International Events Management An Introduction
Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this session you should be able to:• Describe what it means to take an international approach to events management.• Identify key changes in the global environment, which are impacting events and event organizations.• Use strategic planning tools to identify and analyze the environment in which international events take place.• Understand how event organizations can formulate strategic responses to global changes.• Appreciate how culture and customs can dictate how event organizations operate.
International Events“...large-scale events which attract international audiences and media attention and meet a variety of economic objectives for the destinations in which they are hosted.”
Key Characteristics• Explicit focus on attracting international audiences• Have significant impact on their host communities (e.g. Social, political, physical and environmental and tourism/economic impacts)• Attract international or global media attention• Have specific economic imperatives
An International Approach to Events Management • Tourism International • International sponsorship activities • International programming • Differences in laws, technology & politics (PEST)Intercultural/ • Differences in cultural values (Hofstede,1991), customscountry issues (Morrison and Conaway, 2006) communication styles (Hall and Hall, 1990) International • Sustainability • Electronic ticketing, blending of virtual and live standards/ media, start of the art facilitiespractices/issues • Health and safety standards
Is SUP 11-City Tour An International Event?“In Friesland Holland 220 Km through 11 Cities in Five Days. Unique experience based on an ice skate tradition since 1909.”(SUP11-City Tour, n/d)
International GlobalizationEventEnvironment Global Forces Affecting Events Local Forces Affecting Events Stakeholders, Resource Availability & Competition Cultural Differences SUP11-City Tour
Communication StylesContext Space Information Time Flow Hall and Hall, 1990
Cultural Differences Acceptance/rejection of hierarchical or unequalPower Distance distributions of power in organizations and society. Acceptance or avoidance risks in everyday life.UncertaintyAvoidance Weather or not individuals see themselves asIndividualism integrated or separated from social groups and free or restricted by social pressure. Weather or not masculine and feminine roles areMasculinity/ separated and how un/favourably society looksFemininity upon aggressive and materialistic behaviour. Willingness or unwillness to put off immediateTime gratification in favour of long-term goalsHorizon Adapted from: Hofstede, 1991
Other Cultural ValuesReligion HumourEarly socialization and Food and eatingfamily structures behaviourSmall-group Work ethicbehaviour Education systemPublic behaviour TraditionsLeisure pursuits and Historyinterests Social classHolidays and structureceremonies
Local Forces Political Economic SocialTechnological Environmental Legal
Local Forces Political Economic SocialStability of government Price levels Local culture andPolitical regime change Wage levels practicesTechnological Environmental Legal Level of internet Local weather patterns & penetration potential for extreme VISA and work permit weather conditions requirements Quality of internet access Health & Safety Laws
Considerations & Responses RESOURCE EVENT ORGANIZATION CONSIDERATIONS RESPONSES• What alternative • Secure resources from many resources are available? sources • Store resources for hard times• Is there a competitive or • Reduce the need for resources symbiotic relationship (e.g. through cost reductions) between resource users? • Influence resource providers• Is long-term supply (e.g. through government guaranteed? lobbying)• Are the same resources • Work collaboratively with events requiring similar required every year? resources (e.g. sharing venues, staff and other event inputs) Adapted from: Getz, 2007
GlobalizationA term which refers to a number of processes which have enabledcompanies, products, people, mone y and information to move morefreely and quickly around the world. (Morrison, 2006)
Global Forces Political Economic SocialTechnological
Global Forces • Recent terrorism activity (such as the 9/11, 7/7) have intensified concerns about terror Political attacks at events, which in turn have led to increased security costs. • The global financial crisis has made companies Economic more cautious about their spending on events. Many have cut-back. • Global aging populations mean that event Social managers need to design events with older attendees in mind. • Virtual meeting technologies are an increasingTechnological source of competition for live events.
International Tourism & International Events • Increases in tourism numbers have facilitated an increase in the demand of events of all types, especially: – Cultural events & – Business meetings and conferences
Developments in InternetTechnologies & Live Music • Live music has become the saviour of musicians and music companies since illegal downloads have severely depressed the sales of recorded music.Check out Music Concerts and Festivals – UK
Increase in International Organisations & MICE • Today the worldwide MICE market is worth about £400 million thanks in large part to the proliferation of international organisations.
References• Ferdinand, N. and Wesner, S. (forthcoming) The International Event Environment in N. Ferdinand and P. Kitchin (Eds.)• Hall, E. & Hall, M. (1990) Understanding Cultural Differences. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press.• Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York: Mc-Graw-Hill.• Keynote (2010). Music Industry. Keynote [online] Retrieved from https://www.keynote.co.uk/market- intelligence/view/product/2324/music- industry?highlight=music&utm_source=kn.reports.search• Mintel (2010a). Music Concerts and Festivals – UK. Mintel [online] Retrieved from http://0academic.mintel.com.emu.londonmet.ac.uk/sinatra/oxygen_acad emic/search_results/show&/display/id=479850
References cont’d• Morrison, J. (2006). The International Business Environment: Global and Local Market Places in a Changing World (Second Edition). New York: Palgrave Macmillan• Thomas Cook Retail Limited (n/d). Key dates. Thomas Cook Retail Limited [online] Retrieved from http://www.thomascook.com/about-us/thomas-cook-history/key- dates/• Towner, J. (1996). An Historical Geography of Recreation and Tourism in the Western World 1540-1940. Chichester: John Wiley.• Trennert, R. A. (1993). Selling Indian education at worlds fairs and expositions, 1893-1904. American Indian Quarterly, 11(3), 203-220.• UNWTO (2010). UNWTO World Tourism Barometer. 8 (3), 1-64.
Activity• In two groups of three: – Highlight the aspects of the event that make it international – What have the event organizers done right or wrong in terms or their international approach? – Suggest ways in which you could improve the event organiser’s international approach – Display your answers in poster form