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Session on IASL 2009

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    Maury, Jolande Session on SlideShare Maury, Jolande Session on SlideShare Presentation Transcript

    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE School Librairies in the picture: preparing pupils and students for the future IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference Padua (Italy), 2-4 september 2009 Yolande Maury Artois University/ IUFM (France) ERTé « information culture and information curricula », Lille 3
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE  Purpose of this communication - to contribute to the definition of information culture; = which kinds of knowledge are necessary to study, live, and evolve in the information society (particularly in the context of web 2.0 ); = what culture (information culture) is necessary to become « member » of a « world » in which information plays a major role; i.e what initiation (in an anthropological sense)? IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 2
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE  Outline - context of the research - research methods and approach - first results IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 3
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE  Context of the research - ERTé (educational technologies research team), formed in 2006, « Information culture and information curricula », Lille 3, A. Béguin dir. Objective : to propose solutions for improving information literacy education in school and at university. Several research laboratories and academic institutions Five teams (researchers, documentation professionals, school librarians…). - Paris team, with Christiane Etévé, National Institute for Educational Research (INRP). IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 4
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE  Research method - a qualitative research (for an in-depth understanding); - ethnographic observations (non participant, objectifying) to bring out the structural elements of information culture: description of situations (usual practices, specially negotiations pupils-school-librarians); - observations over time, four school librarians, in three secondary schools in Paris, during training sessions; - in various contexts (levels, school subjects); IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 5
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE - focusing on the « emergence of meaning » (Paillé, Mucchielli, 2003), ie identifying dynamics, information culture being built; - narrative observations (logic of situations); = to build a knowledge (anthropology) from « seeing » and « writing on seeing » (ethnography) (Laplantine, 2002). - focused interviews, to know actors’point of view on the practices (open-ended questions); + informal conversations, collection of documents… - an interdisciplinary research, borrowing from several fields. IASL 2009 3th Annual Conference 6
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE  Research approach Information culture is questioned by the idea of « culture », defined as: « everything a person needs to know to live in a particular society » (G. Rocher, 1968); a vast symbolic set, including knowledge, ideas, thoughts, rules, common to a plurality of social actors, at a given time, in a given place. everything a person needs to know to control his own world of information. IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 7
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE In this way, information culture is action: - a behavior related to appropriation (acquisition, learning); - an historical production, experiencing changes, constructed daily through the interactions of social actors (social rules created in a collective process); - a dynamic set, with a relative plasticity, under constant construction, produced to meet shared needs. IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 8
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE Information culture is considered in a dialogical way, linking - pupils’ experiences, their usual practices, information culture as they live it (culture in a descriptive sense, referring to social sciences); - and information culture more « cultivated » that school librarians and teachers are trying to develop (culture in a traditional sense, referring to competencies and knowledge, essential to the point of not leaving them to chance). IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 9
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE  First results  Pupils’ experiences and training needs // new media landscape - young people arrive at school with an experience of these new tools : empirical practices, developing skills, but revealing misunderstandings, gaps; “it is not enough to be the author of social practices so that there is a real culture, it is important that these practices may have meaning for the person who is the author of these practices” (De Certeau, 1990). IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 10
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE - a mixture of improvisation and adaptation: . development of creativity, inventiveness, ability to make “small arrangements” with technology and information; . but often, practical and functional relationship to information: collecting information immediately useful (vs information process on a long term); - (apparent) ease of access to information // increase in resources: . tendency to impatience, illusion of power control; . in contrast with the long time for learning, and with a distanced and wise use of new medias; IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 11
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE - the web 2.0, with its open environment, brings “real life” and uncertainty into school: in contrast with the stability, the certainty of academic knowledge . problems of disorientation, information confusion… . problems to situate and to be oneself ; . navigation through several worlds, formal and non formal information systems; new training needs, new knowledge to build, to promote the construction of meaning (making sense of social practices) IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 12
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE  From empirical skills to information culture Information culture being built through negotiations pupils / school-librarians: . promoting the construction of meaning (an accompanied conduct) ; . and the transition from « information practices » to the « culture of these practices » (Tardif, 1998; Maury, 2005); . « sense giving », with the knowledge as « tools- to-think », proposals of meaning. IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 13
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE . from the experiences and issues of pupils: with knowledge introduced as answers to the pupils’ needs and questions ; . warm, living knowledge, referring to controversial topics, objects of debate (cf. the adjectival (new) educations); . knowledge related to the founding questions of information-documentation and to emerging questions in a context of permanent change (between permanence and change) IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 14
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE  knowledge reconfigured in the context of the web 2.0: - document : less stable, more plastic, both a process and a product difficult to define, and to identify its (key and secondary) attributes; examples and counterexamples; everything is a document: a digital exchange, a stream, the man himself when he is « traced » on the web (O. Ertzscheid, 2009); towards a functional approach (definition based on form, format and medium less relevant) IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 15
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE - information: addressed not only in terms of content (and end in itself), but also in terms of exchange, service, data sharing ; liquid, it’s in nomadic objects in question, the distinction data-information, machine data-social data: manipulated, copied-pasted, transformed, information becomes raw material, it is treated as data, demythologized; difficult to draw the limit between information and non information: for ex., from when the text of a pupil in a blog, or a trace on the web is an information? IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 16
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE - media: difficult to grasp, they take various forms // the expansion of the digital communication defining media is not easy: the traditional categorization (a support for an object) less relevant; internet, « ultimate media » is simultaneously technology, support, media, source of knowledge, it conveys sound, image, writing (D. Cotte, 2005); the same with cell phones blogs, wikis, social networks, presented as media, beyond the seven mass media. However may anything be a media ? (D.Cotte, 2005) IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 17
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE - indexing: two worlds, folksonomies and taxonomies necessary understanding of the two worlds and three dimensions of indexing: social (tags), free (keywords) and controlled (descriptors); from tags to boolean logic, progressive access to the concept of indexing, and better understanding of information relationship // more search power. IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 18
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE - authorship et validation: difficult to teach authorship in open environment // monopoly of knowledge by experts challenged is it sufficient to be a writer in a blog, a wiki... to be an author? Is the traditional publishing or peer review process necessary to declare information valid? is the popularity of a blog a guarantee of validity for information? through questions of law and property, pupils are questioned in their own posture towards information and in the society, and in their relationship to the world; IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 19
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE  Emerging knowledge - informative survey: to channel information automatically, with a prospective approach authentic experiences for pupils and students, to seek the information they want to get, not just to receive (pull versus push) ; for more power in information process, fostering a flexible thinking and a potential for creativity// personalizing the search + being tolerant to unexpected answers and coping with frustration and failure. IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 20
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE - digital identity: web 2.0 and virtual environments, areas of construction of identity (socially constructed from interactions within the social world) making young people aware of their digital identity and its various aspects (formal and informal data ; identity partly imposed // powerful tools ); and of the issue of identity : risks and rights, protection from harmful information, management of identity (profile, pseudonym…) = reflection on their own posture; A module « Testez votre signature numérique », Denis Weiss http://www.tahitidocs.com/outils/traces/signature.htm IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 21
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE  Tentative conclusion - so, information culture is much more than the ability to seek, use, create and communicate information; - it implies social and cultural dimensions which allow a critical and reasoned use of information; - it includes thinking on the process of information and knowledge creation and communication, taking into account the underlying values, biases, and belief systems. IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 22
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE  References Baltz, C. (1998). Une culture pour la société de l'information ? Position théorique, définition, enjeux. Documentaliste-Sciences de l'information, vol. 35, n° 2, 75-82. Cotte, D. (coord.) (2005). Tout peut-il être média ? Communication et langages, n° 146 Dervin, B. (1998). Sense-making theory and practice: An overview of user interests in knowledge seeking and use. Journal of Knowledge Management, 2 (2), 36-46. Certeau, M. de (1990). L'invention du quotidien 1. Arts de faire. Gallimard. (Folio essais ; 146). Ertzscheid, O. (2009) L’homme, un document comme les autres. Hermès, n° 53. (Traçabilité et réseaux). Etévé, C., Maury, Y. (2007). Les savoirs en information-documentation et leur mise en scène au quotidien : la culture de l'information en questions. Rapport d'étape, ERTé "Culture informationnelle et curriculum documentaire", Lille 3. IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 23
    • INFORMATION CULTURE AND WEB 2.0: NEW PRACTICES, NEW KNOWLEDGE Frisch, M. (2007). Disciplinarisation et didactisation de l'information-documentation. Esquisse, n° 50-51, 155-166. Laplantine, F. (2002) La description ethnographique. Nathan/VUEF, p. 7-8. Lévine, J, Develay, M (2003). Pour une anthropologie des savoirs scolaires : de la désappartenance à la réappartenance. ESF. Paillé, P., Mucchielli, A. (2003). L'analyse qualitative en sciences humaines et sociales. Paris : Armand Colin/VUEF, p. 13-16. Rocher, G. (1968). Introduction à la sociologie générale. Ed HMH. Tardif, J. (1998). Intégrer les nouvelles technologies : quel cadre pédagogique ? ESF. (Pratiques et enjeux pédagogiques) Tredinnick, L. (2008). Digital information culture : the individual and society in the digital âge. Chandos Publishing. IASL 2009 38th Annual Conference 24