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  • Comprehensive Engagement Strategies The Consultation Institute 2008
  • This is about the big questions of power Power within networks is like the hydrology of the system (N M) There has been far too much emphasis from the enthusiasm for technocratic fixes for the PSA regime from the Treasury under Brown through the grotesque ways that LAAs have morphed into pure performance management mechanisms
  • Local Governance Partnership Architecture. Because of the statutory force of LAAs, LSPs and LDFs Scalar fixes or scalar fixations – amused to see people argue for or against any scale at the expense of another… “I am a regionalist” “I am a city-regionalist” the debate must move on to what who should do at which scale – even the Sub-national review managed this Also it helps me to think that you are all going to be deeply sceptical about the idea that SNA can do anything that existing methods can’t ; So much work in this area proceeds as if Interviewing local elites is the only way to get under the skin of an area…

final year advice on phds ! final year advice on phds ! Presentation Transcript

  • Nicola Headlam Postgraduate Research Seminar 27 th November 2009
  • Structure of presentation
    • Part One : The process (5 mins)
      • All advice is useless !?
    • Part Two : My doctoral research (25 mins)
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Methodology, conceptualisation, ethics (turning Literature into concepts you can work with…)
      • 3. Some Results
      • 4. Conclusion
      • 5. Questions
  • Part One : The Process
  • My First Year
  • First Year … doubts, lack of certainty, direction, confidence
  • First Year… juggling too many plates
  • First Year … drowning in literature
  • By the second year…
  • Second year… getting over fear of chapters
  • Second year… dealing with the media!!
  • 2 nd year lessons… here she is again!!
  • Third Year / Writing Up (!)
  • Third Year... Light at the end of the tunnel
  • Third Year... Next strategic move?
  • Third Year... Personal development and reflection
  • specific advice / tactics
    • Use Scopus, Endnote, Zetoc
    • Use RSS feeds for policy and journalism
    • Methodological experimentation – What you are doing and why…
    • Keep your resume/CV up to date!!
    • Review Progress (do this!!)
    • ESRC CASE conference / GRIP conference
    • Period of secondment to House of Commons (KTP)
    • Volunteering, which then feeds back into research ideas
    • Consultancy contracts and etc. for CLES, CASE Partner
    • Researcher Showcase and media training Humanities Skills
    • E-tutoring on the MLP ; seminars and blackboard practice
    • Involvement in MA Urban Regeneration - lectures on topic.
    • Mplan fieldtrip
    • Papers to early career network /RSA seminar series / Conference papers
    • Vitae session on academic careers…
    • ESRC KTP/KE speaking and contacts
    • Awareness of funding streams etc. Eligibility/ appropriateness
    • Build networks to support you all the way through
    • Part Two
    • ‘ Re-scaling the state’
    • Through Local and
    • Multi Area Agreements
    • (LAAs and MAAs)
    • The governability of
    • the Greater Manchester
    • City Region
    • Intro
    • Methodological,
    • conceptual and ethical
    • reflections
    • 3. Some Results
    • 4. Conclusions
    • 5. Questions?
  • My supervisors and funders
    • Iain Deas
    • Yasminah Beebeejaun
    • Neil McInroy CLES, Industrial Partner
    • ESRC CASE Award
    • (Jon Coaffee now at Birmingham)
  •  
  • Aims and objectives
    • Aim; To explore how far LAA/MAAs as emergent, hybrid second generation governance mechanisms manifest both the properties and the dysfunctions of markets, hierarchies and networks , to assess how they are brokered , how ‘scope at scale ’ is constructed in order to explore the “governability” of the Greater Manchester City Region.
    •  
    • Objectives
    • To explore modes of governance, the effect of refracting regeneration and economic development policy through shuffling/shifting scales.
    • To assess the ‘new partnership governance architecture’ operating at sub-national scale in the UK and the resultant implications for central-regional-local relationships.
    • To explain the evolution of LAA/MAAs and track their changing purpose through development of a typology.
    • To develop and apply a mixed method evaluation framework incorporating Social Network Analysis [SNA] in order to treat governance networks as complex networks
    • To unpack the roles and functions of the LAA/MAA brokers within partnership governance structures by interrogating questions of “scope at scale”
    • To consider the impacts of LAA and MAAs on regeneration policy and practice
  • Methods. Qualitative : Elite Interviewing Participatn Observation Quantitative : Formal SNA Aim : to explore how far Local and Multi -Area Agreements [LAAs and MAAs] as emergent, hybrid governance mechamisms manifest both the properties and dysfunctions of markets, hierarchies and networks, how these are brokered within localities and to what effect. LAA/MAA = policy instrument LAA/MAA operational reality . To explore the relationships between national-regional-local scales (structure) as they affect economic development and regeneration governability 3. To make recommendations for policy and practice 4. To unpack the role of the LAA broker or city-regionalist within partnership governance (agency – scope at scale) 5. To develop an evaluative framework using SNA to map differing models of LAA/MAA 6. To use these models for assessing specific LAA/MAAs 1.To establish what the LAA/MAA are now and what they are for . Methods. Socio-spatial biography Integrative Mixed methods data, documentary, participant observation, qualitative generation of SNA maps. Fig. 1 Overall Research Strategy (April 2009) Objectives & Methods
  • multi-scalar methods
      • Interviews with decision makers – civil servants –politicians .
    • Interviews with policy people
    National scale LAA/MAA = Policy instrument
      • c. NW Regional Context
    d. Gtr Manchester City Region Documentary, Participant Observation SNA, Interviews f. Stockport non- NRF unitary SNA analysis + Area Committees e. Wigan NRF unitary SNA analysis + Townships LAA/MAA= operational reality Increasing in specificity Mixed methods: documentary, background datasets, participant observation, qualitative generation of SNA maps Sub-regional scale
  • Thesis structure
    • 1. Introduction
    • Modes of Governance (12k)
    • The Urban Policy Laboratory and central-local policy processes (7,500)
    • Second generation mechanisms : LAA-MAA policy review chapter (7, 500)
    • Conceptual Framework and Methodology : Treating governance networks as networks (7,500)
    • The spatial shuffle : Manchester and City Regions. (12k)
    • ED/R structures in the recession (9k)
    • MCR I : the reification of the city-region (9k)
    • MCR II : ‘from below’ LAA-MAA links in Wigan and Stockport (9k)
    • Recommendations for policy and practice : How LAAs/MAAs are working in practice within studied areas; issues and themes. (12k)
    • Conclusions
  •  
  • Scholarly Contribution / Originality
    • Developing Policy models: Analysis / Synthesis of Regeneration Urban Policy - ‘Loops and Stages’ of the LAA
    • Importing ‘governability’ into urban governance literature
    • interrogating ‘scope at scale’ connecting conceptual insights with empirical activity
    • Methodological innovation : mixed integrative methods using SNA and elite interviewing.
    • Ethical Positioning : research encounter with elites in KTP/KE environments = different to other forms of knowledge production.
    • Made a contribution to the Greater Manchester Governance Literature - part of a story.
    • Policy recommendations re: shuffling of scale and UK subnational polity.
  • treating networks for economic development and regeneration as networks
  • Glamorous? Fundamental!
    • “ Fundamental questions of constitutional structures, centre-region relations, institutional co-ordination, and public expenditure… are addressed as the perhaps unglamorous dimensions of sub-national government and governance.” (Pike and Tomaney 2004)
  • Police Local Partnership governance architecture Duty on local councils and other local partners to work together to agree a single set of priorities through a Sustainable Community Strategy and a Local Area Agreement Three year delivery plan: Local Area Agreement (LAA) Council Local Neighbourhoods Local Strategic Partnership Long term Sustainable Community Strategy (SCS) Service Charter Service Charter Health Private sector Community sector Local Neighbourhoods
  •  
  • Conceptual framework
    • ‘ Second generation’ governance mechanisms
    • ‘ Re-scaling the state’
    • ‘ Scope at Scale’
    • ‘ Governability’
    • ‘ Socio-spatial biography’
    • Networks
    • LAA and MAA specifically UK sub-national mechanisms
  • In Chapter 2...
    • Contents
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 After the turn to governance
    • 2.2.1 Governance ; the “UK school”
    • 2.2.2 Neo-liberalism and Re-scaling
    • 2.2.3 Complexity ,
    • 2.2.4 Governability, Governmentality,
    • 2.2.5 Re-cursivity
    • 2.3 Market / Hierarchy Orders in the Muddled Middle.
    • 2.4 The Network Order; from “light” to “heavy” explanatory use.
    • 2.4.1 network - ing
    • 2.4.2 policy networks
    • 2.4.3 networked governance
    • 2.4.4 Governance Networks
    • 2.5 Hybrid Formation and Governance Failure.
    • 2.5.1 Trust
    • 2.5.2 Scope at Scale
    • 2.6 Chapter Summary
  • Chapter 5…
    • 5.1 Introduction : Innovative, Integrated Methods
    • 5.1.1 Networks in Urban Governance Studies
    • 5. 2. Scope of Research
    • 5.2.1 Socio-spatial biography
    • 5.2.2 Governability
    • 5.2.3 Scope at Scale
    • 5.2.4 Researching change
    • 5.3 Specific Methodological considerations
    • 5.3.1 Qualitative Methods
    • 5.3.2 Elite Interviewing
    • 5.3.3 Access and positioning : Ethical and practical considerations
    • 5.3 .4 Quantitative Methods
    • 5.4 Social Network Analysis
    • 5.4.1 Use of SNA
    • 5.4 2 SNA stages
    • 5.4.3 Pajek and Centrality
    • 5.4.2 Limitations of SNA
    • 5.5 Use of Case Studies
    • 5.5.1 Selection of LAs in Greater Manchester and Lancashire
    • 5.2.2MCR ; Wigan and Stockport, Lancashire; Burnley and Pendle
    • 5.6 Summary : Methodological Contribution of thesis
  • Scope at Scale (1)
    • Our concern with the `scope' ….involves analytical attention to both how and why the parameters and preferred modus operandi of a particular policy sector are constructed, as manifest in how issues and actors are constructed as legitimate or not, central or not, and then how the mechanisms are put in place to ensure that there is some degree of coherence across closely linked policy domains, such as economic development, transport, housing, and spatial planning
  • Scope at Scale (2)
    • Thinking about how the boundaries of policy sectors are continuously being reworked, including the varying levels of porosity across sectors, suggests that the recent academic work on state rescaling and subnational economic governance might usefully engage more with issues of `scope' for action (ibid)
  • Governability (Kooiman)
  • Governance ‘entitites’ TYPE I TYPE II general-purpose jurisdictions task-specific jurisdictions non-intersecting memberships intersecting memberships jurisdictions organized on a limited number of levels no limit to the number of jurisdictional levels system-wide architecture flexible design
  • Type II entities can be…
    • Clubs
    • Agencies
    • Polity-forming
    • (Skelcher, 2007)
  • Regeneration – Governance 4 phases
  • Co-ordination Retrenchment Proliferation Consolidation
  • Governance networks
    • are about power, authority, legitimacy, accountability, efficacy (?)
    • both emerge and are designed (partially)
    • cannot be viewed simply as “ technocratic ” processes or “ design problems ”
    • combine
      • Messy complex informal relationships
      • Institutions, organisations and agencies
  • Granovetter
    • This work can be situated within a sociological tradition exemplified by Granovetter whose influential article “ the strength of weak ties ” (1975) narrates the importance of roles within networks such as brokers, bridges, early adopters, boundary spanners, centrality and periphery and the effect of cliques, on change, innovation and diffusion.
    • “ significance within networks is given to individuals that act as connectors within a network , boundary spanners who connect networks, information brokers and people who are peripheral to the network ” (Granovetter, 1975)
  • [SNA] Social Network Analysis
    • “ Network methods are seen as a means of mapping roles comprehensively, so allowing “real” qualities of social structures to be delineated …the basic presumption of SNA is that sociograms of points and lines can be used to represent agents and their social relations. The pattern of connections among these lines in a sociogram represents the relational structure of a society or social group” (Knox, 2006)
  • Different types of networks
  • My Methodological approach
    • It is useful to approach areas/places by analysing the governance networks within them
    • It can be useful to approach themes by exploring the governance networks established around them
    • Formal, Quantitative Social Network Analysis [SNA] adds value as part of an integrated mixed method approach in combination with both interviewing elites and participant observation in context
  • Methodological limitations?
    • In these networks nodes are always individual people
    • Institutions “appear” through the formal connections/relationships between them
    • Qualitative techniques elicit informal relationships
    • Are these descriptive/heuristic devices or something more powerfully analytical?
  • multi-scalar results
      • Interviews with decision makers – civil servants –politicians .
    • Interviews with policy people
    National scale LAA/MAA = Policy instrument
      • c. NW Regional Context
    d. Gtr Manchester City Region Documentary, Participant Observation SNA, Interviews f. Stockport non- NRF unitary SNA analysis + Area Committees e. Wigan NRF unitary SNA analysis + Townships LAA/MAA= operational reality Increasing in specificity Mixed methods: documentary, background datasets, participant observation, qualitative generation of SNA maps Sub-regional scale
  • multi-scalar results
      • Interviews with decision makers – civil servants –politicians .
    • Interviews with policy people
    National scale LAA/MAA = Policy instrument 1, 2
      • c. NW Regional Context
    d. Gtr Manchester City Region Documentary, Participant Observation SNA, Interviews f. Stockport non- NRF unitary SNA analysis + Area Committees e. Wigan NRF unitary SNA analysis + Townships LAA/MAA= operational reality Increasing in specificity Mixed methods: documentary, background datasets, participant observation, qualitative generation of SNA maps Sub-regional scale
  • Findings...
    • 1. New structures for Economic Development and Regeneration in the recession in the core executive. (proliferation)
    • 2. “A last throw of the dice” for regional economic co-ordination : the role of the jecs (co-ordination)
  • multi-scalar results
      • Interviews with decision makers – civil servants –politicians .
    • Interviews with policy people
    National scale LAA/MAA = Policy instrument 3
      • c. NW Regional Context
    d. Gtr Manchester City Region Documentary, Participant Observation SNA, Interviews f. Stockport non- NRF unitary SNA analysis + Area Committees e. Wigan NRF unitary SNA analysis + Townships LAA/MAA= operational reality Increasing in specificity Mixed methods: documentary, background datasets, participant observation, qualitative generation of SNA maps Sub-regional scale
  • findings
    • MAA-LSP links at locality level
  • multi-scalar methods
      • Interviews with decision makers – civil servants –politicians .
    • Interviews with policy people
    National scale LAA/MAA = Policy instrument 4
      • c. NW Regional Context
    d. Gtr Manchester City Region Documentary, Participant Observation SNA, Interviews f. Stockport non- NRF unitary SNA analysis + Area Committees e. Wigan NRF unitary SNA analysis + Townships LAA/MAA= operational reality Increasing in specificity Mixed methods: documentary, background datasets, participant observation, qualitative generation of SNA maps Sub-regional scale
    • the re-ification of the Greater Manchester City Region
  • Central-local relations (!?)
    • “ What we have found is that there is one box with ‘Government’ marked on it and then lots of other boxes with different parts of government, and yet they want one agreement from us”
    • LAA broker, NW, NRF authority
  • 1: ED/R before the reshuffle
    • New Economic Development Structures
    • National-Regional (BERR/Treasury/ No. 10/ Cabinet Office)
    • CLG ’ s LAA-MAA mechanisms
  • New National Economic Development Infrastructure
    • [NEC] National Economic Council
    • (Cabinet Sub-committee replacing EDX)
    • [REC] Regional Economic Council
    • Governance Structure – Partnership
    • [CRM] Council of Regional Ministers
    • Co-ordinated by the Cabinet Office
    • 9 Regional Committees/ Commissions
    • Role for the Regional Ministers
    • [EPBs] Economic Prosperity Boards
    • [RSC] Regional Select Committees
  • The Government (publicwhip.org.uk)
  • Centrality
  • Scope at Scale within the core executive I
    • Centrality within core executive structures for ED/R
    • Liam Byrne
    • Hazel Blears
    • Nick Brown
    • Yvette Cooper
    • Alistair Darling
    • Tony McNulty
    • Peter Mandelson
  • PSA match to ministers (2007) Scope @ Scale within the Core Executive II
    • Number of PSAs for which each Cabinet Minister is operationally responsible.
    • Minister Department Number of PSAs
    • Ed Balls DCFS 5
    • Jacqui Smith Home Office 4
    • John Hutton DBERR 3
    • Hazel Blears DCLG 2
    • Peter Hain DWP 2
    • Alan Johnson DH 2
    • John Denham DIUS 2
    • Hilary Benn DEFRA 2
    • Alistair Darling HMT 1
    • Jack Straw MoJ 1
    • Ruth Kelly DfT 1
    • James Purnell DCMS 1
    • Ed Miliband Cabinet Office 1
    • Douglas Alexander DFID 1
    • David Miliband FCO 1
    • Harriet Harman Government Equalities Office 1
  •  
  • The North West Joint Economic Commission (JEC)
  • North West Joint Economic Commission Regional Economic Council
  • AGMA
  • SNA Greater Manchester MAA-LAA (accountabilty)
  • SNA with local government decentred
  •  
  • Scope @ Scale in MCR
    • Type II / Second generation governance required “policy entrepreneurs” who re-ified (neo-liberally !) and created a governance story to play with the treasury about agglomeration economics.
    • Type I caught up with them - structures, processses and the “reticulated brokers” took over - New AGMA structure emphasises accountability and scrutiny.
  • Governance Entity Type Type I Type II Partnership Model / moment New Governance Model for GMCR adopted by AGMA in Autumn 2009 Operation of Manchester Enterprises from 2005-2009 Skills required to work model reticulated brokerage policy entrepreneurialism To what end Democratic Process Management Reification – Conceptualisation Construction of Evidence Base Political oversight Built in including scrutiny Obscure – Executive only? Role of private sector Built in Majority on ME Board Central government connections ? Intense, sporadic, improvised Mechanisms framing activity SCR – GM Strategy MAA development MIER Defined by Comprehensive, inclusive, organisational relationships Small, tight, personal networks Future role Assured Emergent Stable Small element of large structure – subsumed. Future funding – too “grade-rich”? Unstable - Obsolete in current form?
  • Governability within MCR
    • Early, experimental LAA and Manchester Enterprises were Type II governance entities of a particular “polity forming type”
    • Both mechanisms have been tamed and incorporated
    • Both may still have some ability to surprise !?
  • Governability in Core Executive
    • Continuity (of Brown) belies frantic/frenetic organisational – administrative -constitutional experimentation
    • Future of PSA regime far from assured (even 2008 crop weakened)
    • MOG change fundamental but opaque
    • Sub-national interest dead with BIS/Mandelson
  • Governability of regions
    • REC, JEC CRM etc marginalised by reshuffle and now virtually obselete
    • RSC desperate attempt to inject oversight into operation of regional tier
    • Regional Ministers going the way of Green ministers – problems of co-ordination
    • Whole area highly politicised
    • Highly unstable entities
    • Junctures and change…
    • Scope @ scale for other forms of policy entrepreneurs … progressive??
    • Emergent research agenda
    • Lots more ideas
    • Hard to handle x-sectoral MLG without this methodological approach
    • Papers in preparation
    • On with KTP post doc...
    • Questions?