Introduction of soil Soil can be define as the uppermost crust of earth mixed with organic material and in which animals and microorganisms live, and plants grow.
Soil pollution• Soil pollution is defined or can be described as the contamination of soil of a particular region.• Soil pollution is caused by addition of chemicals, which reduces it’s productive capacity.• In rural areas more fertilizers & pesticides are used in agricultural operations & the residual chemicals remain in the top layers of soil.
SOURCES OF SOIL POLLUTION• Acid rains• Excess application of pesticides, fertilizer.• Urban solid wastes.• Disposal of Industrial wastes and sludge over land.
Acid Rain Acid Rain is caused by air pollution. The acidic water falls on the soil and pollutes it by making the soil acidic.
Fertilizers The use of excess fertilizers to increase the crop yields makes the soil either acidic or alkaline and pollutes it. Ex: ammonium sulphate , sodium nitrate
Fertilizers Excess use of Na, Mg, Ca, K, Zn in the form of fertilizers & pesticides inhibit plant growth & reduce crop yield.
Urban wastes These wastes include a wet and fermentable fraction, made of food residuals from houses, restaurants and food industries, paper.
Industrial waste This pollution can be very massive in certain areas, where the industries discharge their wastes and really great is the variety of pollutants: heavy metals compounds, asbestos, organic compounds
POLLUTANTS Organic waste Compounds Excess use of fertilizers
PollutantsOrganic waste Organic waste enter the soil pores & decompose pathological bacteria spread infection.Compounds Compounds containing arsenic, mercury, chromium, nickel, lead, Zin c, & iron are toxic to the life. Fluorides also affect the plant development.
p0llutantsExcess use of fertilizers Excess use of Na, Mg, Ca, K, Zn, in the form of fertilizers & pesticides inhabit plant growth & reduce crop yield.
Humans Effects Causes cancers including leukemia. Mercury can increase the risk of kidney damage. Also cause headaches, eye irritation & skin rash.
Animals Effects Small life forms may consume harmful chemicals which may then be passed up the food chain to large animals.
Agricultural Effects Decrease soil fertility. Reduced crop yield. Larger loss of soil & nutrients. Reduced nitrogen fixation.
Urban Effects Public health problems. Pollution of drinking water sources. Foul smell & release of gases. Waste management problems.
Control of soil pollution Ban on use of plastic bags which are major cause of pollution in cities. Recycling of plastic wastes to manufacture many ‘remake’ items. Ban on deforestation. Encouraging forest replantation programmes. Use carefully the fertilizers & pesticides preferable in optimal dose.