Cross cultural communication formulaicity


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Cross cultural communication
Levels of Communication Differences: Formulaicity
Designed by Mr. Sunan Fathet
Presented as a requirement of TF 501 Pedagogic Implications of Language Studies 1/2012
Department of Western Languages
Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok,

Published in: Education
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Cross cultural communication formulaicity

  1. 1. The Pragmatics of Cross- Cultural CommunicationLevels of Communication Differences By Mr. Sunan Fathet 1
  2. 2. Parts of formulaic language idioms collocationsset phrases proverbs Parts of Formulaic Language routines turns of phraserhymes and songs preferred ways of saying things (Wray, 2000, cited in Cardiff University, n.d.) Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 2
  3. 3. Noticing formulaic language in: ritualized events (ceremony) structured events such as weather forecasts the language of very young children the materials in foreign language the materials 2. Strategy in foreign language textbooks, especially for beginners, and in textbooks, especially for beginners, and phrasebooks in phrasebooks the speech of people with acquired language disabilities such as aphasia (Wray, 2000, cited in Cardiff University, n.d.) Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 3
  4. 4. A sequence, continuous or discontinuous, of words orother meaning elements, which is, or appears to be,prefabricated: that is, stored and retrieved whole frommemory at the time of use, rather than being subjectto generation or analysis by the language grammar. (Wray, 2002, p.9) Formulaic (adj.): constituting or containing a verbal formula or set form of words: a formulaic greeting, formulaic expressions such as ‘Once upon a time’ - produced in accordance with a slavishly followed rule or style; predictable: much romantic fiction is stylized, formulaic, and unrealistic (Oxford dictionaries, 2012) 4
  5. 5. The eleven criteria for identification of formulaic sequences Grammatical irregularity Semantic opacity Situation/ register specificity Pragmatic function Idiolect Performance indication Grammatical indication Previous encounter Derivation Inappropriate application Mismatch with maturation (Wray and Namba, 2003, cited in Namba, n.d.) 5
  6. 6. 1. Grammatical irregularity„rain cats and dogs‟ The intransitive verb „rain‟ doesn‟t take any object NP and the NP „cats and dogs‟ is not employed as an adverb.„if I were you‟ contains the subjunctive form „were‟ which many people no longer produce in novel constructions but only use in this wordstring. Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 6
  7. 7. 2. Semantic opacity„kick the bucket‟ The meaning of the whole wordstring, i.e. „to die‟ cannot be derived from the sum of the meaning of its individual parts.„spill the beans‟ It means „tell a secret‟ and it is possible to map „spill‟ onto „tell‟ and „beans‟ onto „secret‟„like a fish out of water‟ the speaker is not talking about a fish or water.„very funny‟ can express the opposite of its literal meaning, when the situation indicates that the speaker is talking about something not funny at all. Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 7
  8. 8. 2. Semantic opacity (cont.) “opaque metaphor”„kick the bucket‟ (Moon, 1998, p.23, cited in Namba, n.d.) where the meaning is unintelligible without “general or etymological knowledge”„spill the beans‟ (Wray, 2002, p.57, cited in Namba, n.d.) It looks fairly non-compositional„like a fish out of water‟ but the meaning is intelligible with general knowledge. When a wordstring has a literal meaning, it can have “a„very funny‟ secondary, layer of pragmatic meaning”. (Wray, 2002, p.58, cited in Namba, n.d.) Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 8
  9. 9. 3. Situation/ register specificity „Happy birthday!‟ It is said on a specific day sensei „teacher‟ In Japanese schools, when students address their teacher in class they say sensei ‘teacher’ rather than each teacher’s name. Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 9
  10. 10. 4. Pragmatic function„kid‟s stuff‟ „evaluative‟ conveying speaker‟s evaluation and attitude„you know what I mean‟ „modalizing‟ conveying truth values, advice, requests„I‟ll tell you what‟ This wordstring functions as a turn claimer in conversation to manage the flow of the discourse.„on the other hand‟ Discourse markers are archetypal models which fit this criterion. Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 10
  11. 11. 5. Idiolect Even without evidence, one„Happy birthday!‟ can assume that this wordstring is learned as a whole from other people, probably family„many happy returns‟ members, and the speaker will always use this form or another with a similar formulaic status.„congratulations‟ Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 11
  12. 12. 6. Performance indicationSome socio-interactional routines are expressed with an action. Sensei ohayo-gozai-masu minasan oyaho-gozai-masu „good morning teacher, good morning everybody‟ Repetition of what the speaker has just heard, prosodic patterns, i.e. intonation and rhythm. „pick-you-own vegetables‟ There are orthographical cues to formulaic sequences, such as hyphenation. Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 12
  13. 13. 7. Grammatical indication „this shouldn‟t be spin dried‟ „spin dry‟ „I spin dried it‟.shows itsformulaicity in thepassive and past They don’t appear as *‘thisforms shouldn’t be spun dry’ (which means it was spun in order to dry it, but not in a spin drier) and *‘I spun it dry’. Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 13
  14. 14. 8. Previous encounterFormulaic sequences in child language according to the way they are acquired. They heard from other people’s speech.“Look I did it all by yourself” A boy has heard the wordstring „all by yourself‟ in his mother‟s speech, i.e. “Good boy! You did it all by yourself!”. The fact that he keeps using „yourself‟ instead of „myself‟ Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 14
  15. 15. 9. Derivation Idiom„kill two birds with one stone‟ It is commonly observed that people change „two‟ into „three‟ or other numbers such as kill five birds with one stone. Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 15
  16. 16. More Examples Thai Idioms „to teach a crocodile to swim‟ „Bring coals to Newcastle‟ to perform a useless task „peeling banana into mouth‟ „piece of cake‟ It‟s easy. „come before the chicken‟ To arrive very early in the morning „tree closes to the shore‟ One foot in the grave Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet 16
  17. 17. ReferencesCardiff University. (n.d.). What is formulaic language?. Retrieved September 3, 2012, from whatis/index.htmlNamba, K. (n.d.). Formulaicity in Code-Switching: Theory. Retrieved September 3, 2012, from 172_06KNamba12.pdfWray, A. (2002). Formulaic language and the lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 17 Formulaicity: By Mr. Sunan Fathet
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