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Healtheducation 090714065946 Phpapp02 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. welcome By NIDHEESHA T FIRST YEAR MSC NURSING
  • 2.  
  • 3. An introduction
    • Communication can be regarded as a two way process of exchanging or shaping ideas, feelings & information.
    • The countless ways that humans have of keeping in touch with one another.
  • 4. Main components of communication process
    • Sender ( source)
    • Receiver (audience)
    • Message (content)
    • Channels (medium)
    • Feedback(effect)
  • 5. Communication process
    • Process:
    Sender or Instigator Channel Medium Receiver Change in payment systems Finance Dept E-mail Feedback
  • 6. sender
    • Originator of the message
    • Effective communicator must know:
    • his objectives
    • his audience
    • His message
    • Channels of communication
    • Professional abilities & limitations.
  • 7. Receiver
    • Awareness
    • Interest
    • Evaluation
    • Adoption( behaviour changes)
  • 8. Message
    • A good message must be:
    • I n line with objective(S)
    • Meaningful
    • Based on felt needs
    • Clear and understandable
    • Specific and accurate
    • Timely and adequate
    • Fitting the audience
    • Interesting
    • Culturally & socially appropriate
  • 9. Channels of communication
    • Based on three media systems:
    • A. Interpersonal communication
    • B. mass media
    • C. traditional or folk media
  • 10.
    • INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:
    • face to face communication
    • Influences the decisions of undecided persons
    • MASS MEDIA :
    • TV, radio, printed media etc.
    • FOLK MEDIA :
    • Folk dances, singing, dramas, nautanki in UP, burrakatha in Andhra pradesh
    • FEEDBACK : Flow of information / reaction of audience to the sender.
    • E.g. : opinion polls, attitude surveys, interviews etc.
  • 11. Types of communication
    • One way communication(didactic method)
    • Two way communication(socratic method)
    • Verbal communication
    • Non Verbal communication
    • Formal & informal
    • Visual
    • Telecommunication & internet
  • 12. One way communication
    • Flow of communication is from the communicator to the audience.
    • E.g. lecture method in class room
    • Here –knowledge is imposed
    • Learning is authoritative
    • Little audience participation
    • No feedback
    • Does not influence human behaviour
  • 13. Two way communication
    • It is a two way method of communication in which both the communicator and audience take part.
    • Audience may raise questions, and their information, ideas, and opinions to the subject.
    • The process of learning is active and ‘democratic’
    • It influences behaviour
  • 14. Verbal communication
    • Traditional method of communication
    • Use word of mouth
    • Persuasive in nature
  • 15. Non verbal communication
    • It involves communication through body movements like postures, gestures, facial expressions( e.g. Smile, raised eyebrow, frown, staring, gazing etc.)
    • Silence is a non verbal communication since it speaks louder than words.
  • 16. Formal & informal communication
    • Formal- follows line of authority
    • Informal-grape vine communication e.g. gossip circle
    • Informal is more active
  • 17. Visual communication
    • It comprises of
    • charts,
    • graphs,
    • pictograms,
    • tables,
    • maps,
    • Posters etc.
  • 18. Telecommunication & internet
    • Use of electromagnetic instruments
    • Radio , TV, internet etc
  • 19. Health communication
    • Health is concern of everyone for everyone
    • Used synonymously with health education
    • Foundation of preventive healthcare system
  • 20. Functions of Health communication
    • Information
    • Education
    • Motivation
    • Persuasion
    • Counseling
    • Raising morals
    • Health development
    • Organization
  • 21. information
    • Provides information on health problems & how to maintain health and promote it.
    • Exposure to right kind of information can:
    • Eliminate social , psychological barriers of ignorance, prejudice ,and misconceptions of people on health matters.
    • Increase awareness
    • Influence people to that extent that unfelt needs become felt needs, and felt needs become demands.
  • 22. Education
    • Basis of all education is communication
    • Needs a prevention oriented approach
    • Can change lifestyles & risk factors of disease
    • Motivation
    • Power that drives a person from within to act.
    • Motivate individuals to translate health information into personal behavior and lifestyle of their own health.
  • 23. Persuasion
    • Art of winning friends & influencing people
    • counseling
    • a good counselor is compassionate and non-judgmental, is aware of verbal and non-verbal communication skills, is knowledgeable.
    • counselors should strive to ensure that every service user has the right to the following:
  • 24.
    • Information: to learn about the benefits and availability of the services.
    • Access: to obtain services regardless of gender, creed, colour, marital status or location.
    • Choice: to understand and be able to apply all pertinent information to be able to make an informed choice, ask questions freely, and be answered in an honest, clear and comprehensive manner.
    • Safety: a safe and effective service.
  • 25. Privacy: to have a private environment during counselling or services. Confidentiality: to be assured that any personal information will remain confidential. Dignity: to be treated with courtesy, consideration and attentiveness. Comfort: to feel comfortable when receiving services. Continuity: to receive services and supplies for as long as needed. Opinion: to express views on the services offered .
  • 26. HEALTH EDUCATION
  • 27. INTRODUCTION
    • The practice of instructing people and communities in the principles of hygiene and in ways of avoiding disease is a very ancient one.
    • An elementary study of the history of medicine reveals that since time immemorial it has been considered a necessity to instruct communities in health matters for their protection and survival .
  • 28. DEFINITIONS
    • The National Conference on Preventive Medicine [USA]
    • Health education is a process which informs, motivate and helps people to adopt and maintain healthy practices and life styles; advocates environmental changes as needed to facilitate this goal and conducts professional training and research to the same end.
  • 29.
    • WHO Definition
    • Health education, like general education, is concerned with changes in knowledge, feelings and behaviour of people.In its most usual forms, it concentrates on devoloping such health practices as are believed to bring about the best possible state of well being.
  • 30. AIMS OF HEALTH EDUCATION
    • To inform the general public of the principles of physical and mental hygiene and methods of preventing avoidable diseases.
    • To create an informed body of opinion and knowledge. (social workers, teachers)
    • To give the public accurate information of medical discoveries.
    • To facilitate the acceptance and proper usage of medical measures.
  • 31. METHODS OF APPROACHES IN HEALTH EDUCATION
    • Legal or Regulatory Approach
    • Administrative or Service Approach
    • Educational Approach
  • 32. Legal or Regulatory Approach
    • Makes use of the law to protect the health of the public.
    • Eg : Epidemic Diseases Act , Pollution Act
    • Limitations :
    • 1. applicable only at certain times or limited situations.
    • 2. they may not alter the behaviour of the individual.
  • 33. Administrative or Service Approach
    • Intends to provide all the health facilities needed by the people
    • ‘ felt needs of people’
  • 34. Educatinal Approach
    • most effective
    • Components :
    • 1. motivation
    • 2. communication
    • 3. decision making
    • results slow , but permanent and enduring.
    • Suffient time for an individual to bring about changes
    • learning new facts as well as unlearning wrong information as well.
  • 35. CONTENTS OF HEALTH EDUCATION
    • Human Biology
    • Nutrition
    • Hygiene
    • Family Health Care
    • Control of Communicable and Non- Communicable Diseases
    • Mental health
    • Prevention of Accidents
    • Use of Health Services
  • 36. Human Biology
  • 37. Nutrition
    • for prevention of malnutrition
    • Taught nutrient value of food stufs
    • Method of preparation , storage
    • Help people to choose balanced diet
  • 38. Hygiene Personal Environmental
  • 39. Family Health Care
    • Strengthen and improve the health of the family as a unit rather than as an individual.
    • Maternal and child health care, family planning, immunization, nutrition, etc.
  • 40. Control of Communicable and Non-Communicable diseases
    • Provide elementary knowledge about the nature of the diseases and methods of preventing them.
  • 41. Mental Health
    • Depression, neurosis, mental anxiety and emotional disturbances
    • Basic knowledge of common psychological ailments, its detectio, methods of prevention and treatment .
  • 42. Prevention of Accidents
    • People taught about basic safety rules and prevent common accidents.
  • 43. Use of Health services
    • People should be informed about various health services and preventive programmes available to them.
  • 44. PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH EDUCATION
    • INTEREST
    • PARTICIPATION
    • COMPREHENSION
    • MOTIVATION
    • REINFORCEMENT
    • KNOWN TO UNKNOWN
    • LEARNING BY DOING
    • SOIL, SEED & SOWER
    • COMMUNITY LEADERS
    • GOOD HEALTH RELATIONS
  • 45. Interest
    • Topic of interest
    • Identify the ”felt needs” of the people
    • Then prepare a programme
  • 46. Participation
    • Educator should encourage people to participate in health education programmes
    • Group discussions, panel discussions, etc provide oppurtunities for people’s participation
    • Leads to acceptance
  • 47. Known to Unknown
    • Start with what the people already know and then give the new knowledge
    • Existing knowledge as people as the basic step
  • 48. Comprehension
    • Determine the level of literacy and understanding of audience.
    • Language of communication, understandable to audience
    • Usage of technical or medical terms should be avoided.
  • 49. Reinforcement
    • Also called as “booster dose”
    • Refers to repetition needed
    • When not possible for people to learn new things in short time
  • 50. Motivation
    • Defined as “the fundamental desire for learning in an individual”
    • 2 types :
    • primary motive  inborn desires
    • food, clothing, housing
    • secondary motive  outside forces
    • gifts, a word of praise,
    • love, rewards
  • 51. Learning by Doing
    • Learning process accompanied by doing the new things.
    • Based on famous Chinese proverb “if I hear, I forget ; if I see, I remember ; if I do, I know.
  • 52. Soil, Seed & Sower
    • Soil  people to whom education is given
    • Seeds  Health facts to be given
    • Sower  media to transmit the facts
    • All components are interdependent and result in dynamic interaction.
  • 53. Good Human Relations
    • health educator should have good personal qualities
    • Should be able to maintain friendly relations with people
    • Should have a kind nad sympathetic attitude
  • 54. Community leaders
    • Leaders can be used to reach people of the community and to convince them about the need for health education.
  • 55. Health communication- methods
    • Individual approach
    • personal contacts
    • Home visits
    • Personal letters
    • Group approach
    • Lectures
    • Demonstrations
    • Discussion methods
  • 56. Mass approach
    • Television
    • Radio
    • Newspaper
    • Printed material
    • Direct mailing
    • Posters
    • Folk methods
    • Internet
    • Health museums & exhibitions
  • 57. Individual approach
    • Personal interviews like consultation room of the doctor.
    • Health counseling on prevention, personal hygiene, environmental hygiene.
    • Educate people on health matters.
    • Limitation-health education reaches to a small section of society & to those who come into contact.
  • 58. Group approach
    • It includes:
    • Lecture method(chalk & talk method)
    • It is an oral presentation of the facts, organized thoughts& ideas by a qualified person
    • Chalk is visual component.
    • Group should not be more than 30
    • Talk should only limit to 15 -20 min.
    • It can be made more interesting by the following:
  • 59.
    • A.)Flipcharts: these are the series of charts (posters)about 25 by 30 cms or more
    • They are shown one after another i.e. flashed
    • Designed to hold the attention of people.
    • B.)Flannel graph: a piece of rough flannel or khadi fixed over a wooden board includes cut out pictures, graphs, drawings and other illustrations.
    • Advantage of flannel graph: a prearranged sequence of picture arranged one after another adding continuity and is easy to transport also it is a cheap medium.
  • 60.
    • C.) Exhibits: objects, models & specimens etc.
    • D.)films and charts: used in group approach as well as in mass communication.
    • Demonstrations
    • It is a carefully prepared presentation to show how to perform a skill or procedure. E.g. lumber puncture, disinfection of a well, demonstration of oral rehydration technique.
    • It arouses interest
    • Persuades the onlookers to recommended practices.
  • 61. Group discussions
    • A group is an “aggregation of people interacting in a face to face situation”.
    • Freely exchange of knowledge ,ideas, and opinions.
    • For effective GD, the should have not les than 6 & not more than 12 members. All seated in circular pattern and fully visible to each other.
    • A group leader initiates the conversation & ends it.
    • There can be “recorder” to record the GD.
  • 62.
    • Rules
    • A.)express ideas clearly and concisely
    • B.)listen to what others say
    • C.)Do not interrupt when others are speaking
    • D.)Make only relevant remarks
    • E.)accept criticism gracefully
    • F.)help to reach conclusions
    • A well conducted group discussion with adequate resources is very effective in reaching decisions, based on the ideas of all people.
  • 63.
    • Limitation of GROUP DISCUSSION:
    • some may dominate it and some may be shy to take part in it. Thus there may be unequal participation. Some may deviate from the subject and make the discussion irrelevant or unprofitable.
  • 64. Panel discussion
    • A group of 4-8 qualified person talk about the topic sit and discuss a given problem in front of a large group or audience.
    • The panel consist of a chairman or moderator & from 4-8 speakers.
    • First the main aspects of the subject are explored by the panel and then audience is invited to take part in it.
  • 65. symposium
    • A symposium is a series of speeches on a selected subject. Each person or expert presents an aspect of the subject briefly.
    • There is no discussion in it & in the end, the audience may raise questions.
    • The chairman makes a comprehensive summary at the end of the entire session.
  • 66. workshop
    • It consists of a series of meetings, usually 4 or more with emphasis on individual work, within the group, with the help of consultants and resource personnel.
  • 67.
    • The total workshop is divided into small groups and each group will choose a chairman and a recorder.
    • The individuals work, solve apart of their problem through their personal effort with the help of consultants ,contribute to group work & GD & leave the workshop with a plan of action on their problem
  • 68. Role playing (socio- drama)
    • It is dramatization of a particular situation, where people enact their roles as they have experienced.
    • The size of the group is about 25.
    • It is a useful educational device and is followed by a discussion of the problem.
  • 69. Conferences & seminars
    • This category contains a large component of commercialized continuing education.
    • Programmes are held on a regional, state or national level ranging from once half day to one week in length and may cover a single topic in depth or be broadly comprehensive.
  • 70. Mass media
    • Mass media are a ‘one way’ communication.
    • These are useful in transmitting messages to people even in the remotest places.
  • 71.
    • Television
    • Most popular of all media. It is effective in not only creating awareness but also influences public opinion and introduces new ways of life.
    • Raises level of understanding and help people with all recent updates including crimes and violence.
  • 72. radio
    • It is a didactic medium in form of straight talks, plays, questions & answers and quiz programmes. Doctors and health workers may speak out on radio. Local health issues may be identified & discussed for increasing awareness.
  • 73. internet
    • New means of computer based communication system with transfer of knowledge and instant communication across the world by means of e-mail and online chat.
    • Fastest growing media.
    • The health related information from the ministry of health and family welfare govt. of India is also available on their website.
  • 74. Newspaper & printed material
    • The most widely disseminated of all forms of literature.
    • It provides more factual, detailed and statistical information.
    • Printed material includes magazines, pamphlets, booklets and hand outs.
  • 75. Direct mailing
    • New innovation in health communication in India.
    • It includes folders ,newsletters & booklets on family planning and immunization to all remote areas.
  • 76. Posters ,billboards & signs
    • Eye-catching and creates awareness.
    • At public places like bus stops, railway stations.
    • The life is short for a poster
    • Information on health can be shown through all these posters, billboards and signs.
  • 77. Health museums and exihibitons
    • If properly organized, it can attract large number of people and helps in increasing knowledge and awareness.
    • Photographic panels attract more persons.
    • It is a package of both personal and impersonal methods of communication.
  • 78. Folk media
    • It involves ‘kirthan’ ,‘katha’, ‘folk songs’ , dances and dramas and puppet shows and many more.
    • Also ghazals and kawalis are muslim community folk media.
  • 79.
    • Information, education and communication (IEC) combines strategies, approaches and methods that enable individuals, families, groups, organizations and communities to play active roles in achieving, protecting and sustaining their own health.
  • 80. HEALTH EDUCATION VERSUS PROPOGANDA
    • PROPOGANDA MEANS SPREAD A MESSAGE
  • 81. HINDRANCES OR BARRIERS IN PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION
    • Psychological barriers
    •  emotional disturbances
    •  depression
    •  neurosis
    • Physiological barriers
    •  difficulties in self-expression
    •  difficulties in hearing or seeing
    •  difficulties in understanding
  • 82. HINDRANCES…
    • Environmental barriers
    •  excessive noise
    •  difficulties in vision
    •  congested areas
    • Cultural barriers
    •  persistent patterns of behaviour, habits, beliefs, customs, attitudes, religion, etc
  • 83. EDUCATIONAL AIDS USED IN HEALTH EDUCATION
    • 1. Audio aids
    • 2. Visual aids
    • 3. Combination of Audio-Visual aids
  • 84. Audio Aids
    • Based on principles of sound, electricity and magnetism
    •  megaphones
    •  public addressing systems or
    • microphones
    •  Gramophone records
    •  Tape recorders
    •  Radios
    •  Sound amplifiers
  • 85. Visual Aids
    • Based on principles of projection
    • Projected aids – needs projection from a
    • source on to a screen
    •  films or cinemas
    •  film strips
    •  slides
    •  overhead projectors
    •  epidiascopes
    •  transparencies
    •  bioscopes
    •  video cassettes
    •  silent films
  • 86.
    • Non-projected Aids – do not require
    • projection
    •  blackboard
    •  pictures
    •  cartoons
    •  photographs
    •  posters
    •  flashcards
    •  charts
    •  brochures
    •  models
  • 87.
    • Other aids – traditional media which makes use of light and sound stimuli
    • Folk dances and Folk songs
    • Puppet shows
    • Dramas
  • 88. Combination of Audio-Visual Aids
    • Modern media available
    • Sound & sight combined together to create a better presentation
    •  televisions
    •  tape and slide combinations
    •  Video Cassette Players and Recorders
    •  Motivation pictures or Cinemas
    •  Multimedia Computers
  • 89. HEALTH EDUCATION FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC
    • Mass communication literally means communication that is given to a community where the people gathered together does not belong to one particular group.
    • Advantages
    •  large no. of people can be reached
    •  people of all socio-economic status
    • irrespective of their caste, creed and religion
    • Medias
    • televisions, radios, posters, news papers, etc
  • 90. ESSENTIALS OF HEALTH EDUCATON TO THE PUBLIC
    • Accuracy and Truth
    • Presentation must be simple
    • Health education should be factual
    • Principles of health should be taught
  • 91. CONCLUSION
    • In a field such as health, it is natural that “helping people to help themselves” should be as important as direct service.
  • 92. REFERENCES
  • 93. ANY DOUBTS
  • 94. Thank you