Confucious once said, “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.” Constructivists agree with this quote. They understand that the best way for students to learn is for them to actively participate in the learning process.
The best way for students to learn is to use critical-thinking skills to analyze a problem. By doing this, they will create or construct, their own understanding of a topic or problem.
Jean Piaget Jerome Bruner Lev Vygotsky John Dewey
Piaget was a psychologist who developed the cognitive learning theory after observing childrenfor many years. Piaget defined four cognitive stages: › 1. Sensorimotor-when learning takes place primarily through the child’s senses and motor actions. › 2. Preoperational-when children begin to use symbols and images and play pretend games. › 3. Concrete Operational-Children begin to think logically. › 4. Formal Operation-This stage begins around age 12 and children begin to learn many facts and other viewpoints besides their own.
An American psychologist and educator, Jerome proposed that learning is an active process in which the learner constructs new ideas or concepts based on his current or past knowledge. Bruner felt that teachers needed to encourage students through exploration and learning through discovery.
A Russian educational psychologist, Lev Vygotsky developed social cognition. He believed that learning was influenced drastically by social development.
An educational psychologist, philosopher, and political activist advocating child-centered instruction. He believed that teachers need to engage activities that the students could relate to. He was a part of the movement called progressive education. This movement focused on educating the child as a whole-mind, body, and socially.