Diversity in higher education

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  • 1. Diversity in Higher Education
    Nicole Beachum
    Sam Callister
    Kate Starnes
  • 2. Higher education has not always promoted diversity
    College was reserved for white males in the upper class of society
    Essentially, colleges practiced ethnocentrism
    Cambridge and Oxford
  • 3. Originally, higher education originated to educate clergy and church officials
    Over time, the goals of higher education have extended to include:
    Multiple career paths
    Diverse student body
    Technical programs of study
    Goals of Higher Education
  • 4. Throughout history, minorities have been denied access to higher education
    Over time, campuses started to become segregated
    Today, thanks to many laws, court rulings, and proactive groups, higher education becoming more diverse
    Access Denied
  • 5. 1866: Civil Rights Act of 1866
    1896: Plessy v. Ferguson
    1954: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
    1962: First African American enrolled in college at the University of Mississippi
    1964: Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Pivotal Movements
  • 6. 1965: President Johnson signed the Executive Order 11246
    1978: Regents of University of California v. Bakke
    1988: Civil Rights Restoration Act
    2003: Grutter v. Bollinger
    Pivotal MovementsContinued…
  • 7. 2003: Gratz v. Bollinger
    2008: Grutter case upheld for University of Texas in Austin
    2010: Christian Legal Society v. Martinez
    Pivotal MovementsContinued…
  • 8. The above court cases and amendments increased access to higher education to minority students
    Although colleges are allowed to use race to increase the overall diversity of students on campus, this must be outlined in admission plans and be backed by proper documentation
    Race is not to be used for any other reason in admission policies and procedures
    Affirmative Action in Admissions
  • 9. Students desire to interact with students with diverse backgrounds
    However, students need assistance with knowing how to interact with those different from them
    Therefore, colleges must help students explore diversity in a safe but beneficial environment for everyone
    Students and Diversity
  • 10. Since faculty members tend to remain on campus the longest, it is essential to understand their views of diversity
    Faculty within Engineering, Mathematics, and Sciences score low on “Diversity Advocacy”
    Faculty within English, Education and Fine Arts departments score high on “Diversity Advocacy”
    Faculty and Diversity
  • 11. Male faculty members tend to score lower on “Diversity Advocacy”, especially if they are in the Engineering and Math/Science departments
    Female faculty members tend to score higher on “Diversity Advocacy”, especially if they are in the English, Education, and Fine Arts arenas
    Gender and Diversity
  • 12. Along with increasing diversity within the student body, administrators and faculty must also be diverse
    3 recommendations for higher education
    Increase faculty and staff diversity
    New programs and training for faculty in low diversity advocacy fields
    Promote civic engagement and responsibility
    Diversity on Campus
  • 13. 7,006 accredited higher education institutions
    1,195 Community Colleges
    105 Historically Black Colleges and Universities
    268 Hispanic Serving Institutions
    34 Tribal Colleges and Universities
    Higher Education Now
  • 14. US Population, Actual and Projected Population for Years 2008 and 2050
  • 15. Minority representation in faculty, administrators, and governing boards do not matching minority representation in the student body
    Student population: 35% minority
    Institution presidents: 14% minority
    Executive and administrative staff: 19% minority
    Diversity Representation
  • 16. Full-time faculty: 22% minority
    Part-time faculty: 25% minority
    Governing board of public institutions: 22% minority
    Governing board of independent institutions: 12% minority
    Diversity RepresentationContinued…
  • 17. Projected Minority Student Enrollment increase by Race 1990, 2004, & 2015
  • 18. If we are not diligent in our recognition, acceptance, and awareness of diverse peoples, our higher education will suffer serious growing pains in the near future
    According to Milligan, we can only strengthen America as a whole if we enhance new minds and views on diversity
    Importance of Diversity
  • 19. Student organizations like Student Think Tank (STT) are doing their part to promote diversity in higher education
    Recommendations by STT:
    “Improve how information about the college is disseminated”
    Open savings account to be set up for elementary school students of low socioeconomic status to save for college
    Student Think Tank
  • 20. However, student organizations cannot combat a lack of diversity alone—this must be done from the top down
    Administrators, faculty members, and governing boards must also be diverse and promote diversity education, awareness and acceptance for real change to occur
    Beyond Students
  • 21. Colleges across the country must actively recruit diverse individuals to fill faculty, staff, and administrative positions on the college campus
    Student bodies are ever-changing, but faculty and upper-level administrators are relatively consistent; therefore, the change must occur on this level as well
  • 22. “The most certain test by which we judge whether a country is really free is the amount of security enjoyed by minorities.”
    John Dalberg Quote
  • 23. Betts, K., Urias, D., Chavez, J., & Betts, K. (2009, April 29). Empirical Research: Higher Education and Shifting U.S. Demographics: Need for Visible Administrative Career Paths, Professional Development, Succession Planning & Commitment to Diversity. Retrieved April 15, 2010, from Academic Leadership The Online Journal: http://www.academicleadership.org/emprical_research/623_printer.shtml
    Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007).Civil rights timeline: Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html
    Cantrell v. Granholm, 473 F. 3d 237 (2008).Retrieved from http://www.mied.uscourts.gov/Opinions/lawsonpdf/06-15024%20Prop%202%20Opinion%20Granting%20MSJ.pdf
    Civil Rights Act of 1866, 42 U.S.C. § 1981.
  • 24. Downes, K. P., & Dun, L. M. (2009). Understanding Diversity: White College Students’ Perceptions of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity.
    Harper, S.R. (2008). Creating inclusive campus environments for cross-cultural learning and student engagement. United States: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA).
    Hebel, S. (2007, July 26). Student Think Tank Offers 25 Ideas to Raise Socioeconomic Diversity of Enrollments. Home - The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved July 18, 2010, from http://chronicle.com/article/Student-Thonk-Tank-Offers-25
    Jaschik, S. (2010).New venue for anti-bias debate. Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2010/06/29/supreme
    Jaschik, S. (2009).Court win for affirmative action. Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2009/08/18/texas
  • 25. Milligan, D., 291.,& 000. (n.d.).Cultural Diversity in Higher Education.Department of Mathematics & Statistics. Retrieved July 18, 2010, from http://www.math.usf.edu/mug/diversity
    Park, J. J., & Denson, N. (2009). Attitudes and Advocacy: Understanding Faculty Views on Racial/ Ethnic Diversity. Journal of Higher Education , 415-438.
    Preserving diversity in higher education (2004). Retrieved from http://www.equaljusticesociety.org/compliancemanual/Preserving_Diversity_In_Higher_Education.pdf
    Sidanius, J., Levin, S., van Laar, C., & Sears, D. O. (2008). The Diversity Challenge: Social Identity and Intergroup Relations on the College Campus. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.
    U.S. Const. amend. XIX.