in Agriculture
    • A significant proportion of them are below poverty line
  • 28. Approach by various Countries
    • Various countries are trying to address the problem of unemployment through various means.
    • Developed countries are trying to have separate employment policies.
    • Developing countries are relying on economic growth as well as special employment generation programme.
    • Export of labour force to other countries will not be easy unless labour force in developing countries can claim better skills.
  • 29. Approach to Employment in Economic Planning-India
    • Planning in India focused on economic growth.
    • Generation of employment was viewed as part of the process of development and not as a goal in conflict with, or to be pursued independently of economic development
    • Thus there is no employment policy as such and additional employment generation is attempted through growth process and through special employment generation programme
  • 30. PROBLEMS
    • Population growth and consequential increase in the labour force. 10 to 12 million persons are entering the labour force every year.
    • Productivity and income generation from employment are low.
    • Th ough, open unemployment is only2.3%(11 million)
    • the percentage of the population below the poverty line is high. The fact of being employed is obviously
    • no guarantee of escaping from poverty,which in our situation refers to a very basic level of subsistence.
    • Out of around 470 million work force as many as 130million are working poor. Therefore the problem is of the order of 130+11=141 million.
  • 31. MAIN ISSUES There are primarily two main issues namely:- Issue no-1 How to provide employment to the new entrant to the labour force and to the unemployed. That is how to create additional employment opportunities needed. Issue no-2 How to improve quality of employment so that productivity and income level of the workforce increases.
  • 32. Action taken to tackle Issue No-1
    • Planned Initiative. Tenth Plan envisages creation of around 10 million jobs each year, around 6 million from normal growth process and around 4 million through special employment generation programme proposed for sectors.
    • Economic growth and employment growth being correlated attempts are made to achieve 8% growth rate of the economy so that anticipated employment generation takes place.
    • As against a target of 10 million per year around12 million persons per year were provided employment during 2000-2005
  • 33. Action taken to tackle Issue No-2
    • Provide skill training to the new entrants to the
    • labour force
    • Improving skill level of the work force.
    • Organize Skill training as per the market demand. That is, it should cater to the needs of both organized and unorganized sector.
  • 34. STUDENTS ARE THE RISING POWERS OF INDIA
  • 35.  

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