Public Relations Origins


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Public Relations Origins

  1. 1. PBR 150 – UnderstandingGlobal Public Relations<br />Origins of Public Relations to 21st Century<br />(Trends, Global; regional; local)<br />
  2. 2. “Aspect of communications that involves promoting a desirable image for a person or group seeking public attention”. Britannica Encyclopedia.<br />“Systematic effort to create and maintain goodwill of an organization's various publics (customers, employees, investors, suppliers, etc.), usually through publicity and other non-paid forms of communication. These efforts may also include support of arts, charitable causes, education, sporting events, etc”. Business<br />Public relations (PR) is the practice of conveying messages to the public through the media on behalf of a client, with the intention of changing the public's actions by influencing their opinions. PR practitioners usually target only certain segments of the public ("audiences"), since similar opinions tend to be shared by a group of people rather than an entire society. However, by targeting different audiences with different messages to achieve an overall goal, PR practitioners can achieve widespread opinion and behavior change.<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms MorenikeAdekale<br />2<br />Some Public Relations Definitions<br />
  3. 3. Harold Lasswell (1902-1978) explained in 1928 that, "public relations" was a term used as a way of shielding the profession from the ill repute increasingly associated with the word "propaganda": <br />"Propaganda has become an epithet of contempt and hate, and the propagandists have sought protective coloration in such names as 'public relations council,' 'specialist in public education,' 'public relations adviser.' "<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />3<br />Origins of Public Relations <br />
  4. 4. Propaganda is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position. As opposed to impartially providing information, propaganda, in its most basic sense, presents information primarily to influence an audience. <br />Propaganda often presents facts selectively (thus possibly lying by omission) to encourage a particular synthesis, or uses loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the attitude toward the subject in the target audience to further a political agenda. Propaganda can be used as a form of political warfare.<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />4<br />Origins - Propoganda<br />
  5. 5. In the middle of the 19th century appeared a man who was to become one of the leading publicists of all time, P. T. Barnum. <br />His accomplishments include the founding of the American Museum and the establishment of the Barnum and Bailey Circus. <br />Barnum was a master of promotion who could fill his enterprises with customers by using what we today would call sleazy methods of publicity. <br />For example, he announced that his museum would exhibit a 161-year-old woman who had been Washington's nurse. He produced an elderly woman and a forged birth certificate to make his case.<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />5<br />Origins– P.T. Barnum<br />
  6. 6. William Seward, Lincoln's secretary of state in 1861, gained a large American audience through his understanding of how to use the press. <br />"I speak to the newspapers – they have a large audience and can repeat a thousand times what I want to impress on the public.”<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />6<br />Origins – William Seward<br />
  7. 7. Public relations became a profession in 1903 as Ivy Lee undertook to advise John D. Rockefeller on how to conduct his public relations. <br />Rockefeller owned coal mines and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Miners were on strike and the railroad hushed up the facts when its trains were involved with accidents.<br />Lee advised Rockefeller to visit the coal mines and talk to the miners and Rockefeller spent time listening to the miners, and became a hero to the miners.<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />7<br />Origins – Ivy Lee<br />
  8. 8. After a railroad accident, Lee invited reporters to inspect the wreck and get the facts. <br />The Pennsylvania Railroad then obtained its first favorable press coverage.<br />Lee professionalized public relations by following these principles:<br />1. Tell the truth<br />2. Provide accurate facts<br />3. The public relations director must have access to top management and must be able to influence decisions<br /><ul><li>Lee was the first practitioner of modern PR and invented the press release. Lee defined public relations, saying: </li></ul>Public relations means the actual relationship of the company to the people and that relationship involves more than talk. The company must act by performing good deeds.<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />8<br />Origins – Ivy Lee<br />
  9. 9. Public relations took the next step toward professionalism in 1918 as Edward Bernays advised the President of the new country of Czechoslovakia to announce independence on a Monday, rather than on a Sunday to get maximum press coverage.<br />In 1923, Bernays published “Crystallizing Public Opinion,” (the 1st PR book) in which he established several public relations principles. He said that public relations had these functions:<br />To interpret the client to the public, which means promoting the client<br />To interpret the public to the client, which means operating the company in such a way as to gain the approval of the public<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />9<br />Origins – Edward BernaysImage depicts: Public relations pioneer Edward Bernays, shown (L to R) from the late 1920s to early '30s, the mid- to late '40s and 1990<br />
  10. 10. Bernays’ ideas about social responsibility led to his refusal to accept unethical clients.<br />“…there are many publics and each public needs to be appealed to.”<br />He advised public relations professionals to seek out group leaders and other key communicators (opinion leaders), who would be able to pass along ideas to other members of the public.<br />Other Bernays concepts include:<br />Public relations is a public service<br />Public relations should promote new ideas and progress<br />Public relations should build a public conscience<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />10<br />Origins – Edward Bernays<br />
  11. 11. Bernays in practice: Proctor and Gamble and the Columbian Rope Company.<br />Proctor and Gamble had produced a radio commercial, which was offensive to African-Americans. Bernays took these steps:<br />He changed the commercial<br />He got the company to offer African-Americans significant jobs<br />He invited them to tour the plant<br />He featured African-Americans in the company newsletter<br />The Columbian Rope Company had an anti-union image. Bernays took these steps:<br />He produced a radio program featuring union and management panelists<br />He induced the company to bargain with the union<br />He offered tours of the plant<br />He convinced the company to sponsor a vocational program<br />Edward Bernays may truly be called the father of public relations and Ivy Lee the first public relations counselor.<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />11<br />Origins – Edward Bernays<br />
  12. 12. Promote Wars<br />Lobby for political Causes<br />Support political parties<br />Promote Religion<br />Sell Products<br />Raise Money<br />Publicize events and people<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />12<br />PR’ Uses Throughout History<br />
  13. 13. 2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />13<br />Public Relations vsPropoganda<br />French Postcard - French Military Humor Propaganda : The Ingordo, - approximately 1915. Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany caricatured trying to eat the world, but finds it "too hard".<br />Poster for Thirteenth Naval District, United States Navy, showing a rat representing Japan, approaching a mousetrap labeled "Army, Navy, Civilian", on a background map of the Alaska Territory<br />Anti-communist propaganda in a 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of "the dangers of a Communist takeover".<br />
  14. 14. 2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />14<br />The Calder Hart / Udecott Fiasco<br />China in TnT<br />Japan in TnT<br />
  15. 15. 2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />15<br />Digicel's sponsorship and events executive Sherwin Campbell <br />Digicel Events and Marketing Manager Shonnet Moore and GKC<br />Bmobile’s Advertisements and <br />
  16. 16. Public Relations<br />Marketing<br />Strategic Communications<br />Media relations / management<br />Promotions<br />Image Consultants<br />Press manipulation<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />16<br />Terms to think about<br />
  17. 17. Traditional forms of Media:<br />Newspapers<br />Other print media<br />Leaflets <br />Flyers<br />Promotional paraphernalia e.g. tickets, calendars, stationery etc<br />Television<br />Commercials/advertisements<br />Infomercials <br />New Media Channels:<br />Networking sites<br />Blogging<br />Internet IM and email<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />17<br />New Media and Public Relatioins<br />
  18. 18. Branding / logo / marketing<br />Mission Statements<br />Promotions<br />Free merchandise<br />Stationery<br />Calendars etc<br />Occasion hampers<br />Special customer discounts etc<br />Sponsorship<br />Of events<br />Of programs e.g. scholarships<br />2/1/2011<br />Ms Morenike Adekale<br />18<br />Discrete Business PR Practices<br />