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Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
Diversity in higher education
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Diversity in higher education

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  • 1. Diversity in Higher Education<br />Nicole Beachum<br />Sam Callister<br />Kate Starnes<br />
  • 2. Higher education has not always promoted diversity<br />College was reserved for white males in the upper class of society<br />Essentially, colleges practiced ethnocentrism<br />Cambridge and Oxford<br />
  • 3. Originally, higher education originated to educate clergy and church officials<br />Over time, the goals of higher education have extended to include: <br />Multiple career paths<br />Diverse student body<br />Technical programs of study<br />Goals of Higher Education<br />
  • 4. Throughout history, minorities have been denied access to higher education<br />Over time, campuses started to become segregated<br />Today, thanks to many laws, court rulings, and proactive groups, higher education becoming more diverse<br />Access Denied<br />
  • 5. 1866: Civil Rights Act of 1866 <br />1896: Plessy v. Ferguson <br />1954: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas<br />1962: First African American enrolled in college at the University of Mississippi<br />1964: Civil Rights Act of 1964<br />Pivotal Movements<br />
  • 6. 1965: President Johnson signed the Executive Order 11246<br />1978: Regents of University of California v. Bakke<br />1988: Civil Rights Restoration Act<br />2003: Grutter v. Bollinger<br />Pivotal MovementsContinued…<br />
  • 7. 2003: Gratz v. Bollinger<br />2008: Grutter case upheld for University of Texas in Austin<br />2010: Christian Legal Society v. Martinez<br />Pivotal MovementsContinued…<br />
  • 8. The above court cases and amendments increased access to higher education to minority students<br />Although colleges are allowed to use race to increase the overall diversity of students on campus, this must be outlined in admission plans and be backed by proper documentation<br />Race is not to be used for any other reason in admission policies and procedures<br />Affirmative Action in Admissions<br />
  • 9. Students desire to interact with students with diverse backgrounds<br />However, students need assistance with knowing how to interact with those different from them<br />Therefore, colleges must help students explore diversity in a safe but beneficial environment for everyone<br />Students and Diversity<br />
  • 10. Since faculty members tend to remain on campus the longest, it is essential to understand their views of diversity <br />Faculty within Engineering, Mathematics, and Sciences score low on “Diversity Advocacy”<br />Faculty within English, Education and Fine Arts departments score high on “Diversity Advocacy”<br />Faculty and Diversity<br />
  • 11. Male faculty members tend to score lower on “Diversity Advocacy”, especially if they are in the Engineering and Math/Science departments<br />Female faculty members tend to score higher on “Diversity Advocacy”, especially if they are in the English, Education, and Fine Arts arenas<br />Gender and Diversity<br />
  • 12. Along with increasing diversity within the student body, administrators and faculty must also be diverse<br />3 recommendations for higher education<br />Increase faculty and staff diversity<br />New programs and training for faculty in low diversity advocacy fields <br />Promote civic engagement and responsibility<br />Diversity on Campus<br />
  • 13. 7,006 accredited higher education institutions <br />1,195 Community Colleges <br />105 Historically Black Colleges and Universities <br />268 Hispanic Serving Institutions <br />34 Tribal Colleges and Universities <br />Higher Education Now<br />
  • 14. US Population, Actual and Projected Population for Years 2008 and 2050<br />
  • 15. Minority representation in faculty, administrators, and governing boards do not matching minority representation in the student body <br />Student population: 35% minority<br />Institution presidents: 14% minority<br />Executive and administrative staff: 19% minority<br />Diversity Representation<br />
  • 16. Full-time faculty: 22% minority<br />Part-time faculty: 25% minority<br />Governing board of public institutions: 22% minority<br />Governing board of independent institutions: 12% minority<br />Diversity RepresentationContinued…<br />
  • 17. Projected Minority Student Enrollment increase by Race 1990, 2004, & 2015<br />
  • 18. If we are not diligent in our recognition, acceptance, and awareness of diverse peoples, our higher education will suffer serious growing pains in the near future<br />According to Milligan, we can only strengthen America as a whole if we enhance new minds and views on diversity<br />Importance of Diversity<br />
  • 19. Student organizations like Student Think Tank (STT) are doing their part to promote diversity in higher education<br />Recommendations by STT:<br />“Improve how information about the college is disseminated”<br />Open savings account to be set up for elementary school students of low socioeconomic status to save for college<br />Student Think Tank<br />
  • 20. However, student organizations cannot combat a lack of diversity alone—this must be done from the top down<br />Administrators, faculty members, and governing boards must also be diverse and promote diversity education, awareness and acceptance for real change to occur<br />Beyond Students<br />
  • 21. Colleges across the country must actively recruit diverse individuals to fill faculty, staff, and administrative positions on the college campus<br />Student bodies are ever-changing, but faculty and upper-level administrators are relatively consistent; therefore, the change must occur on this level as well<br />Recruitment<br />
  • 22. “The most certain test by which we judge whether a country is really free is the amount of security enjoyed by minorities.”<br />John Dalberg Quote<br />
  • 23. Betts, K., Urias, D., Chavez, J., & Betts, K. (2009, April 29). Empirical Research: Higher Education and Shifting U.S. Demographics: Need for Visible Administrative Career Paths, Professional Development, Succession Planning & Commitment to Diversity. Retrieved April 15, 2010, from Academic Leadership The Online Journal: http://www.academicleadership.org/emprical_research/623_printer.shtml<br />Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007).Civil rights timeline: Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html<br />Cantrell v. Granholm, 473 F. 3d 237 (2008).Retrieved from http://www.mied.uscourts.gov/Opinions/lawsonpdf/06-15024%20Prop%202%20Opinion%20Granting%20MSJ.pdf<br />Civil Rights Act of 1866, 42 U.S.C. § 1981.<br />References<br />
  • 24. Downes, K. P., & Dun, L. M. (2009). Understanding Diversity: White College Students’ Perceptions of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity.<br />Harper, S.R. (2008). Creating inclusive campus environments for cross-cultural learning and student engagement. United States: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA).<br />Hebel, S. (2007, July 26). Student Think Tank Offers 25 Ideas to Raise Socioeconomic Diversity of Enrollments. Home - The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved July 18, 2010, from http://chronicle.com/article/Student-Thonk-Tank-Offers-25<br />Jaschik, S. (2010).New venue for anti-bias debate. Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2010/06/29/supreme<br />Jaschik, S. (2009).Court win for affirmative action. Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2009/08/18/texas<br />
  • 25. Milligan, D., 291.,& 000. (n.d.).Cultural Diversity in Higher Education.Department of Mathematics & Statistics. Retrieved July 18, 2010, from http://www.math.usf.edu/mug/diversity<br />Park, J. J., & Denson, N. (2009). Attitudes and Advocacy: Understanding Faculty Views on Racial/ Ethnic Diversity. Journal of Higher Education , 415-438.<br />Preserving diversity in higher education (2004). Retrieved from http://www.equaljusticesociety.org/compliancemanual/Preserving_Diversity_In_Higher_Education.pdf<br />Sidanius, J., Levin, S., van Laar, C., & Sears, D. O. (2008). The Diversity Challenge: Social Identity and Intergroup Relations on the College Campus. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.<br />U.S. Const. amend. XIX.<br />

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