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Oxidative Phosphorylation

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A summary of oxidative phosphorylation. Including Glycolysis, link reaction, krebs cycle and the electron transport chain

A summary of oxidative phosphorylation. Including Glycolysis, link reaction, krebs cycle and the electron transport chain

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  • 1. Oxidative Phosphorylation Revision
  • 2. Glucose C6H12O6 MitochondriaGlycolysis Link Reaction Electron Transport chain Cytoplasm
  • 3. Glycolysis: AT P Glucose C6H12O6 ADP ADP P Glucose-6-P Generates: Generates: Isoomeris Is meris 1)2x ATP 1)2x ATP mm Fructose-1-P P 2)2x Pyruvate 2)2x Pyruvate AT 3)2x Reduced electron 3)2x Reduced electron P Hexose-1-6- P carriers (NADH) carriers (NADH) bisphosphate ADP ADP22ATP molecules are used ATP molecules are used up binding phosphate up binding phosphate 2x triosphosphate (3C) molecules to glucose, molecules to glucose, Substrate e Substrat AT AT levelel lev therefore even though 44 therefore even though P P In this stage, 2x ATP && 2x NADH are formed In this stage, 2x ATP 2x NADH are formed phosphoryl phosphoryl ation ation are made, there’s aanet are made, there’s net NADH NADH production of 22ATPs production of ATPs 2x Intermediate compound AT AT In this stage, 2x ATP are formed In this stage, 2x ATP are formed P P Glycolysis occurs in the Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm cytoplasm 2x Pyruvate (3C)
  • 4. Link Reaction:This reaction transports the This reaction transports the Pyruvate made in the Pyruvate made in the Pyruvate (3C) cytoplasm into the cytoplasm into the mitochondria, forming mitochondria, forming Acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA. NADThe Acetyl-CoA will then go The Acetyl-CoA will then go CO22 COinto the Krebs cycle, which into the Krebs cycle, which takes place in the takes place in the NADH mitochondria. mitochondria.Since there were 22pyruvates Since there were pyruvatesformed in glycolysis, 22Acetyl formed in glycolysis, Acetyl CoA’s are formed in total Acetyl CoA (2C) CoA’s are formed in total
  • 5. Krebs Cycle: Acetyl-CoA (2C) Acetyl-CoA (2C) CoA CoA Oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate NADH Citrate (6C) Citrate (6C) (4C) (4C) NADNAD CO2 2 CO NADH (4C) molecule (4C) molecule (5C) molecule (5C) molecule CO2 2 CO NADFADH2 2 FADH (4C) molecule (4C) molecule (4C) molecule (4C) molecule NADH FAD FAD Krebs info Krebs info ATP ADP ADP P CLICK HERE CLICK HERE
  • 6. Krebs 2: The Acetyl-CoA (2C) bonds to The Acetyl-CoA (2C) bonds to As 22pyruvates are made in As pyruvates are made in Oxaloacetate (4C) forming Citrate Oxaloacetate (4C) forming Citrate glycolysis forming 22Acetyl-CoA glycolysis forming Acetyl-CoA (6C) which then goes round the (6C) which then goes round the molecules in the Link Reaction, molecules in the Link Reaction, cycle, producing electron carrier cycle, producing electron carrierthe Krebs cycle goes round twice. the Krebs cycle goes round twice. molecules and ATP. molecules and ATP. Each time the Krebs cycle goes Each time the Krebs cycle goes round, 33NADH molecules are round, NADH molecules are made, forming 66in total. made, forming in total. Also, 22FADH22molecules are Also, FADH molecules are The Krebs cycle occurs in the The Krebs cycle occurs in the produced in total. produced in total. mitochondria. mitochondria.CO22is also made during the Krebs CO is also made during the Krebs cycle as aawaste product. cycle as waste product.
  • 7. Electron Transport Chain: Ouutsd O tsi id eeccel el l HH ++ ee- - ee- - Inssdd In i i ee ccel l el NADH NADH NADH 1. NADH transfers it’s 1. NADH transfers it’s hydrogens (each hydrogens (eachcontaining aaproton and an containing proton and an electron) to the electron electron) to the electron carrier protein carrier protein
  • 8. Electron Transport Chain: Ouutsd O tsi id eeccel el l ee- - Coenzyme Coenzyme QQ ee- - HH ++ Inssdd In i i ee ccel l el 2. Some electron carrier 2. Some electron carrier This increases the proton This increases the proton proteins such as Coenzyme Q proteins such as Coenzyme Q gradient across the membrane gradient across the membrane can accept Protons as electrons can accept Protons as electrons and enhances the proton and enhances the proton are passed through it are passed through it motive force motive force
  • 9. Electron Transport Chain: Ouutsd O tsi id eeccel el l ee- - ee- - 22O Inssdd In i i ee Omoleculemolecule One One ccel l el ==O22 O splits splits OO 3. During aerobic respiration, 3. During aerobic respiration, the last protein transfers aapair the last protein transfers pair HH of electrons to an oxygen of electrons to an oxygenOO OO ++ molecule to form H200(the O22 OO HH molecule to form H2 (the O HH HH ++ splits first) splits first)
  • 10. Electron Transport Chain: HH HH Ouutsd O tsi id HH ++ ++ eeccel el l ++ HH ++ HH ++ ATP synthase ATP synthase enzyme enzyme Inssdd In i i ee ccel l el 4. The ATP synthase enzyme utilises 4. The ATP synthase enzyme utilises HH the proton motive force, and is able the proton motive force, and is able ++to use energy formed to carry out the to use energy formed to carry out theprocess of phosphorylation from ADP process of phosphorylation from ADP to ATP to ATP ATP ADP ADP P
  • 11. Summary: Glycolysis: Glycolysis: Link reaction: Link reaction: 2x ATP 2x ATP 2x Acetyl-CoA 2x Acetyl-CoA 2x NADH 2x NADH 2x NADH 2x NADH2x Pyruvate (3C) 2x Pyruvate (3C) 2x CO22 2x CO Electron transport chain: Electron transport chain: Krebs: Krebs: All the hydrogen molecules from All the hydrogen molecules from 6x NADH the previously made NADH and the previously made NADH and 6x NADH 2x FADH22 FADH2 molecules are converted FADH2 molecules are converted 2x FADH into ATP. A total of 30 could into ATP. A total of 30 could 2x ATP 2x ATP potentially be made. However potentially be made. However 4x CO22 4x CO due to leakiness, it makes around due to leakiness, it makes around 26/28 ATP. 26/28 ATP.