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02 Pamela Naidoo Ptsd & Hiv Sahara 09

02 Pamela Naidoo Ptsd & Hiv Sahara 09






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    02 Pamela Naidoo Ptsd & Hiv Sahara 09 02 Pamela Naidoo Ptsd & Hiv Sahara 09 Presentation Transcript

    • The Relationship between the Number & Type of Traumatic Experiences & PTSD in HIV positive adults in HIV Care/Rx Centres in Cape Town Naidoo, P; Damon-Morris, T; & Seedat, S
    • INTRODUCTION Study located in larger study entitled: Common Mental Health Disorders among HIV-Infected Individuals in SA: Prevalence, Predictors, & Validation of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales High Prevalence of HIV infected individuals in SA/sub-Saharan Africa is unquestionable PLWHA suffer very high rates of mental illness, especially PTSD
    • INTRODUCTION cont. Diagnosis of PTSD arises out of the experience(s) of traumatic events HIV/AIDS affects families that have experienced multi-generational histories of victimization & trauma (historical t) Currently: SA considered to be one of the most violent countries (includes sexual violence e.g. rape)
    • INTRODUCTION cont. Stressful life events (including traumatic events) impacts disease course Presence of PTSD can hasten HIV disease progression. Imp to include mental health services in HIV care/Rx
    • INTRODUCTION cont. Aims (this study): to examine the relationships between (a) the types of traumatic experiences & PTSD in PLWHA (adults) (b) the number of traumatic experiences & PTSD in PLWHA
    • METHOD: Study Design, Sampling & Procedure Main study design: quantitative, cross sectional Convenience, non-probability sampling Tools: battery of questionnaires (demographic & screening tools for depression, PTSD & substance abuse) Structured clinical interview using MINI
    • METHOD: Study Design, Sampling & Procedure Ethical guidelines adhered to This study: secondary data analysis 528 participants data utilized 2 groups identified: those that met criteria for PTSD (PTSD +) & those that did not (PTSD -)
    • RESULTS Mean Age: 34 yrs (SD=8.0) Majority within age range 24-40yrs Females=74.4% Unemployed=34% Educational level: 83% between grades 8-12 Married/in relationship=66% Heterosexual=96.5%
    • RESULTS Participants’ Exposure to DSM-IV qualifying traumatic events (%) Natural Disaster=88.0 Fire/ Explosion =55.0 Transport Accident= 57.2 Accident:home/work/sports=63.4 Physical Assault = 44.4
    • RESULTS cont. Assaulted with weapon=49 Sexual Assault=73.5 Other unwanted/uncomfortable sexual experience=77.7 Exposure to trauma in war-zone (combat/civilian)=86.8 Captivity =82.3
    • RESULTS cont. Life-Threatening illness/injury=39.9 Exposure to sudden/violent death (murder/suicide)=72.5 Sudden/unexpected death of someone close=34.2 Serious injury/harm/death you caused to someone=77.7 Other life threats=86.7
    • RESULTS cont. Trauma & PTSD: Only sexual assault & exposure to trauma in war zone were significantly associated with PTSD Exposure to sexual assault had 10 times greater odds PTSD diagnosis (OR=10.0) Exposure to trauma in war zone had 6.9 times greater odds of PTSD diagnosis(OR=6.9)
    • RESULTS cont. Sex Differences Men had significantly higher rates of exposure to physical assault & assault with weapon Women had significantly higher rates of exposure to sexual assault
    • DISCUSSION Demographic characteristics (mean age/>f): in keeping with national figures (despite convenience sampling) f of traumatic events overall was consistently high (increases burden of disease in already under-resourced communities)
    • DISCUSSION Sexual assault & exposure in war zone places PLWHA at risk for PTSD diagnosis: once again highlights nature of trauma & mental health aspects of HIV/AIDS. Supports existing lit Sex/gender differences: f (sexual assault), m (physical assault & assault with weapon)
    • CONCLUSION Study highlights burden of disease in PLWHA Mental ill-health (historical/current trauma exposure) fuels cycle of violence Need to re-conceptualize HIV/AIDS health care/intervention models HIV/AIDS Research: B-P-S/P model
    • CONTACT DETAILS Pamela Naidoo pnaidoo@uwc.ac.za