SOCIAL ECOLOGY MODEL & COMMUNICATION FOR SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE
Types of Communication
Engagement Communication for Advocacy
Mass Media Participatory Development
Dialogue Dialogue Community Mobilisation
Peer education policy and
Peer Education systems
INDIVIDUAL NETWORKS COMMUNITY SOCIETAL
Behavior and intention; Partner and family Leadership; National leadership;
knowledge & skills; beliefs & relationships level of participation; per capita income;
Values; emotion; perceived (communication, trust, information equity; income inequality;
risk; self-efficacy; self- understanding, agree- access to resources; health policy and
image; subjective ment, & power), peer shared ownership; infrastructure;
norms influence, gender collective efficacy; mass media;
equity, bounded social capital; value religious and
normative influence for continual cultural values;
improvement gender norms
Physical Environment and Infrastructure
Burden of disease; climate and seasonality; transportation and communication networks,
access to health care facilities, access to water, sanitation, and household technologies; etc.
Target Audience: Youth 18 – 32
Increase the delay in the onset of sex amongst young people
Increase people’s perception of risk to HIV infection in relation to
multiple and concurrent partners
Reduce the number of multiple and concurrent partners
Promote correct and consistent condom usage with all partners
Increase the number of people who test for HIV on regular basis
Approach: Evidence informed Mass media (Advertising) &
Initial development funded by Levi’s and pre-tested in 3
different locations to check for acceptability by the audience.
• Animated adverts =
“In every advertisement animerts
there has to be a word • Currently 7 being flighted
that the people don’t
understand, because • Undercover lover
that will make them • Booza Brain
look out for it, the next
time they going to want • Sugar daddies and
to hear that word” Mommies
F: Because it sounds • What’s my risk
Yes. Scrutinize. • Lovewords
• Undercover HIV
19% South Africans 15 -
24 are living with HIV
66% of South Africans
do not see themselves at
risk for HIV infection - yet
12.5% living with HIV
Only 5% of SAfricans see
partner reduction as a
strategy for prevention
Eliminate the element of surprise!
Multiple and concurrent partners = Individuals who have
partners who are connected to others, these others are
connected to additional persons, and so on that results in a
constantly shifting web of connected persons in a sexual
network (Morris & Kretzchmar 2000)
HIV most infectious
during first 3- 6 weeks
following initial infection
and prior to the
production of antibodies.
If one person is newly
infected, the virus
spreads rapidly to others
within the network
Faithfulness = protecting
‘main partner’ from
knowledge of being
unfaithful rather than with
Reasons why people
engage in MCP – previous
pressure; low self-esteem
(loneliness); Don’t let booza brain shibobo your
Sex in exchange for stuff
Men = status and power
Women = economic and
Eliminate the element of the sugar suprise!
Key Messages – Partner Reduction
An undercover lover can bring you HIV from another (Undercover Lover)
If the playa is too drunk don’t put him in the game (Alcohol)
Fewer partners in a life time reduces risk (Risk)
Thanks to our sugar momma’s and daddies we got kewl stuff and we all
got to keep the (HIV) change. Don’t get more than you bargained for
from sugars (Transactional Sex).
Key Messages – Correct and consistent condom usage
Use condoms all the time (Whats My Risk)
Use a condom all the time unless you trying for a baby (Love Words)
No condom big problem (Alcohol, Sex and HIV)
Two primary messages were identified, (i) having multiple
and concurrent sexual partners increases risk of HIV and (ii)
unprotected sex increases the risk of HIV infection.
Discussants give examples of how the animerts have resulted
in self reflection and questioning of personal sexual
My younger brother asked me something about this advert. He says
‘brother are you still going to marry that beautiful sister?’ I said to him
‘why are you asking me this question? He said ‘because I saw you
talking to another sister not the one you are going to marry. Why did
you do that because risk advert shows that having more than one
partner could easily bring you HIV, do you know that … stop chasing
every women you see in the street (August 2008).
“I remember scrutinize through
the adverts that shows that
people must not have multiple
partners” (November 2008)
“Scrutinize makes me lose my
two boyfriends through to that
they did not want prevention as
we were watching the advert
they say its just a piece of
rubbish – he refused to use
condoms on me. Safety first than
putting someone at risk”
Facilitator's guide with DVD
Community Action Guide
Scrutinize Website(www.scrutinize.org.za )
Scrutinize Risk cards
Scrutinize Coasters – with a focus on Sex and
Scrutinize Collateral Material
JHHESA/DramAidE Technical Support
Does combination messaging detract from partner reduction?
Does the speed facilitate or impede meaning – ie. Are audiences more
likely to watch and pay attention given the speed of the animert?
What is the optimal “play back” per message to get retention of the
meanings that are being conveyed?
What is the balance between hard hitting & aspiration messaging?
How to target the IPC efforts at the 18 most at risk districts?
How to meet the demands for tools, materials and training?
How to ensure message integrity at the community level?
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