The red river_rebellions1869_1870Presentation Transcript
The Red River Rebellions 1869-1870 Louis Riel
In 1869, surveyors for the Canadian Government arrived in the Red River Settlement
The Metis were angered because they used the long-lot system and the surveyors were using square blocks to divide the land
To show their discontent, the Metis took away the chains that the surveyors were using to measure the land
The Metis were also angered that William McDougall was to be appointed the lieutenant governor of the Northwest Territory. They knew that he favoured western expansion
Louis Riel emerged as a leader of the Metis. He was well-educated, as he was sent to Montreal to study to be a priest. He quit and studied law for several years.
He was a very well-spoken individual, and was fluent in both English and French.
Riel helped set up the National Committee of the Metis.
Their purpose was to bargain with the government for lands, their language, and their religion.
The Metis take action...
14 armed Metis stopped McDougall from entering the Red River Settlement on November 2, 1869
McDougall had acted before he was given permission from John A. Macdonald to do so. Rupertsland was not to be transferred until December 1st.
The National Committee of Metis then seized Fort Gary, the HBC headquarters, without firing a shot.
Here, the Metis held an assembly for both the English and French living along the Red River.
From this meeting came the List of Rights, or conditions under which Manitoba would join Canada.
MacDonald refused to respond to the List of Rights until everything had settled down in the colony.
HBC was almost finished with the colony, and so technically, Manitoba had no government for this period.
At this time, Riel was offered a large sum of money to join the United States. He refused because of his loyalty to the British.
Manitoba could have been part of the United States!
On December 1, 1869, McDougall went ahead and claimed Rupertsland for Canada.
On December 8, Riel helped to set up and became the leader of a Provisional Government that replaced the National Committee.
Late in December, Macdonald sent Donald Smith to speak with the Metis. His job was to explain plans the government had for the Metis and to find out Metis concerns.
Riel let him speak to 1000 people.
Smith worked with the Metis to draw up a revised list.
Three Metis men took this list to Ottawa.
In pairs, read over the List of Rights that were demanded by the Metis and list three rights that you would demand as students to the Principal of your school.
Thomas Scott was a surveyor and member of the Canada Party, a group of English Protestants who worked to make the NorthWest part of Canada.
He was interested in controlling the NorthWest, not Metis rights. Scott was given permission to drive the Metis away.
When Riel and the Metis took over Fort Gary they put Scott in jail. He insulted the guards, attacked them, and threatened to kill Riel.
They brought Scott before a military council and found him guilty of insubordination.
Riel recommended mercy, but Scott was sentenced to death and shot on March 4, 1870.
Strong Reaction in Canada
Quebec and Ontario in particular reacted very strongly to the killing of Thomas Scott.
Riel argued that the reason they had killed him was to force the government to respect the Metis and their List of Rights.
Some said Scott had been murdered, but others called Riel a hero. Some wanted Riel captured.
The army was sent to protect the English.
The government of Canada was put in a difficult position because there had been such a strong reaction.
The Manitoba Act 1870
It took the Canadian Government several months to decide if the Red River should enter Canada as a province.
The original plan had been to enter as a territory, with less control over its own affairs.
July 15, 1870, the Manitoba Act came into effect! Manitoba became the fifth province.
It was known as the "postage stamp" province because it was only 224 x 176km large. The rest of Rupertsland was still called the NorthWest Territory.
French and English were both official languages, and two school systems (Catholic and Protestant) were both permitted.
However, the federal government still controlled Crown lands.
The End of Louis Riel??
MacDonald sent troops to find Riel, but he was in hiding.
Instead, some troops broke loose and attacked two of Riel's friends.
Riel fled to the United States.
He did not return until 1884 because he feared that he would be tried for the death of Thomas Scott.
Write a one page reflection answering the following two questions: 1. Should the events discussed today be classified as a rebellion when technically no government was set up at the time? 2. Was Riel a hero or a murderer?