Transcript of "Chapter 1 - Events in Our Changing World"
Chapter 1Events in Our Changing World Nicole Ferdinand & Stephen J. Shaw
Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this session you should be able to:• Reflect on the meaning of events for individuals in different societies• Identify the practices of business, communities and countries which have been influenced by the popularity of events• List and evaluate the positive and negative impacts that events have on communities and the urban environment• Critically discuss the potential of events to achieve long-term, sustainable economic development
What do Events Mean to Us? Sites where individuals• Opportunities to can come together to appreciate critical connect with other to achieve a sense of milestones: enhanced identity and For example, weddings, to find meaning birthdays, graduations, anniversaries and cultural and religious observances
What do Events Mean to Us?• Modern day events represent the evolution of societies, communities and individuals• The original significance and perception of some events have shifted: Gay Pride parades’ sexual politics have given way to family fun and festivities The symbolism behind Trinidad and Tobago Carnival has shifted from rebellion to a message of freedom and self-expression
Events in Organizations• Create linkages• Disseminate information• Provide motivation and opportunities for celebration• Brings people together from different countries
Events in Organizations• Event Marketing – the process planned by an organization, of integrating a variety of communication elements behind an event theme, most often through the sponsorship of another organizations event (Tuckwell, 1991)• Experiential Marketing – seeks to create an on- going, emotional attachment between a brand and its customers by bringing it to life in the form of an event, experience or interaction (McCole, 2004)
Events in Communities Religious and cultural These events can: festivals sometimes • Reinforce shared identities known as ethnic • Evolve new festivals, can play an meaning, through the integration of cultural important role in uniting influences communities comprising • Help to achieve a of ethnic and cultural cosmopolitan character that can be promoted as a minorities positive feature to external audiences
Events and CitiesFestivals and other events – together with impressive urbanlandscapes on which they can be staged and promoted – havebecome a means of improving the image of cities, adding life to city streets and giving citizens renewed pride in their city (Richards and Palmer, 2010: 27-31).
‘Eventful cities’ also undertake the creation of fixed cultural capital, such as: iconic buildings, sports stadia, museums, art galleries and concert halls, upgrading of public spaces, etc. The Olympic Tower, Montreal – Built for the 1976 Olympic Games
Events as Place Marketingfor Cities• Festivalization – the temporary transformation of a place into symbolic space in which the public domain is claimed for particular forms of consumption• Media-oriented festivalization – helps to cultivate an image of the city as a backdrop for events that can attract global financial interests
Events as PlaceMarketing DebateThe ultra-modern aesthetic of these global spectacles or developed fixed cultural capital (shopping malls, theme parks, airports, etc.), lends itself well to the diminishing of the sense of spatial and cultural identity, inevitably intended for mass replication (Relph,1976)
Events as PlaceMarketing DebateKotler et al. (1993) noted a shift in the principles and practices of Place Marketing, from replication to reclaiming and nurturing the originating cultural identity ı “...astute place marketers adopted more sophisticated product development and competitive niche thinking...seeking to define themselves as distinctive places with competitive advantages for target industries.” (Kotler et al., 1993: 78)
Place Marketing Challenges• Striking an acceptable balance – events should enthuse all sections of the resident population as well as appeal to external audiences• Making the right presentation – events must present the city/locality itself in ways that attract the attention of footloose globe-trotters whose engagement with the place may be temporary and somewhat superficial• Avoiding and/or minimizing public dissatisfaction
Events and CountriesEvents have been important engines of economic recovery and growth for countries Events: • Reduce high unemployment rates • Revitalize neglected inner city streetscapes and infrastructure • Regenerate industries • Create wealth for the locality through increased expenditure on local goods and services
Events and Countries Events also have a host of negative consequences for cities Events:• Generate losses• Create long-term debt• Are sources of political criticism and dissent• Can initiate regime change
Summary• Events are a chance to celebrate milestones, gather with others to gain a sense of identity and can be used to evaluate changes that have occurred in cultures and societies• Businesses use events to disseminate information to its internal stakeholders as well as to engage external stakeholders with the use of Event Marketing and Experiential Marketing• Events can have both positive and negative impacts on communities as they hold the potential to unite communities as well as create or maintain divisions• Events hold significant positive potential revitalizing urban environments
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