Chapter 1: Body Orientation & Anatomical Terminology Human Anatomy & Physiology S. Franklin-Jones
Anatomy  <ul><li>the study of structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another </li><...
Physiology  <ul><li>the study of how the body and its parts work or function </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurophysiology- ex...
Levels of Organization <ul><li>Atoms: tiny building blocks of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Cells: the smallest units of all li...
Integumentary: skin   <ul><li>Waterproof, cushions, protection </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of temperature </li></ul><ul><...
Skeletal <ul><li>bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints </li></ul><ul><li>Supports body and allows for movement </li></ul...
Muscular  <ul><li>only one function, to contract or shorten  </li></ul>
Nervous   <ul><li>brain, spinal cord, and sensory receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Detect stimuli and respond to it by activati...
Endocrine   <ul><li>produce hormones to control body activities  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones- chemical molecule...
Circulatory   <ul><li>includes the cardiovascular and lymphatic  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular System- distribu...
Respiratory   <ul><li>nose -> lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Keep body constantly supplied with oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Remove c...
Digestive   <ul><li>tube running from the mouth to the anus </li></ul><ul><li>Break down food and disperse food particles ...
Urinary <ul><li>removes all nitrogen containing wastes from the blood and flushes them from the body as urine  </li></ul><...
Reproductive   <ul><li>produce offspring and sex hormones  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male organs </li></ul></ul></ul><...
Necessary Life Functions   <ul><li>Maintaining Boundaries: inside distinct from outside </li></ul><ul><li>Movement:  provi...
Survival Needs   <ul><ul><ul><li>What the body needs to function properly  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water <...
Homeostasis   <ul><li>the body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world i...
Anatomical Terms <ul><li>Anatomical Position: standing straight with the feet together and the arms hanging at the sides w...
Anatomical Terms: Directional   <ul><li>Superior (towards head) vs. Inferior (away from head) </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior (...
Anatomical Terms: Body Planes <ul><li>Sagittal Section: longitudinal cut, divides right/left </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal Sec...
Anatomical Terms: Body Landmarks <ul><li>Abdominal </li></ul><ul><li>Patellar: knee </li></ul><ul><li>Antecubital: elbow <...
Body Cavities: Dorsal <ul><li>Cranial: the space inside the skull </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal: extends from cranial cavity an...
Body Cavities: Ventral  <ul><li>Thoracic: lungs, heart, rib cage, separated via the diaphragm from the abdominal cavity </...
Body Cavities Quadrants vs. Regions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity <ul><li>Right Upper Quadrant: Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Lef...
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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Body Orientation & Anatomical Terminology Human Anatomy & Physiology S. Franklin-Jones
  2. 2. Anatomy <ul><li>the study of structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gross anatomy- study of large body structures. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart, bones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic anatomy- study of small body structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells and tissue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Anatomy
  3. 3. Physiology <ul><li>the study of how the body and its parts work or function </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurophysiology- explains working of the nervous system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac physiology- studies the function of the heart </li></ul></ul></ul>Physiology
  4. 4. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Atoms: tiny building blocks of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Cells: the smallest units of all living things </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues: groups of similar cells that have a common function, ex. muscle, nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Organ: a structure composed of two or more tissue types that perform a specific function for the body, ex. brain </li></ul><ul><li>Organ System: a group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common function, ex. Circulatory System </li></ul><ul><li>Organism: all organ systems that make up living body </li></ul>
  5. 5. Integumentary: skin <ul><li>Waterproof, cushions, protection </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature, pressure, and pain receptors </li></ul>
  6. 6. Skeletal <ul><li>bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints </li></ul><ul><li>Supports body and allows for movement </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of organs </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of blood cells and storage of minerals </li></ul>
  7. 7. Muscular <ul><li>only one function, to contract or shorten </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nervous <ul><li>brain, spinal cord, and sensory receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Detect stimuli and respond to it by activating the appropriate muscles or glands </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the body’s fast-acting control system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nerve impulses- electrical signals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>central nerve system- brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>receives and responds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Endocrine <ul><li>produce hormones to control body activities </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones- chemical molecules produced by endocrine glands </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The endocrine glands: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pituitary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parathyroid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thymus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pineal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries and testes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth, reproduction, and food use by cells are controlled by hormones. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Circulatory <ul><li>includes the cardiovascular and lymphatic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular System- distributes blood to all the parts of the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the heart and the blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other substances </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White blood cells help to protect the body for toxins, bacteria, and tumor cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphatic System- consists of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organ and tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphatic vessels returns the fluid leaked from the blood back to the blood vessels so blood can keep circulating </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes and lymphoid organs help cleanse the blood and house cells involved with immunity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Transport and delivery system </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the body from foreign invaders </li></ul>
  11. 11. Respiratory <ul><li>nose -> lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Keep body constantly supplied with oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Remove carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nasal passages </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pharynx </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>larynx </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>trachea </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bronchi </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lungs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Digestive <ul><li>tube running from the mouth to the anus </li></ul><ul><li>Break down food and disperse food particles to cells </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of undigested food </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oral cavity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>esophagus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stomach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>small and large intestines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rectum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Urinary <ul><li>removes all nitrogen containing wastes from the blood and flushes them from the body as urine </li></ul><ul><li>- Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ureters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Reproductive <ul><li>produce offspring and sex hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male organs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testes: produces sperm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scrotum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory glands </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duct system: carries sperm outside the body </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female organs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries: produce eggs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine tubes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus: provides site for development of the fetus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Necessary Life Functions <ul><li>Maintaining Boundaries: inside distinct from outside </li></ul><ul><li>Movement: provided by muscular and skeletal systems </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness (irritability): ability to sense changes in your environment and respond to them </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion: breaking down food and delivering to cells </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism: all chemical reactions that occur in cells </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion: removing wastes from body </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction: formation of offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Growth: increase in size (increase in cell #) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Survival Needs <ul><ul><ul><li>What the body needs to function properly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60 to 80% of body weight </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% of the air we breathe is oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients is what the body takes in through food </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains chemicals for cell building </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates are the major energy providing fuel for body cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate temperature and pressure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Around 37◦C (97 ◦F) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Homeostasis <ul><li>the body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing </li></ul>
  18. 18. Anatomical Terms <ul><li>Anatomical Position: standing straight with the feet together and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward </li></ul>
  19. 19. Anatomical Terms: Directional <ul><li>Superior (towards head) vs. Inferior (away from head) </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior (front of body) vs. Posterior (back of body) </li></ul><ul><li>Medial (midline) vs. Lateral (away from midline) </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal (close to origin) vs. Distal (far from origin) </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial (body surface) vs. Deep (internal) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Anatomical Terms: Body Planes <ul><li>Sagittal Section: longitudinal cut, divides right/left </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal Section: divides into anterior vs. posterior </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse: horizontal cut, divides superior/inferior </li></ul>
  21. 21. Anatomical Terms: Body Landmarks <ul><li>Abdominal </li></ul><ul><li>Patellar: knee </li></ul><ul><li>Antecubital: elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Pubic: genital </li></ul><ul><li>Axillary: armpit </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic: chest </li></ul><ul><li>Brachial: arm </li></ul><ul><li>Umbilical: navel </li></ul><ul><li>Buccal: cheek </li></ul><ul><li>Deltoid: shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical: neck </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteal: butt </li></ul><ul><li>Digital: fingers, toes </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbar: lower back </li></ul><ul><li>Femoral: thigh </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital: back of head </li></ul><ul><li>Inguinal: groin </li></ul><ul><li>Popliteal: knee </li></ul><ul><li>Oral: mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Scapular:shoulder blade </li></ul><ul><li>Orbital:eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Sural: calf </li></ul>
  22. 22. Body Cavities: Dorsal <ul><li>Cranial: the space inside the skull </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal: extends from cranial cavity and continues down the vertebral column </li></ul>
  23. 23. Body Cavities: Ventral <ul><li>Thoracic: lungs, heart, rib cage, separated via the diaphragm from the abdominal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal: stomach, liver, intestines, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic: reproductive organs, bladder, rectum </li></ul>
  24. 24. Body Cavities Quadrants vs. Regions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity <ul><li>Right Upper Quadrant: Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Left Upper Quadrant: Liver, stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Right Lower Quadrant:Large and small intestine, right ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Left Quadrant: Large and small intestine, left ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Right Hypochondriac </li></ul><ul><li>Epigastric </li></ul><ul><li>Left Hypochondriac </li></ul><ul><li>Right Lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>Umbilical </li></ul><ul><li>Left Lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>Right iliac </li></ul><ul><li>Hypogastric </li></ul><ul><li>Left Iliac </li></ul>

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