History Learning Log Chapter 8
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History Learning Log Chapter 8

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This is the history learning log for 2010 June holiday homework. 109

This is the history learning log for 2010 June holiday homework. 109

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History Learning Log Chapter 8 History Learning Log Chapter 8 Presentation Transcript

  • History learning log:chapter 8,contact and interaction
    Done by Nicole :D
  • Introduction …
    One way for different civilizations to interact and socialise with each other is through trading.
    There are two types of trading: overland trade and maritime trade.
    Developing civilisations are often the result of rulers wanting more wealth. Thus, a war is waged between kingdoms and kings to control more land or trade routes. This is territorial expansion, another method of interaction. However, some kings did not wish to conquer or wage war. Instead, they form good relationships with other kings. This method of interaction is called Diplomacy.
  • Maritime Trade in India
    Maritime trade is a trade that is conducted by those who travel by sea. Now, we shall look at the different types of trades in India.
    In ancient India, the Indus people made use of sailboats and travelled along the coasts of Persia (now Iran), Arabia and India. Goods from Mesopotamia, such as silver, have been discovered in archaeological sites in the Indus Valley. Seals and weights have also been found in modern Iraq. Near the Indus Valley, archaeologists have also found an ancient port, with docks for ships to load and unload goods.
    View slide
  • (continued)
    As a result of maritime trade,(between the Mesopotamians and the Indus people) some archaeologists think that the Indus people may have borrowed the idea of using seals to mark their goods from the Mesopotamians, which are older than the Indus civilisations. This is because the seals resemble each other.
    View slide
  • Overland Trade in India
    As believed by historians, the Indus people have been trading with those from other parts of India. Evidently, discovery of goods such as copper tools and cotton cloth have been found in the Indus Valley. Other than that, pearls, coral and hard timber have also been discovered. This shows that the Indus people exchange the goods they produced for goods they don’t have.
  • (continued)
    Overland trading was both difficult and dangerous as there were no proper roads and traders had to follow rough paths through jungles and forests, of which wild animals and fierce tribes inhabit. To counter such problems, the traders travelled in groups of as many as 500 men, with hundreds of oxen, mules and camels. By the time it was the Mauryan Dynasty, overland trade routes have been established all over India. There were also trade routes between India and the Middle-East. The rulers made sure that those routes are in good condition so that travelling would be comfortable.
  • (continued)
    Overland routes continued to be used by traders even as late as the 18th Century. As a result, towns situated along these routes grew and prospered, such as Jaisalmer, which prospered from the traffic resulting in overland trade.
  • Territorial Expansion
    As we know, the Aryans moved to the Ganges Plains c.1500 BCE and introduced their culture to the Indus people. Many languages, such as the Sanskrit language,features of the Aryan culture, such as the caste system and religion, spread throughout India.
    Other than the Aryans, there were also other foreign invaders, such as the Greek. Alexander the Great. His invasion caused disorder and chaos in India, which allowed Chandragupta Maurya to overthrow the King of Magadha and establish the Mauryan Dynasty.
  • (continued)
    Direct trade contacts between India and the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea were established. Through this trade, Greek style of art were introduced to the Indian artists, who incorporated them to produce Greek-Indian styled works.
  • Diplomacy ~
    An example of a diplomatic relationship is the relationship between India and Greece. Alexander the Great’s governors sent an ambassador called Megasthenes to live in Pataliputra, India. Historians learnt of the Indian culture through Megathene’s writing.
  • Overland trade in CHINA~
    Overland trade in ancient China and other civilisations developed from 2nd century BCE, when China began to participate in the trade in Silk Road. Only then did the Chinese began to interact with more foreign traders. However, the emperors discouraged the Chinese from interacting with foreigners as they worry that the ideas they introduce would threaten Confucian values such as respect for authority. Thus, for centuries, the emperors banned the people from travelling overseas.
  • Maritime trade in CHINA~
    After overland trade came Maritime Trade. During the Song Dynasty, there was an increase in demand for foreign products. As a result, the Song government encouraged foreign trade and allowed the Chinese to trade overseas. The Song government also made efforts to welcome the foreign traders by setting up government offices in the southern ports.
    By Ming Dynasty, Chinese traders were scattered all across SEA and even further. They lived there and started businesses there and prospered throughout the years. Overseas chinese communities are still existing today.
  • Territorial Expansion
    A great territorial expansion occurred during the Han Dynasty. Under the control of active emperors such as Han Wudi, China’s control extended to Central Asia, North Manchuria, Korea, south and southwest China and northern Vietnam through military conquests. As a result, these conquests allowed China to have trade contacts with Rome and India via the Silk Road. Chinese culture soon spread to Japan, Korea and Vietnam and had a permanent effect on those countries, such as people adopting to Confucianism and lived according to its teachings.
  • Diplomacy in China ~
    The ancient Chinese believed that their civilisation was the most advanced and that the foreigners should show respect to the Emperor. Hence, the government came up with a tribute system, which requires foreigners to visit the Emperor every few years where they kneeled in front of him as a form of respect. They also had to bring gifts to the Emperor. In return the Emperor will also give them presents and allow them to trade along Silk Road.
  • (continued)
    However proud the people were of their own civilisation, they realised that China, in fact, was much more advanced than them. As such, forming a good relationship with China will result in peace and the assurance that the other civilisations will not be targeted.
  • SEA! :D
    Due to the complicated geography of Southeast Asia (SEA) overland trade was difficult and thus overland trade was not an option for traders. As such, they rely on Maritime trade, territorial expansion and diplomacy.
  • Maritime Trade in SEA
    With the aid of the discovery of monsoon patterns, traders realised that the ports in SEA were convenient resting points during their voyage between India and China. In addition, SEA was an important source of spices. The most valued spices were nutmeg and mace, which grows only in the Banda Islands, Indonesia. Other spices include pepper, cloves and cinnamon. These spices are able to make food taste better and last longer.
  • Spice Routes
    (No, the routes aren’t decorated with any spices or whatsoever…)
    The Spice Route was a network of sea routes which links Asia to Europe. The name was derived as such since spices were the main items of trade. The Spice Route stretches from China, SEA, around India, to the Middle East, across the Mediterranean Sea to Europe.
    Along these routes, port cities of SEA such as Melaka and Palembang grew. Traders from China, India and Europe would stop at these ports to buy spices and sell their goods. Trade was a strong economic activity which benefits the civilisation a lot.
  • (continued)
    Through trade, aspects of the Chinese culture spread throughout SEA. Vietnam was permanently influenced by the Chinese Culture in terms of government, art, language and architecture.
    However, the most profound foreign influence came from India. This process, which did not involve any military conquests or large scale migration, is called Indianisation by the historians. But, it did not replace the SEA culture.
  • Shipping
    The people of SEA had already voyaged around the region even before China and Indian traders arrived. When maritime trade developed, the SEA people adopted new ways of building ships suitable for long distance travel. Inspired by the Chinese, they learnt to build ships called jongs(derived from ‘junk’). Jongs were built in places where there were huge supply of teak. The jongs were so steady that it could carry 1000 men at a time.
  • Territorial Expansion
    In the mainland of SEA, the rise and expansion of great kingdoms brought different groups of people under a single ruler. For example, the Siamese culture was a combination of the cultures of Khmer and other neighbouring kingdoms.
  • Diplomacy
    Various kingdoms of SEA used diplomacy to form good relations between themselves. However, they were more interested in participating China’s tribute system.
  • The End :D