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Government Linked Data: A Tipping Point for
the Semantic Web


Professor Nigel Shadbolt FREng
Public Sector Transparency B...
The Semantic Web
circa 2000
Too Complex
The Semantic Web
circa 2010
Much Simpler

The four micro principles of the Semantic Web

1.  All entities of interest, such as information
    resourc...
Linked Data on the Web:
May 2007
Linked Data on the Web:
April 2008
Linked Data on the Web:
July 2009

                 Music       Online Activities

                                       ...
The Shape of Linked Data
•  Micro principles to macro
   phenomena

•  Shape and structure

•  Scale free

•  Preferential...
Open Government
Data: A Gift…
Introduction

•  Open Government Data is
   creating waves

•  Governments, local authorities,
   cities, organizations, i...
The Power of Open Data




  Cholera                Bicycling traffic
   cases                    accidents
The Power of Open Data
Port-au-Prince 12 Jan 2010
The Power of Open Data
Port-au-Prince ≅ 25 Jan 2010
from this…
to this… in 13 days
Accomplishments

•  data.gov.uk itself (now with almost 4000
   datasets)
    –  Open source and open standards
    –  Key...
Coalition Government’s
Commitments
•    Prime Minister’s letter to Ministers on Transparency
     and Open Data - establis...
Public Data

 "Public Data" is the
 objective, factual, non-
 personal data on which
 public services run and are
 assesse...
Public Data Principles

•  Public data policy and practice will be clearly driven by the public and
   businesses who want...
Public Data Principles

•  Public data underlying the Government’s own websites will be published
   in reusable form for ...
Early examples of OGD - ASBOrometer
Early examples of OGD – NHS dentists
Power of OGD – Location…
The Power of OGD – Spending…
The Power of OGD – Publish it…and the
apps flow
Local Government Data



•  New items of Local
   government spending over
   £500 – council by council
   from Jan 2011

...
Local Government Data



•  New items of Local
   government spending over
   £500 – council by council
   from Jan 2011

...
Local Government Data



•  “Greater openness in
   spending is the best way to
   root out waste, spot
   duplication and...
And more to come…

•    New local government contracts and tender documents for expenditure over
     £500 to be published...
Data Publishing – Star Quality

★        Put your data on the Web (any format)

★★       Make it available as structured d...
Why 5★ Linked Data?

•  National digital
   infrastructure being built

•  URIs for schools, roads,
   bus stops, post cod...
Why 5★ Linked Data?

•  National digital
   infrastructure being built

•  URIs for schools, roads,
   bus stops, post cod...
Joining up the dots…
http://map.psi.enakting.org/how
Joining up the dots…
http://map.psi.backlinks.org/
Joining up the dots – UK Linked Data
http://myarea.psi.enakting.org/
Global Linked Data
This application presents a mashup of
foreign aid data (represented in US
Dollars) from the United Stat...
Global Linked Data




This demo uses data from Dataset 311 on crime in the United States,
census.gov and UK recorded crim...
Global Linked Data – Just Beginning


•  A spirit of competition and
   collaboration

•  Contacts with US, EU etc

•  Beg...
Oh no you can’t…

Loss of licensing revenue   National security

Loss of control             Complexity

Legal challenges ...
Oh yes we can…

More transparency             More economic/social capital

  what is going on?             generates oppo...
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Government Linked Data: A Tipping Point for the Semantic Web

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Talk delivered to ISKO 2010, University College London 14th September, 2010

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Transcript of "Government Linked Data: A Tipping Point for the Semantic Web"

  1. 1. Government Linked Data: A Tipping Point for the Semantic Web Professor Nigel Shadbolt FREng Public Sector Transparency Board Chair CLG Local Public Data Panel ISKO, 14th September 2010 Nigel Shadbolt
  2. 2. The Semantic Web circa 2000
  3. 3. Too Complex
  4. 4. The Semantic Web circa 2010
  5. 5. Much Simpler The four micro principles of the Semantic Web 1.  All entities of interest, such as information resources, real-world objects, and vocabulary terms should be identified by URI references. 2. URI references should be dereferenceable, meaning that an application can look up a URI over the HTTP protocol and retrieve RDF data about the identified resource. 3. Data should be provided using the RDF/ XML syntax. 4. Data should be interlinked with other data.
  6. 6. Linked Data on the Web: May 2007
  7. 7. Linked Data on the Web: April 2008
  8. 8. Linked Data on the Web: July 2009 Music Online Activities Publications General Geographic Richard Cyganiak Life Science Open Linked Data on the Web: July 2009! Billions of triples and hundreds of millions of links!
  9. 9. The Shape of Linked Data •  Micro principles to macro phenomena •  Shape and structure •  Scale free •  Preferential attachment •  Communities •  Values and obligations •  Incentives
  10. 10. Open Government Data: A Gift…
  11. 11. Introduction •  Open Government Data is creating waves •  Governments, local authorities, cities, organizations, individuals - all releasing data •  Tim Berners-Lee and myself appointed 9th June 2009 and set about creating data.gov.uk •  Reappointed Public Sector Transparency Board June 2010
  12. 12. The Power of Open Data Cholera Bicycling traffic cases accidents
  13. 13. The Power of Open Data Port-au-Prince 12 Jan 2010
  14. 14. The Power of Open Data Port-au-Prince ≅ 25 Jan 2010
  15. 15. from this…
  16. 16. to this… in 13 days
  17. 17. Accomplishments •  data.gov.uk itself (now with almost 4000 datasets) –  Open source and open standards –  Key data sets released inc OS OpenData, COINS etc. •  a new open licence for Crown Copyright information •  overcoming the many objections to transparency of data •  community of data users and developers who hold the teams to account •  political and technical leadership
  18. 18. Coalition Government’s Commitments •  Prime Minister’s letter to Ministers on Transparency and Open Data - established Public Sector Transparency Board •  Creating a powerful new right to government data, enabling the public to request and receive government datasets •  Publishing data in open and standardised formats •  Transforming the culture of the public sector to one that presumes datasets should be open and shared with the public on an ongoing basis. •  Bringing in new measures to enable to public to scrutinise the government's accounts •  Requiring public bodies to publish online job titles, salaries and expenses of senior staff •  Publishing in full government contracts for good and services worth over £25,000 …
  19. 19. Public Data "Public Data" is the objective, factual, non- personal data on which public services run and are assessed, and on which policy decisions are based, or which is collected or generated in the course of public service delivery. 19
  20. 20. Public Data Principles •  Public data policy and practice will be clearly driven by the public and businesses who want and use the data, including what data is released when and in what form •  Public data will be published in reusable, machine-readable form •  Public data will be released under the same open licence which enables free reuse, including commercial reuse •  Public data will be available and easy to find through a single easy to use online access point (data.gov.uk) •  Public data will be published using open standards, and following relevant recommendations of the World Wide Web Consortium
  21. 21. Public Data Principles •  Public data underlying the Government’s own websites will be published in reusable form for others to use •  Public data will be timely and fine grained •  Release data quickly, and then re-publish it in linked data form •  Public data will be freely available to use in any lawful way •  Public bodies should actively encourage the re-use of their public data •  Public bodies should maintain and publish inventories of their data holdings
  22. 22. Early examples of OGD - ASBOrometer
  23. 23. Early examples of OGD – NHS dentists
  24. 24. Power of OGD – Location…
  25. 25. The Power of OGD – Spending…
  26. 26. The Power of OGD – Publish it…and the apps flow
  27. 27. Local Government Data •  New items of Local government spending over £500 – council by council from Jan 2011 27
  28. 28. Local Government Data •  New items of Local government spending over £500 – council by council from Jan 2011 28
  29. 29. Local Government Data •  “Greater openness in spending is the best way to root out waste, spot duplication and increase value for money.” 29
  30. 30. And more to come… •  New local government contracts and tender documents for expenditure over £500 to be published in full from Jan 2011 •  …information on senior salaries, names and job descriptions, councillor allowances and expenses, minutes and papers of council meetings, job vacancies that will enable people to see why council wage bills are so high and how many of the positions are for key local services frontline service data - including rubbish and recycling rates, council tax collection rates and detail of major planned projects data such as food hygiene reports for food outlets - information which is routinely collected and of interest to residents, but not currently shared in an easily accessible format •  Crime data to be published at a level that allows the public to see what is happening on their streets from Jan 2011
  31. 31. Data Publishing – Star Quality ★ Put your data on the Web (any format) ★★ Make it available as structured data (e.g. Excel, CSV, instead of PDF) ★★★ Use open, standard formats (e.g. XML, RDF) ★★★★ Use URLs to identify things (so people and machines can point at your data) ★★★★★ Link your data to other people’s data 31
  32. 32. Why 5★ Linked Data? •  National digital infrastructure being built •  URIs for schools, roads, bus stops, post codes, admin boundaries... •  Some of the data links across and connects other data together •  Key data link points exist
  33. 33. Why 5★ Linked Data? •  National digital infrastructure being built •  URIs for schools, roads, bus stops, post codes, admin boundaries... •  Some of the data links across and connects other data together •  Key data link points exist
  34. 34. Joining up the dots… http://map.psi.enakting.org/how
  35. 35. Joining up the dots… http://map.psi.backlinks.org/
  36. 36. Joining up the dots – UK Linked Data http://myarea.psi.enakting.org/
  37. 37. Global Linked Data This application presents a mashup of foreign aid data (represented in US Dollars) from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and UK Department for International Development (DFID) for the 2007 US Fiscal Year. Users may retrieve foreign aid data for specific countries by clicking on a provided world map (shaded based on total combined contributions for USAID and DFID). Upon clicking on a desired country, three kinds of information are presented: Aid Figures, New York Times news, and wikipedia description. http://data-gov.tw.rpi.edu/demo/linked/ aidviz-1554-10030.html
  38. 38. Global Linked Data This demo uses data from Dataset 311 on crime in the United States, census.gov and UK recorded crime.It shows available information on crimes in cities grouped by US countries and UK Territorial Police area.
  39. 39. Global Linked Data – Just Beginning •  A spirit of competition and collaboration •  Contacts with US, EU etc •  Beginning to compare and contrast the catalogues
  40. 40. Oh no you can’t… Loss of licensing revenue National security Loss of control Complexity Legal challenges Investment Exposure Capacity building required Procedural changes Authenticity and quality Privacy Customer service 40
  41. 41. Oh yes we can… More transparency More economic/social capital what is going on? generates opportunities More accountability More engagement and is this acceptable? we can extend and improve More localism More argument because it matters to me, data for evidenced based my family, my locale policy 41
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