Carbon and its compounds

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Carbon and its compounds

  1. 1. What Is Carbon ? CARBON is the chemical element withsymbol C and atomic number 6. As a member ofgroup 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic andtetravalent—making four electrons available toform covalent chemical bonds. There are threenaturally occurring isotopes, with 12C and 13C beingstable, while 14C is radioactive
  2. 2. Factors that determine the properties of a hydrocarbon are: The number of carbon atoms How the atoms are arranged:1. Straight chain2. Branched chain3. Ring Or Cyclic
  3. 3. SATURATED UNSATURATEDHYDROCARBON HYDROCARBON
  4. 4. A Hydrocarbon is an organiccompound that contains only theelements hydrogen and carbon.In a saturated hydrocarbon, all thebonds are single bonds.Alkane is another name for asaturated hydrocarbon.
  5. 5. NO. OF CARBON NAME FORMULA STRUCTUREATOMS 1 METHANE CH4 2 ETHANE C2H6 3 PROPANE C3H8 4 BUTANE C4H10 5 PENTANE C5H12 6 HEXANE C6H14
  6. 6. A hydrocarbon cancontain one carbonatom, as in methaneor thousands ofcarbon atoms, as incellulose.
  7. 7. Carbon has an ability to form brancheswith other carbon atoms. Simplebranched alkanes often have a commonname using a prefix to distinguish themfrom linear alkanes, for example n-pentane, isopentane, and neopentane.IUPAC naming conventions can be usedto produce a systematic name.
  8. 8. Carbons can be arranged in theform of a ring or cyclic, such ascyclobutane , Benzene etc .
  9. 9. Allotropy or allotropism is the property of somechemical elements to exist in two or moredifferent forms, known as allotropes of theseelements. Allotropes are different structuralmodifications of an element; the elementsatoms are bonded together in a differentmanner. For Example -- GRAPHITE DIAMOND FULLERENE
  10. 10. This is also a form of carbon allotrope. Thefirst one to be identified was C-60 which hascarbon arranged in the shape of a football.As it resembled to the geodesic domedesigned by US architect Buckminster Fuller ,So the molecule was named fullerene.
  11. 11. In diamond, each carbon atom is tetraheadedly attached to four other carbonatoms forming a rigid three dimensionalstructure.Thus it is the hardest substance known.
  12. 12. In organic chemistry, functional groupsare specific groups of atoms withinmolecules that are responsible for thecharacteristic chemical reactions of thosemolecules. The same functional group willundergo the same or similar chemicalreaction(s) regardless of the size of themolecule it is a part of.
  13. 13. SOME FUNCTIONAL GROUPSFUNCTIONAL GOUPS SUFFIX / PREFIX & SYMBOLSALDEHYDE Suff – ‘al’ALCOHOL Suff – ‘ol’KETONE Suff–‘one’CARBOXYLIC ACID Suff – ‘oic acid’HALOGEN Pref – chloro , bromo, floro, iodo

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