The red river_rebellions1869_1870[1]
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The red river_rebellions1869_1870[1]

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    The red river_rebellions1869_1870[1] The red river_rebellions1869_1870[1] Presentation Transcript

    • The Red River Rebellions 1869-1870 Louis Riel
    • The Metis
        • In 1869, surveyors for the Canadian Government arrived in the Red River Settlement
        • The Metis were angered because they used the long-lot system and the surveyors were using square blocks to divide the land
        • To show their discontent, the Metis took away the chains that the surveyors were using to measure the land
        • The Metis were also angered that William McDougall was to be appointed the lieutenant governor of the Northwest Territory.  They knew that he favoured western expansion
    • Louis Riel
        • Louis Riel emerged as a leader of the Metis.  He was well-educated, as he was sent to Montreal to study to be a priest. He quit and studied law for several years.
        • He was a very well-spoken individual, and was fluent in both English and French.
        • Riel helped set up the National Committee of the Metis.
        • Their purpose was to bargain with the government for lands, their language, and their religion.
      •  
    • The Metis take action...
        • 14 armed Metis stopped McDougall from entering the Red River Settlement on November 2, 1869
        • McDougall had acted before he was given permission from John A. Macdonald to do so.  Rupertsland was not to be transferred until December 1st.
        • The National Committee of Metis then seized Fort Gary, the HBC headquarters, without firing a shot.
        • Here, the Metis held an assembly for both the English and French living along the Red River.
        • From this meeting came the List of Rights, or conditions under which Manitoba would join Canada.
    • Canada's Response
        • MacDonald refused to respond to the List of Rights until everything had settled down in the colony.
        • HBC was almost finished with the colony, and so technically, Manitoba had no government for this period.
        • At this time, Riel was offered a large sum of money to join the United States.  He refused because of his loyalty to the British.
        • Manitoba could have been part of the United States!
        • On December 1, 1869, McDougall went ahead and claimed Rupertsland for Canada.
      •  
    • Provisional Government
        • On December 8, Riel helped to set up and became the leader of a Provisional Government that replaced the National Committee.
        • Late in December, Macdonald sent Donald Smith to speak with the Metis.  His job was to explain plans the government had for the Metis and to find out Metis concerns. 
        • Riel let him speak to 1000 people.
        • Smith worked with the Metis to draw up a revised list.
        • Three Metis men took this list to Ottawa.
    •     In pairs, read over the List of Rights that were demanded by the Metis and list three rights that you would demand as students to the Principal of your school.
    • Thomas Scott
        • Thomas Scott was a surveyor and member of the Canada Party, a group of English Protestants who worked to make the NorthWest part of Canada.
        • He was interested in controlling the NorthWest, not Metis rights.  Scott was given permission to drive the Metis away.
        • When Riel and the Metis took over Fort Gary they put Scott in jail.  He insulted the guards, attacked them, and threatened to kill Riel.
        • They brought Scott before a military council and found him guilty of insubordination.
        • Riel recommended mercy, but Scott was sentenced to death and shot on March 4, 1870.
    • Strong Reaction in Canada
        • Quebec and Ontario in particular reacted very strongly to the killing of Thomas Scott.
        • Riel argued that the reason they had killed him was to force the government to respect the Metis and their List of Rights.
        • Some said Scott had been murdered, but others called Riel a hero.  Some wanted Riel captured.
        • The army was sent to protect the English.
        • The government of Canada was put in a difficult position because there had been such a strong reaction.
    • The Manitoba Act 1870
        • It took the Canadian Government several months to decide if the Red River should enter Canada as a province. 
        • The original plan had been to enter as a territory, with less control over its own affairs.
        • July 15, 1870, the Manitoba Act came into effect! Manitoba became the fifth province.
        • It was known as the "postage stamp" province because it was only 224 x 176km large.  The rest of Rupertsland was still called the NorthWest Territory.
        • French and English were both official languages, and two school systems (Catholic and Protestant) were both permitted.
        • However, the federal government still controlled Crown lands.
    • The End of Louis Riel??
        • MacDonald sent troops to find Riel, but he was in hiding.
        • Instead, some troops broke loose and attacked two of Riel's friends.
        • Riel fled to the United States.
        • He did not return until 1884 because he feared that he would be tried for the death of Thomas Scott.
    • Write a one page reflection answering the following two questions:   1. Should the events discussed today be classified as a rebellion when technically no government was set up at the time?   2. Was Riel a hero or a murderer?