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    Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 1: Body Orientation & Anatomical Terminology Human Anatomy & Physiology S. Franklin-Jones
    • Anatomy
      • the study of structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another
          • Gross anatomy- study of large body structures.
            • Heart, bones
          • Microscopic anatomy- study of small body structures
            • Cells and tissue
      Anatomy
    • Physiology
      • the study of how the body and its parts work or function
          • Neurophysiology- explains working of the nervous system
          • Cardiac physiology- studies the function of the heart
      Physiology
    • Levels of Organization
      • Atoms: tiny building blocks of matter
      • Cells: the smallest units of all living things
      • Tissues: groups of similar cells that have a common function, ex. muscle, nerves
      • Organ: a structure composed of two or more tissue types that perform a specific function for the body, ex. brain
      • Organ System: a group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common function, ex. Circulatory System
      • Organism: all organ systems that make up living body
    • Integumentary: skin
      • Waterproof, cushions, protection
      • Regulation of temperature
      • Temperature, pressure, and pain receptors
    • Skeletal
      • bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints
      • Supports body and allows for movement
      • Protection of organs
      • Formation of blood cells and storage of minerals
    • Muscular
      • only one function, to contract or shorten
    • Nervous
      • brain, spinal cord, and sensory receptors
      • Detect stimuli and respond to it by activating the appropriate muscles or glands
            • the body’s fast-acting control system
            • nerve impulses- electrical signals
            • central nerve system- brain and spinal cord
              • receives and responds
    • Endocrine
      • produce hormones to control body activities
            • Hormones- chemical molecules produced by endocrine glands
            • The endocrine glands:
              • Pituitary
              • Thyroid
              • Parathyroid
              • Adrenals
              • Thymus
              • Pancreas
              • Pineal
              • Ovaries and testes
            • Growth, reproduction, and food use by cells are controlled by hormones.
    • Circulatory
      • includes the cardiovascular and lymphatic
          • Cardiovascular System- distributes blood to all the parts of the body
            • Includes the heart and the blood vessels
            • Carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other substances
            • White blood cells help to protect the body for toxins, bacteria, and tumor cells
          • Lymphatic System- consists of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organ and tissues
            • Lymphatic vessels returns the fluid leaked from the blood back to the blood vessels so blood can keep circulating
            • Lymph nodes and lymphoid organs help cleanse the blood and house cells involved with immunity
      • Transport and delivery system
      • Protect the body from foreign invaders
    • Respiratory
      • nose -> lungs
      • Keep body constantly supplied with oxygen
      • Remove carbon dioxide
            • Consists of:
              • nasal passages
              • pharynx
              • larynx
              • trachea
              • bronchi
              • lungs
    • Digestive
      • tube running from the mouth to the anus
      • Break down food and disperse food particles to cells
      • Removal of undigested food
            • Consists of:
              • oral cavity
              • esophagus
              • stomach
              • small and large intestines
              • rectum
    • Urinary
      • removes all nitrogen containing wastes from the blood and flushes them from the body as urine
      • - Consists of:
              • Kidneys
              • Ureters
              • Bladder
              • Urethra
    • Reproductive
      • produce offspring and sex hormones
            • Male organs
              • Testes: produces sperm
              • Scrotum
              • Penis
              • Accessory glands
              • Duct system: carries sperm outside the body
            • Female organs
              • Ovaries: produce eggs
              • Uterine tubes
              • Uterus: provides site for development of the fetus
              • Vagina
    • Necessary Life Functions
      • Maintaining Boundaries: inside distinct from outside
      • Movement: provided by muscular and skeletal systems
      • Responsiveness (irritability): ability to sense changes in your environment and respond to them
      • Digestion: breaking down food and delivering to cells
      • Metabolism: all chemical reactions that occur in cells
      • Excretion: removing wastes from body
      • Reproduction: formation of offspring
      • Growth: increase in size (increase in cell #)
    • Survival Needs
          • What the body needs to function properly
            • Water
              • 60 to 80% of body weight
            • Oxygen
              • 20% of the air we breathe is oxygen
            • Food
              • Nutrients is what the body takes in through food
              • Contains chemicals for cell building
              • Carbohydrates are the major energy providing fuel for body cells
            • Appropriate temperature and pressure
              • Around 37◦C (97 ◦F)
    • Homeostasis
      • the body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing
    • Anatomical Terms
      • Anatomical Position: standing straight with the feet together and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward
    • Anatomical Terms: Directional
      • Superior (towards head) vs. Inferior (away from head)
      • Anterior (front of body) vs. Posterior (back of body)
      • Medial (midline) vs. Lateral (away from midline)
      • Proximal (close to origin) vs. Distal (far from origin)
      • Superficial (body surface) vs. Deep (internal)
    • Anatomical Terms: Body Planes
      • Sagittal Section: longitudinal cut, divides right/left
      • Frontal Section: divides into anterior vs. posterior
      • Transverse: horizontal cut, divides superior/inferior
    • Anatomical Terms: Body Landmarks
      • Abdominal
      • Patellar: knee
      • Antecubital: elbow
      • Pubic: genital
      • Axillary: armpit
      • Thoracic: chest
      • Brachial: arm
      • Umbilical: navel
      • Buccal: cheek
      • Deltoid: shoulder
      • Cervical: neck
      • Gluteal: butt
      • Digital: fingers, toes
      • Lumbar: lower back
      • Femoral: thigh
      • Occipital: back of head
      • Inguinal: groin
      • Popliteal: knee
      • Oral: mouth
      • Scapular:shoulder blade
      • Orbital:eyes
      • Sural: calf
    • Body Cavities: Dorsal
      • Cranial: the space inside the skull
      • Spinal: extends from cranial cavity and continues down the vertebral column
    • Body Cavities: Ventral
      • Thoracic: lungs, heart, rib cage, separated via the diaphragm from the abdominal cavity
      • Abdominal: stomach, liver, intestines, etc.
      • Pelvic: reproductive organs, bladder, rectum
    • Body Cavities Quadrants vs. Regions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity
      • Right Upper Quadrant: Liver
      • Left Upper Quadrant: Liver, stomach
      • Right Lower Quadrant:Large and small intestine, right ovary
      • Lower Left Quadrant: Large and small intestine, left ovary
      • Right Hypochondriac
      • Epigastric
      • Left Hypochondriac
      • Right Lumbar
      • Umbilical
      • Left Lumbar
      • Right iliac
      • Hypogastric
      • Left Iliac