Background• HACCP has become synonymous with food safety.• It is a worldwide-recognized systematic and preventive approach that addresses biological, chemical and physical hazards through anticipation and prevention, rather than through end-product inspection and testing → which is inappropriate for highly perishable foods.
*Organoleptic refers to any sensory properties of a product, involving taste, colour, odourand feel.
Background• HACCP was developed in the 60s by the Pillsbury Company, the U.S. military and NASA have collaborated to develop a system for producing safe food for the space program.• NASA wanted a "zero defects" program to guarantee safety in the foods that astronauts would be consuming in space.
Background• “Pillsbury” therefore, introduced and adopted HACCP as a system that could provide the greatest safety while reducing dependence on finished product sampling and testing.• HACCP emphasized control of the process as far upstream in the processing system as possible by utilizing operator control and/or continuous monitoring techniques at critical control points.
Background• In 1971, Pillsbury presented HACCP system to the public for the first time• In 1973, it was applied to low - acid canned foods by USFDA• In 1985, The United States National Academy of Science recommended that the HACCP approach be adopted in food processing establishments to ensure food safety.• Since then, HACCP has been recognized internationally as a logical tool towards a more modern, scientifically based inspection system.
Background• HACCP programs are currently mandatory for juice, seafood and meat production in US.• The system is used at all stages of food production and preparation processes including packaging, distribution, etc.
Definitions• HACCP: A systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards.• Hazard: A biological, chemical, or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control.• Hazard Analysis: The process of collecting and evaluating information on hazards associated with the food under consideration to decide which are significant and must be addressed in the HACCP plan.
Definitions• Control: – (a) To manage the conditions of an operation to maintain compliance with established criteria. – (b) The state where correct procedures are being followed and criteria are being met.• Critical Control Point: A step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
Definitions• HACCP overview: – HACCP is an internationally recognised methodology for preventing food safety hazards. – HACCP uses a system of monitoring Critical Control Points (CCPs) at steps in a food production process where a potential critical hazard to food safety has been identified. – If the monitoring result is outside the critical limit (a warning sign), a pre-determined corrective action is implemented to prevent the hazard from occurring. – The goal for HACCP is to develop a system which is built on preventing problems before they occur. – The safety of the food product is built into the process of producing the product rather than relying on inspection only after food has been prepared. – This system well and truly puts the responsibility for producing safe food in the hands of industry, including not only management but also individuals who handle food products.
Pros• HACCP focuses heavily on problem prevention and problem solving, through proper monitoring and record-keeping by the industry. – It is more proactive than reactive, when compared to traditional end product sampling quality control methods. – It has the potential to identify all conceivable, reasonably expected hazards, even where failures have not previously been experienced → particularly useful for new operations – Reduce or eliminate food safety hazards• One of the primary economic benefits of HACCP is that it provides for reduced destructive sampling of the finished product, as compared to the end-product sampling required under traditional inspection systems
Pros• Internationally recognised• Less end of production tests.• Provides the business with a marketing tool and competitive advantage• Provides improved supplier status with customersImport Requirement by Develop Countries :• –EU : all food import (since November 1996)• –USA : fish and meat product (1997)• –Japan, Australia and New Zealand : certain domestic products and high risk products.
Cons• Cost of development and implementation• Cost of monitoring• Impact on employee wages and workload• Need to train supervisors managerial and production staff• Reduced Staff time available for other tasks
Guidelines for the application of HACCPPrerequisite Programs• The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs.• These conditions and practices are now considered to be prerequisite to the development and implementation of effective HACCP plans.
• Common prerequisite programs may include, but are not limited to: – Facilities. • The establishment should be located, constructed and maintained according to sanitary design principles. – Supplier Control. • Each facility should assure that its suppliers have in place effective GMP and food safety programs. – Specifications. • There should be written specifications for all ingredients, products, and packaging materials. – Production Equipment. • All equipment should be constructed and installed according to sanitary design principles.
– Cleaning and Sanitation.– Personal Hygiene.– Training.– Chemical Control. • Documented procedures must be in place to assure the segregation and proper use of non-food chemicals in the plant– Receiving, Storage and Shipping. • All raw materials and products should be stored under sanitary conditions and the proper environmental conditions– Traceability and Recall. • All raw materials and products should be lot-coded and a recall system in place so that rapid and complete traces and recalls can be done when a product retrieval is necessary.– Pest Control.
Guidelines for the application of HACCP1. Assemble HACCP team – should assure that the appropriate product specific knowledge and expertise is available – multidisciplinary team (engineering, production, sanitation, quality assurance, and food microbiology) → may need assistance from outside experts – Need knowledgeable and experienced personnel to: a) conduct a hazard analysis; b) identify potential hazards; c) identify hazards which must be controlled; d) recommend controls, critical limits, and procedures for monitoring and verification; e) recommend appropriate corrective actions when a deviation occurs; f) recommend research related to the HACCP plan if important information is not known; and g) validate the HACCP plan
Guidelines for the application of HACCP2.Describe product – A full description of the product should be drawn up, – includes relevant safety information such as: • composition, • physical/chemical structure, • microcidal/static treatments (e.g. heat- treatment, freezing, brining, smoking, etc.), • packaging, • Durability, • storage conditions and • Method of distribution.
Guidelines for the application of HACCP3. Identify intended use and consumers of the food – Describe the normal expected use of the food. – The intended consumers may be the general public or a particular segment of the population (e.g., infants, immunocompromised individuals, the elderly, etc.) → vulnerable groups of the population, (e.g. institutional feeding), may have to be considered.
Guidelines for the application of HACCP4.Construct flow diagram – The purpose of a flow diagram is to provide a clear, simple outline of the steps involved in the process. – The scope of the flow diagram must cover all the steps in the process which are directly under the control of the establishment.5.On-site confirmation of flow diagram – The HACCP team should perform an on-site review of the operation to verify the accuracy and completeness of the flow diagram. – Modifications should be made to the flow diagram as necessary and documented.
Guidelines for the application of HACCP6.Conduct a hazard analysis (Principle 1) – The purpose of the hazard analysis is to develop a list of significant hazards that are likely to cause injury or illness if not effectively controlled – Areas to be considered: • Raw materials and ingredients • Product formulation • Processing conditions • Packaging • Storage and distribution • Preparation and use • Target groups
Guidelines for the application of HACCP– Hazard analysis: • Stage 1: – hazard identification, can be regarded as a brain storming session – the team develops a list of potential biological, chemical or physical hazards which may be introduced, increased, or controlled at each step in the production process • Stage 2: – the hazard evaluation (based on the severity of the potential hazard and its likely occurrence)– the significant hazards associated with each step in the production of the food should be listed along with any measure(s) that are used to control the hazard(s)– More than one control measure may be required to control a specific hazard(s) and more than one hazard may be controlled by a specified control measure.
Guidelines for the application of HACCP7. Determine Critical Control Points (Principle 2) – CCP = a step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent, eliminate or reduce a hazard – The information from hazard analysis is essential to identify which steps in the process are CCPs – CCP decision tree: • Used after hazard analysis • Used at the steps with identified significant hazards • A subsequent step may be more effective in controlling a hazard and may be the preferred CCP • More than one steps in the process may be involved in controlling a hazard • More than one hazard may be controlled by a specific control measure.
Guidelines for the application of HACCP8. Establish Critical Limits for each CCP (Principle 3) – Critical limit = a maximum and/or minimum value to which a biological, chemical or physical parameter must be controlled at a CCP to prevent, eliminate or reduce a hazard to an acceptable level – A critical limit is used to distinguish between safe and unsafe operating conditions at a CCP. – Critical limits may be based upon factors such as: • temperature, • time, • physical dimensions, • humidity, • moisture level, • water activity (aw), • pH, • titratable acidity, • salt concentration, • available chlorine, • viscosity, • preservatives, • sensory information such as aroma and visual appearance.
Guidelines for the application of HACCP9.Establish a Monitoring System for Each CCP (Principle 4) – Monitoring = a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP is under control and to produce an accurate record for future use in verification – Purposes of monitoring: • To facilitate tracking of the operation. If monitoring indicates that there is a trend towards loss of control, then action can be taken to bring the process back into control before a deviation from a critical limit occurs. • To determine when there is loss of control and a deviation occurs at a CCP, i.e., exceeding or not meeting a critical limit. • To provide written documentation for use in verification
Guidelines for the application of HACCP10. Establish corrective actions (Principle 5) – Corrective actions are necessary when there is a deviation from established critical limits. – An important purpose of corrective actions is to prevent foods which may be hazardous from reaching consumers. – Corrective actions should include the following elements: a) determine and correct the cause of non-compliance; b) determine the disposition of non-compliant product c) record the corrective actions that have been taken.
Guidelines for the application of HACCP11. Establish Verification Procedures (Principle 6) – Verification = activities other than monitoring, to determine if the HACCP system is working correctly – Examples of verification activities include: • Review of the HACCP system and its records • Review of deviations and product dispositions • Confirmation that CCPs are kept under control – Verification activities are carried out by individuals within a company, third party experts, and regulatory agencies.
Guidelines for the application of HACCP12.Establish Documentation and Record Keeping (Principle 7) – Generally, the records maintained for the HACCP System should include the following: • A summary of the hazard analysis, including the rationale for determining hazards and control measures. • The HACCP Plan – Listing of the HACCP team and assigned responsibilities. – Description of the food, its distribution, intended use, and consumer. – Verified flow diagram. – HACCP Plan Summary Table that includes information for: » Steps in the process that are CCPs » The hazard(s) of concern. » Critical limits » Monitoring » Corrective actions » Verification procedures and schedule » Record-keeping procedures – Support documentation such as validation records. – Records that are generated during the operation of the plan.