Prevention of Diarrhoea Dr Nikhil Bansal J.N.M.C.,Wardha
Sanitationa) Provision of improved water supplyb) Improved Excreta Disposal all families should have a clean & functioning latrine the latrine should be kept clean by regular washing dirty surface. If there is no latrine family members should defecate at a distance from the house, path or areas where children play & at least 10 mt away from the water supply source.
c) Improved domestic & food hygiene Hand washing - It should be before preparing food. Before eating. Before feeding child. And after defecation. In our research it is found that % of children with proper hand washing was from free for diarrhoeal diseases
Use plenty of water for hygiene. As we can see % of children taking hygiene water did not suffer from diarrhoea Use of latrine thereby there is a safe disposal of excreta. Hand washing should be promoted.
Fly control Sanitation is the most effective & important step in controlling house flies. There should be appropriate disposal of excreta. Dry and wrap organic waste before placing it in the garbage can. Seal garbage cans with tight fitting lids.
Manure & other decaying plant & animal material should be promptly removed Screen windows & doors to keep pests out. Use indoor fly traps or sticky tape to control pests inside the house
Personal Hygiene Oral hygiene Bathing
Cutting of nails Washing of hands before meals & after defecation
Breast Feeding Exclusive breastfeeding-only breast milk is given no other food or drink,not even water,is given. An infant should be exclusively breastfed for first 6 months of life. As we can see in our reasearch, % of breast fed children did not suffer from diarrhoea. Breast milk contains several anti infective factors,which protect the baby from enteral infections.
Lactoferrin present in breast milk is less than 50% saturated with iron and this does not make breast milk a suitable medium for growth of enterobacteria. High level of bifidus factor prrotects the baby from infection with E.coli. Breast milk has living phagocytic macrophages and lymphoid cell,which provide nonspecific gastrointestinal host defences and offer protection against diarrhoea. Breastfed babies have less diarrhoea and fewer respiratory infections than artificially fed babies.
Feeding bottles & rubber teats, which are particularly difficult to clean, are often breeding grounds for germ should be avoided .
Weaning Literal meaning of the term weaning is taking the infant away from the breast and nourishment by other means.it starts around the age of 6 months. Commom weaning foods are ;1. khichadi2. Dalia3. Jaggery4. Mashed potato & Banana.
It should be supplimented by suitable foods rich in proteins and other nutrients. If it’s not done properly is often followed by diarrhoea. At the age of 1 year the child should receive solid foods consisting of cereals,pulses,vegetables and fruits.
Immunization Immunization against measles is a potential interventon for diarrhoea control. When administered at the recommended age, the measles vaccine can prevent upto 25% of diarrhoea deaths in children under 5 years of age. All children who have been immunized against measles was protected from diarrhoea to an extent. In our research % of children was immunized against measles.
Zinc supplementationAfter appropriate treatment of diarrhoea zincsupplementation can prevent the occurrence ofdiarrhoea for following 2-3 months.
Prevention of AcuteRespiratory infection
Overcrowding Should Be Prevented• Overcrowding refers to the situation in which more people are living within a single dwelling than there is a space for so that ; 1) Movement is restricted, 2) Privacy scluded, 3) Hygiene impossible 4) Rest and sleep difficult• Infectious diseases spread rapidly under these conditions,and
The degree of overcrowding can best be expressed as the number of persons per room. The accepted standards are ; 1 Room = 2 persons 2 Rooms = 3 persons 3 Rooms = 5 persons 4 Rooms = 7 persons 5 or more = 10 persons Rooms
Purification of water Household Disinfection purification of wellsBoiling filtration Chemical disinfection
Boiling• The boiling is a satisfactory and excellent method of purifying water for house hold purposes.• Water must be boiled for 5 to 10 minutes.it kills all bacteria,spores,cysts,ova and yields sterilized water.
Chemical Disinfections• Bleaching powder• Chlorine tablets• Iodine• Potassiun permagnet
Sanitation• Provision of improved water supply,•Improved excreata disposal all families should have a clean and functoining latrine.•the latrine should be kept clean by regular washing dirty surface.
• If there is no latrine family members should defecate at a distance from the house, path or areas where children play and at least 10 m away from the water supply source.
• Improved domestic and food hygiene 1. hand washing;it should be,before preparing food,before eating,before feeding child and after defecation. In our research it is found that % of children with proper hand washing was from free for diarrhoeal diseases• In our research it is found that % of children with proper hand washing was from free for diarrhoeal diseases
Indoor polution• To prevent indoor polution following can be done ; 1) Increased use of electricity,natural gas and central heating in place of coal can greatly helped in smoke reduction. 2) Increase the number of outlet for smoke. 3) Keep children away from smoke.
Open Window Leave the windows in your house open a crack in winter. One or two in the rooms in which you spend the most time. This is especially important if you live in a newer home, where fresh circulating air has been the victim of energy efficiency. A bit of fresh air will do wonders for chasing out germs.
Gargling People who gargled with water were 36 percent less likely to be struck down when compared with non- garglers. The study suggests that simple water gargling is effective to prevent upper respiratory tract infections.
Drink, drink, drink!• Hot liquids like fruit teas and lemon drinks will ease any nasal congestion.• A dried-out respiratory system will leave you more prone to infection.
Education is the key to reducing ARI & Diarrhoea topromoting greater understanding and providingskills necessary to protect there child. Thanks….