Topic 1: Definitions of abnormality/psychopathology:1. Description of deviation from social norms & examples.2. 2 strengths, 2 weaknesses of the deviation from social norms definition, inc. cultural relativism.3. Description of deviation from Ideal Mental health inc. Jahoda’s 6 criteria.4. 2 strengths, 2 weaknesses of the deviation from idea mental health definition5. Description of Failure to Function Adequately with examples.6. 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of the failure to function adequately.
1. Description of deviation from social norms & examples.• Social norms are the rules that society has for ‘acceptable behaviour’.• Deviation from social norms means acting in a way that would be considered abnormal.e.g. Standing too close in face-to-faceconversation.Not queuing if you’re English.Laughing when you should be crying.
2. 2 strengths, 2 weaknesses of thedeviation from social norms definition, inc. cultural relativism.• Can help to find • Cultural relativism – so, abnormalities, for throwing tomatoes at example if someone people in England seems lost, they may would be weird, but in have Alzheimers Spain, it’s a tradition• Fluid, so it can change • Role of context – with the times. For singing on a stage = fine example, homosexuality singing in a shop = weird was deemed as ‘abnormal’ until 1967
3. Description of deviation from Ideal Mental health inc. Jahoda’s 6 criteria.1. Positive attitudes toward oneself2. Self-actualisation of one’s potential3. Resistance to stress4. Personal autonomy5. Accurate perception of reality6. Adapting to and mastering the environment
4. 2 strengths, 2 weaknesses of the deviation from idea mental health definition• Focuses on the positives, • Difficulty of self-actualising. not the negatives. • Some people benefit from working in stressed conditions. • Cultural issues – Jahoda’s theory was based on Western ideals of self- fulfilment. • Too simplistic. • Someone could be assessed when they’re having a bad day.
5. Description of Failure to Function Adequately with examples.Someone who is unable to take part in everydaylife, for example, unable to work or socialise.
6. 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of the failure to function adequately. • Exceptions to the rule –• Humane, non-invasive e.g. students feeling way of helping to anxious about exams, not diagnose abnormality. necessarily abnormal.• The ‘Global Assessment • Cultural issues – minority of Functioning Scale’ ethnic groups could feel (GAF) is on a continuum, harassed, leading to them and therefore allows being less social. Does not fluidity within the model. mean abnormal. (COCHRANE and SASHIDHARAN 1995)
Topic 2: Models of abnormality/psychopathology1. Description of the BIOLOGICAL MODEL.2. Outline 4 biological explanations for mental health disorders (infection, biochemistry, brain damage, genetics)3. 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of the approach.4. Description of the PSYCHODYNAMIC MODEL – inc. mental health disorders being linked to conflicts in childhood/unconscious mind.5. Description of the psychosexual stages, and how they link to abnormality.6. Either Anna O or Little Hans CASE STUDY7. At least 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of the approach8. Description of the BEHAVIOURAL MODEL.9. Description of operant conditioning
Topic 2: Models of abnormality/psychopathology pt 210. Description of classical conditioning.11.APFC of Little Albert (Watson and Raynor 1920)12.2 strengths and weaknesses of the approach.13.Description of the COGNITIVE MODEL.14.Description of the BECK ABC MODEL.15.Description of ELLIS’ COGNITIVE TRIAD.16.At least 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of the Cognitive model.
1. Description of the BIOLOGICAL MODEL.• States that mental disorders are caused by abnormal physiological processes.1. Genetic2. Biochemical3. Illness4. Disease
2. Outline 4 biological explanations for mental health disorders (infection,biochemistry, brain damage, genetics)1. Brain damage:As your brain wears away, you become more abnormal. E.g. Alzheimers.Case study: Phineas Gage – pole through head. Changed personality type completely. Shows that different parts of your brain account for different things.2. Infection:Brown et al (1990) found correlation between women contracting influenza in their first trimester, and the consequent onset of schizophrenia in their child.(not reliable – not been proved since!)
3. Genetics:Evidence suggests disorders are inherited. Identical twins – 44.3% concordance rates of schizophrenia, compared to Non-identical twins – 12% concordance rates.4. Biochemistry:Cortisol – calms you down.Imbalance of serotonin = Depression.Imbalance of dopamine = Schizophrenia.Drugs are produced to balance the imbalances.
3. 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of the approach.• Objective – deals with • Everybody’s different. hormones, and sciencey • Stigma – fears of being stuff! classed as ‘mentally ill’• ‘No blame’ – people are • Reductionist – broken not to blame for their down into fundamental abnormalities, levels. therefore they should be helped through it.• Puts less stress on the patient, as doctors can try to sort things out.
4. Description of the PSYCHODYNAMIC MODEL – inc. mental health disorders being linked to conflicts in childhood/unconscious mind.Freud:Tripartite theory:ID – I want it all. Childish.Superego- The nice, and social. (can lead to anxiety)Ego – The balance.
Psychodynamic model - FreudEgo defence mechanisms:Repression – Pushing traumatic events into the subconscious.Regression – Reverting back to child-like state.Denial – Refusal to admit something that has occurred, or is currently occurring.
5. Description of the psychosexual stages, and how they link to abnormality.Oral – Stuck in this stage = OCDAnal - OCDPhallic – Jealous of parents genitaliaLatency – Social development with people of the same gender.Genital – Development of heterosexual relationships.
6. Anna OBreuer and Freud (1896):• Anna O, 21 year old woman. V. Intellectual.• Father became ill, she nursed him, got sick herself, became bed ridden, lacked interest in food (regression).• Before her father died, she also became a mute (regression)• Her dad died, she got anxious (superego) and depressed (ID). Then, aggressive (ID).• She would occasionally talk, and make links for her symptoms. She made an association between her deafness and when her brother caught her listening to her parents having sex. (Phallic)• The symptoms would worsen as she thought back.• Anna’s deafness would go when she recalled the incident with her Bro.
7. At least 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of the psychodynamic model:• Freud’s theories have • Blames the parents, make been enormously them feel guilty perhaps – influential. not fair on them!• Subjective – no science • Retrospective data means involved. that childhood problems may not necessarily emerge in problems in adults. • Deterministic: The philosophy that everything is ultimately determined by things beyond our will/control. simple enough?
8. Description of the BEHAVIOURAL MODEL.• Claim that abnormal behaviour is learned through experience.• But that behaviour can be changed if dysfunctional, due to classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning theory.
9. Description of operant conditioningThe idea that behaviours are learned. Behaviours with good outcomes continue, however behaviours with undesirable consequences become less frequent.
10. Description of classical conditioning.Form of learning where a neutral stimulus is paired with a response-producing stimulus, so over time, the neutral stimulus also produces that response.
11. APFC of Little Albert (Watson and Raynor 1920)Aim:Wanted to see how a phobia could be conditioned.Procedure:They got Little Albert, an 11 month old child, and they tested him to find things he was afraid of. The only thing they found was the sound of a hammer striking a metal bar behind his head.Findings:They took a tame rat, (neutral stimulus) and as Little Albert reached out to touch the rat, the bar would be struck. Over time, he was afraid to touch the rat. (conditioned response).Conclusion:They were able to condition a phobia by (classical) conditioning.
12. 2 strengths and weaknesses of the approach.• We know that phobias • Was never desensitised can be created by as his parents removed classical conditioning. him from the experiment. • No consent from Albert. • Ethical issues – Albert was left to play with burning newspaper.
13. Description of the COGNITIVE MODEL.• Focuses on cognitive problems – such as irrational thinking.• Ellis 1962• If we think rationally, we behave rationally.
14. Description of the BECK’sABC MODEL. Activating Belief Consequence eventActivating event:An event that triggers an emotion.Belief:How the patient reacts… Either rationally or irrationally.Consequences:Other thoughts/behaviours.
15. Description ofBECKS’ COGNITIVE TRIAD. • Typical of depression. • People believe they’re Negative views about the world worthless. • People believe they’ll never amount to anything. Negative views Negative views • People believe theabout the future about oneself world is against them.
16. At least 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of the Cognitive model.• Supported by Gustafson • No cause and effect. 1992 who found • Blaming of the maladaptive thinking individual, which could was linking to anxiety. draw away the need to improve social conditions.
Topic 3: Treatments of abnormality/psychology:Biological treatments:1. Explain how chemotherapy works2. Outline the 3 types of drugs• Anti-anxiety- beta blockers, BZ• Anti-psychotics – conventional & atypical• Anti-depressants – tricyclics and SSRI’s.3. 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of chemotherapy (& side effects)4. Outline the two types of ECT (uni + bilateral)5. 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of ECT (& side effects)
1. Explain how chemotherapy works:Drug therapy, to treat mental disorders often bystabilising chemical imbalance.
2. Outline the 3 types of drugs1. Anti-anxiety drugs• BZs (Benzodiazepines) - Calming effect• Enhance GABA, calming brain activity.2. Anti-depressants• SSRIs (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors)• Increase serotonin to improve mood.3. Anti-psychotic drugs• Major tranquillisers• Seduce and alleviate symptoms like hallucinations• Stop schizophrenia
3. 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of chemotherapy (& side effects)• Quick to get. • Doesn’t necessarily• Easily obtainable. work for everyone• Only have to take pills. (FISHER AND GREENBERG 1989) • Side effects such as tiredness, stiffness and tremors. • Only treats the symptoms, not the cause.
4. Outline the two types of ECT (uni + bilateral)• Unilateral – one electrode to either one temple, or the centre of the head.• Bilateral – two electrodes on both temples.• The patient is shocked with 70-130V, for ½ a second.• Patient is anaesthetised, and has no memory of the shocks.
5. 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of ECT (& side effects)• Quick, and effective. • Side effects, inc.• Proven to work, memory loss, and bone objective. fractures.• Last resort. • Don’t know how ECT works. • Ethical issues – has been used without consent to institutionalised people.
Topic 3: Treatments of abnormality/psychology:2. Psychoanalysis:- Explain how treatment is focused upon the unconscious mind, outline 3 treatments:1) Dream analysis2) Free association3) Transference- 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of psychoanalysis, i.e. lack of side effects.
1. Explain how treatment is focusedupon the unconscious mind, outline 3 treatments:1. Dream analysis – the unconscious mind may be revealed in dreams. Freud believed in repressed memories.2. Free association – clients let their thoughts wander, and say the first thing they think of. Bringing out repressed memories/thoughts.3. Transference – Client projects characteristics of other people onto the analyst.
2. 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses ofpsychoanalysis, i.e. lack of side effects.• No side effects. • Expensive – lots of time• Allows the patient to taken, therefore lots of move along at their own money. pace, no pressures. • Works better for neurotic disorders (anxiety) than psychotic disorders (schizophrenia). • Difficulty in evaluating. • Subjective. • Ethical issues MASSON 1988 said all the power was with the analyst.
Topic 3: Treatments of abnormality/psychology:3. Behavioural treatments:1. Explain how treatment changes BEHAVIOUR, not the underlying cause. (Hierachy; systematic desensitisation)2. 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of systematic desensitisation. Inc. lack of side effects.
1. Explain how treatment changes BEHAVIOUR, not the underlying cause. (Hierarchy; systematic desensitisation)Systematic desensitisation:Uses counter-conditioning to replace a bad response(fear) to a healthier response (relaxation).Hierarchy:With the hierarchy method, a graded series of thoughtprovoking situations is created, and the patient moves upthem.These methods only change the behaviour, as they onlychange the response to the fear, not the fear itself.
2. 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses ofsystematic desensitisation. Inc. lack of side effects.• No side effects. • Time consuming,• Allows patient to feel therefore expensive. comfortable with each • Heavily involved in stage before moving on. imagination – not suited to all patients.
Topic 3: Treatments of abnormality/psychology:4. Cognitive behavioural therapy:- Explain how treatment is focused on changing faulty thoughts and perceptions to lead to a change in behaviour; outline REBT/ABC model (Beck)- 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of CBT, inc. focus on free will.
1. Explain how treatment is focused on changing faulty thoughts and perceptions to lead to a change in behaviour; outline REBT/ABC model (Beck)• REBT (ELLIS 1962) – Rational-emotive behaviour therapy.• They become calm over a long period of time.• (ADAPTED BY) Ellis 1991 – ABC model.• Activating event, Beliefs, Consequences.
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