Cells
Cell Anatomy: Nucleus <ul><li>Nuclear membrane: double membrane barrier fused at places to make pores </li></ul><ul><li>Nu...
What is made in the nucleolus? <ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </...
Videos <ul><li>My Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul></ul></...
Cell Anatomy: Plasma Membrane <ul><li>Lipid bi-layer made up of phospholipids and cholesterol. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins ...
<ul><li>Go to cell membrane videos:  </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane: Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane: Diffusi...
Cell Anatomy: Cytoplasm <ul><li>Consists of cytosol, organelles and inclusions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytosol is viscous, ...
Ribosomes
Organelles <ul><li>Ribosomes-protein synthesis. Made protein and rRNA. Most are on Rough ER and the rest float free.  </li...
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Organelles <ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum-an extensive system of membranes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER adds sugars to p...
Golgi Apparatus
Organelles <ul><li>Golgi Apparatus: modifies, concentrates, and packages proteins and lipids and sends them on to places i...
Lysosomes
Organelles <ul><li>Lysosomes: bags with hydrolytic enzymes to digest particles from endocytosis, bacteria, viruses and old...
Organelles <ul><li>Peroxisomes are specialized lysosomes that have enzymes (peroxidases) that get rid of free radicals (O ...
Mitochondria
Organelles <ul><li>Mitochondria: powerhouses of the cell. Use energy from glucose to make ATP which stores energy for the ...
Cytoskeleton components
Organelles <ul><li>Centrioles: part of the cytoskeleton; are barrel-shaped  sets of microtubules. Are the place where the ...
Microtubules <ul><li>Part of the cytoskeleton: provide support; form part of structure of cilia and flagella. </li></ul>
Cilia and Flagella
Vocabulary <ul><li>Roots: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phagoc...
CELL PHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>Membrane Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><...
Membrane Transport: a  selectively permeable  membrane maintains a delicate balance of substances moving between the  intr...
Passive Transport: diffusion <ul><li>Depends on tendency of ions or molecules to distribute themselves evenly due to kinet...
Passive Transport: Osmosis <ul><li>Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane . </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs ...
Passive diffusion: osmosis <ul><li>Animal cells change shape by altering the internal water balance: tonicity </li></ul><u...
Tonicity
Tonicity and red blood cells Cell in isotonic solution Cell in hypertonic solution Cell in hypotonic solution crenation Ce...
Passive Transport: Filtration <ul><li>Water and solutes are forced through body membranes by hydrostatic pressure of blood...
Active Transport <ul><li>Used when moving a substance in or out of the cell requires ATP: </li></ul><ul><li>When molecule ...
Active Transport: Solute pumping <ul><li>Ions and amino acids are pumped in or out against a concentration gradient. </li>...
Ion pump pumps Sodium out and Potassium in
Active Transport: Bulk Transport <ul><li>Exocytosis-substances moved from cell to interstitial space. </li></ul><ul><li>En...
 
Cell Physiology: Cell Division <ul><li>DNA Replication  mitosis  cytokinesis </li></ul><ul><li>www.johnkyrk.com/DNArepli...
Cell Physiology: Protein Synthesis <ul><li>Transcription in nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Translation in cytoplasm </li></ul><...
Cell Metabolism Glucose Glycolysis 2 ATP Pyruvic Acid Lactic Acid Total: 2 ATP Aerobic Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transpor...
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Chapter 3 cells

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Cells

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  • 200 different cell types in the human body. Cell theory since 1800’s: 1) cell is basic structural and functional unit of life 2)Activity of organism depends on individual and collective action of cells 3)Activity of cells dictated by specific subcellular structures—organelles. Composed primarily of C,H,O,N and trace amounts of others.
  • Nucleus houses genetic library; computer; design department; construction boss Most cells are uninucleate . Multinucleate : some skeletal muscle, some bone destruction cells, some liver cells; occurs when there is a large amount of cytoplasm to control. Anucleate: RBCs are anucleate and cannot reproduce; cannot make proteins for functions. Nuclear membrane : pore proteins regulate passage. Selectively permeable, but still quite permeable. Outer later is continuous with ER, which is studded with the ribosomes made within nucleus. Nucleolus: ribosome factories. Chromatin: DNA in a loose network of threads. During cell division these are organized into chromosomes. Chrom- comes from fact that they took stain in microscope studies.
  • Fluid mosaic model. Polar heads-hydrophilic; non-polar fatty acids-hydrophobic. Self-orienting because of water inside and outside cell. Proteins in membrane ½ of membrane weight. Pores involved in diffusion. Simple diffusion: lipid soluble substances go through membrane; polar molecules go through protein channels. Carriers:1) facilitated diffusion-with concentration gradient. 2) Active transport goes against concentration gradient. Large lipid-insoluble molecules like glucose go though protein carriers or channels. Show clips on cell membrane involvement in diffusion and active transport. Glycoproteins: Proteins with sugar-coated branches. Functions: biological markers; velcro-anchor; “arms” to move; cell recognition- sperm and ovum and immune system cells recognizing invaders; chemical receptors for hormones and neurotransmitter; SOS signal to call WBC’s
  • Explain electron microscope. Use tablet to compare light waves vs. electron waves. EMG above shows a cell from a corn plant. Nucleus in upper right, vacuole in lower left. Chloroplasts are dark and enclosed in membranes near nucleus. Mitochondria are seen in cytosol around other structures. Most organelles have semipermeable membranes to keep chemically separate from cytosol. Important to keep enzymes from mising and causing chemical chaos.
  • “ Who” are the major players in protein synthesis—mRNA, tRNA and amino acids. More on this later.
  • Rough ER- since the ribosomes are right there on the surface, it’s convenient to add to the proteins. Glyco- has to do with sugars. Smooth ER- Where are the phospholipids going? I remember the difference like this-S-M-O-O-T-H ER makes smooth, soft, fatty things like membranes, cholesterol, sex hormones.
  • Golgi apparatus- I remember with “What can Golgi do for you?” a la UPS. Note the packages budding off membrane. These are transporting the proteins to where they are needed. I have a hard time distinguishing Golgi from smooth ER in some renderings. Look for pieces budding off and remember the pack and send function.
  • Certain larger food particles are brought into the cell by the process of endocytosis, forming food vacuoles. These join membranes with lysosomes which then dump the contents into the vacuole to digest the food. Lysosomes also engulf and destroy viruses, bacteria and old organelles.
  • Perixisomes look like lysosomes. Hydrogen peroxide and free radicals (the superoxide ion, O2- and the hydroxyl ion OH-) are byproducts of cellular metabolism. But their unpaired electrons can scramble the structure of biological molecules. These are toxic and can cause degenerative diseases and cancer. Oxidases use molecular oxygen, O2, to detoxify alcohol and also neutralize dangerous free radicals. They convert them to hydrogen peroxide and peroxidases convert that to water. Certain foods also help in getting rid of free radicals—anti-oxidants which are associated with the pigments in fresh fruits and vegetables. Eat brightly colored foods to keep functioning well. Another reason why the fast food diet is toxic.
  • Mitochondria are concentrated high E need areas. Contain enzymes that convert glucose, in the presence of oxygen, to water, carbon dioxide and E, which is stored in ATP molecules. Show formulas using tablet. Have them write these down and also show ATP with high E bond between 2 nd and 3 rd P. A-P-P -P
  • Cytoskeleton contains microtubules, motor molecules that carry organelles around, microfilaments and centrioles. Centrioles are paired at 90 degree angles to each other and are near the nucleus. They are also the attachment point for cilia and flagella.
  • Severe burns destroy the ability of the membranes to regulate the movement of fluids and molecules and cells “weep” ions and nutrients. Severe burn patients require many times the normal amount of calories during treatment. Interstitial fluid is called extracellular fluid in this illustration.
  • Kinetic energy leads to more collisions in an area of high concentration. Facilitated diffusion- this mechanism is not fully understood at this time.
  • Isontonic solution-normal saline solution used in IVs--0.9% saline, 5% glucose Hypertonic solution- Isontonic solution-normal saline solution used in IVs--0.9% saline, 5% glucose Hypertonic solution- Isontonic solution-normal saline solution used in IVs--0.9% saline, 5% glucose Hypertonic solution- solutio Isontonic solution-normal saline solution used in IVs--0.9% saline, 5% glucose Hypertonic solution- n solutio Isontonic solution-normal saline solution used in IVs--0.9% saline, 5% glucose Hypertonic solution- n solutio Isontonic solution-normal saline solution used in IVs--0.9% saline, 5% glucose Hypertonic solution- n Isontonic solution-normal saline solution used in IVs 0.9% saline, 5% glucose. Hypertonic solution used to treat edema. Hypertonic solution used to treat edema. Hypotonic solution used carefully to treat dehydration.
  • Endocytosis: plasma membrane gradually and surronds particles and then sac is pinched off into cell. Phagocytosis: cell eating. Pinocytosis: cell drinking. Absorption: receptor mediated endocytosis of insulin, iron, other hormones.
  • Chapter 3 cells

    1. 1. Cells
    2. 2. Cell Anatomy: Nucleus <ul><li>Nuclear membrane: double membrane barrier fused at places to make pores </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus: where ribosomes are assembled to go out into cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin: DNA in a loose network of threads. </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is made in the nucleolus? <ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul>
    4. 4. Videos <ul><li>My Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active Transport </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Cell Anatomy: Plasma Membrane <ul><li>Lipid bi-layer made up of phospholipids and cholesterol. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins scattered in membrane perform specialized functions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membrane channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycoproteins </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Go to cell membrane videos: </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane: Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane: Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane: Active Transport </li></ul>
    7. 7. Cell Anatomy: Cytoplasm <ul><li>Consists of cytosol, organelles and inclusions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytosol is viscous, semitransparent fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles engineered for specific functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles seen by electron microscope. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Ribosomes
    9. 9. Organelles <ul><li>Ribosomes-protein synthesis. Made protein and rRNA. Most are on Rough ER and the rest float free. </li></ul>Ribosomes on Rough ER
    10. 10. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    11. 11. Organelles <ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum-an extensive system of membranes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER adds sugars to protein chains-glycoproteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER makes phospholipids, cholesterol and sex hormones. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Golgi Apparatus
    13. 13. Organelles <ul><li>Golgi Apparatus: modifies, concentrates, and packages proteins and lipids and sends them on to places inside and out side the cell. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Lysosomes
    15. 15. Organelles <ul><li>Lysosomes: bags with hydrolytic enzymes to digest particles from endocytosis, bacteria, viruses and old organelles. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Organelles <ul><li>Peroxisomes are specialized lysosomes that have enzymes (peroxidases) that get rid of free radicals (O 2 - and OH - ) to H 2 O 2 and then to H 2 O. In liver cells they have enzymes that detoxify alcohol. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Mitochondria
    18. 18. Organelles <ul><li>Mitochondria: powerhouses of the cell. Use energy from glucose to make ATP which stores energy for the cells. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Cytoskeleton components
    20. 20. Organelles <ul><li>Centrioles: part of the cytoskeleton; are barrel-shaped sets of microtubules. Are the place where the mitotic spindle forms. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Microtubules <ul><li>Part of the cytoskeleton: provide support; form part of structure of cilia and flagella. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Cilia and Flagella
    23. 23. Vocabulary <ul><li>Roots: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>epi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extracellular </li></ul><ul><li>Intracellular </li></ul><ul><li>Intercellular </li></ul><ul><li>Interstitial </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis </li></ul>
    24. 24. CELL PHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>Membrane Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solute Pumping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk Transport </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Membrane Transport: a selectively permeable membrane maintains a delicate balance of substances moving between the intracellular fluid and the interstitial fluid .
    26. 26. Passive Transport: diffusion <ul><li>Depends on tendency of ions or molecules to distribute themselves evenly due to kinetic energy. Molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated diffusion: protein molecules in plasma membrane help glucose cross. No energy expended. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Passive Transport: Osmosis <ul><li>Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane . </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when water concentration differs between sides. </li></ul><ul><li>Link: http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/transport/osmosis.swf </li></ul><ul><li>Link: http:// www.colorado.edu/eeb/web_resources/osmosis / </li></ul>
    28. 28. Passive diffusion: osmosis <ul><li>Animal cells change shape by altering the internal water balance: tonicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isotonic solution: same concentration of non-penetrating solutes on either side of Pl. Mem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertonic solution: greater concentration of non-penetrating solutes than cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotonic solution: smaller concentration of non-penetrating solutes than cell. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Tonicity
    30. 30. Tonicity and red blood cells Cell in isotonic solution Cell in hypertonic solution Cell in hypotonic solution crenation Cell lysis
    31. 31. Passive Transport: Filtration <ul><li>Water and solutes are forced through body membranes by hydrostatic pressure of blood. Occurs in kidneys. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Active Transport <ul><li>Used when moving a substance in or out of the cell requires ATP: </li></ul><ul><li>When molecule is too large to diffuse in or out. </li></ul><ul><li>When molecule is insoluble in plasma membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>When molecule must be moved against concentration gradient. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Active Transport: Solute pumping <ul><li>Ions and amino acids are pumped in or out against a concentration gradient. </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplished by protein pumps in plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs constantly in nerve and muscle tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses as much as 1/3 of all ATP used by the body. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Ion pump pumps Sodium out and Potassium in
    35. 35. Active Transport: Bulk Transport <ul><li>Exocytosis-substances moved from cell to interstitial space. </li></ul><ul><li>Endocytosis-plasma membrane surrounds particles and then pinches off into cell. </li></ul>
    36. 37. Cell Physiology: Cell Division <ul><li>DNA Replication  mitosis  cytokinesis </li></ul><ul><li>www.johnkyrk.com/DNAreplication.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=8057806780595432977&q=Mitosis&hl=en </li></ul>
    37. 38. Cell Physiology: Protein Synthesis <ul><li>Transcription in nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Translation in cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>DNA  mRNA  Ribosomes  tRNA with amino acids  new protein </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objid =AP1302 </li></ul><ul><li>http://plato.acadiau.ca/courses/biol/microbiology/Basics.htm </li></ul>
    38. 39. Cell Metabolism Glucose Glycolysis 2 ATP Pyruvic Acid Lactic Acid Total: 2 ATP Aerobic Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport Cycle O 2 Anaerobic 6CO 2 + 6H 2 0 + 36 ATP Total: 38 ATP

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