Disadvantage- it requires special skills therefore only trained individuals can administer using this method.
It is used for particular forms of medication that are administered in small amounts. Depending on the chemical properties of the drug, the medication may either be absorbed fairly quickly or more gradually
A person with type 1 diabetes typically injects insulin subcutaneously
Injected in the layer of skin directly below the dermisand epidermis
Nebulizer and inhaler and smoking
S Makeisha Bonner
S Sheralda Small
S Marshawn Young
S Monique Williams
What is Psychopharmacology?
Pharmacology comes from a classical Greek
word pharmakos, meaning medicine or drug
and Logus meaning study.
Psychopharmacology is the interdisciplinary
field combining Psychology with Pharmacology,
and is the study of the effects of drugs on the
nervous system and behaviour.
Use – Ingestion of drugs without the experience of any
Misuse – When a person experiences negative
consequences from the use of drugs.
Abuse – Continued use drugs in spite of negative
Dependence / Addiction – “Compulsive” use of drugs
regardless of the consequences.
S an exogenous chemical that
significantly alters the function of
certain bodily cells.
S medication to treat a disease
S A chemical that can be abused
S Drugs have effects and sites of action:
S Drug Effects is defined as the changes that
can be observed in an animal’s
physiological process and behaviour.
S Sites of action are the points at which drug
molecules interact with molecules located in
or on cells of the body, affecting some
biochemical process of these cells.
S Intravenous simply means into the vein.
S The most common form of administration
S Drug is administered through an hypodermic needle
S Is immediately absorbed by the bloodstream
S Reaches the brain within seconds
Intraperitoneal (I.P) injection
S Is rapid but not as rapid as an I.V injection
S It is injected through the abdominal wall into the
S The Peritoneal cavity is the space between the two
membranes that separate the organs in the abdominal
cavity from the abdominal wall.
S Is the most common route for administering drugs to
Intramuscular injection (I.M)
S Injected directly into a large muscle eg, upper arm, thigh
S It is absorbed through capillaries that supply the muscle
S If slow absorption is desired, the drug maybe mixed with
another drug such as ephedrine to do so. Ephedrine
constricts blood flow.
S Morphine and penicillin is administered intramuscularly
as well as sex hormones such as testosterone and
Subcutaneous injection (SC)
S Injected into the space beneath the skin
S This method is only useful if a small dosage is what is
needed because a large amount would be painful
S Fat soluble drugs can be dissolved in vegetable oil and
administered, this allows the drug to seep through the
deposit of oil over a period of time.
S If slower absorption is required the drug may be placed in
a silicone capsule and implanted beneath the skin
S The most common form of administering drugs to
S Amphetamines are taken orally.
S Done by placing drugs beneath the tongue and allowing it
S It is absorbed into the bloodstream by capillaries
S Diffused into the blood through tissues under the tongue
S Steroids, vitamins and minerals are
S Suppositories- inserted into the rectum
S Rectal suppositories are used to administer drugs that
may upset the stomach and cause emesis
S It is absorbed by the body‟s circulatory system and blood
vessels in the rectum.
S An enema is administered this way
Inhalation or aerosol drugs
S Drug is inhaled and absorbed by the lungs
S Most commonly used in asthmatic conditions or specific lung
conditions that cause difficulty in breathing. Diseases including
emphysema, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary
S The route from the lungs to the brain is very short therefore
recreational drugs such as marijuana and nicotine takes almost
S Drug is absorbed directly through the skin or mucous
S In the form of creams, gels, lotions and/or oitment
S Cocaine is absorbed in the mucus membrane and
provides rapid delivery to the brain.
S Drugs vary in effectiveness and the best way to measure the
effectiveness of a drug is to plot a dose-response curve
S Different drugs have different sites of action
S The Affinity of the drug with its site of action
Effects of Repeated Exposure
S Tolerance > whenever a drug is
repeatedly administered, there is a
decrease in its effectiveness.
S Sensitization > in other cases, the
more a drug is repeatedly
administered, there is an increase in its
S A placebo is a substance given in the place
of a psychologically active drug that in truth
has no psychological effect, that is used in
experiments to control the mere effects of
administering a drug.
S 1) Medication can provide quick relief
from symptoms. This is useful if the
patient's problem is severe but occurs only
rarely (e.g. seizures or occasional panic
attacks), or if the patient is in immediate
physical danger (suicide risk).
2) Some disorders (typically those with a
clear biological basis) don't respond to
therapy and can only be treated
pharmacologically. Again, seizures are an
3) Medication is cheaper and less time
consuming than therapy.
4) Medication is, to an extent, effective
regardless of the patient's attitude. The
patient gets better without facing
difficult personal issues they would
The Roles of the
S Promote health care technology.
S Play a central role in new drug
development, designing of randomized
controlled trials (RCTs) that provide the
data required to support efficacy and novel
S Initiating requests for labelling indications
and safety warnings.
S Influencing consumer patterns of new
products by health care providers and the
S Though it facilitates human enhancement,
it is still debatable whether pharmacology
does more harm than good. In the not so
distant future it is possible for us to see
some aspects of pharmacology spiral into
phenomenon’s such as cloning in order to
create more efficient ‘human beings’.
S -Fictional book ‘Brave New World’ by
Huxley who creates a world where human
beings are no longer just that, they become
almost ‘super-human’. With most babies
made in tubes and natural born babies
viewed as inferior.
S Any chemical entity that alters body &
brain function or structure when
administered is a drug, that includes
everyday pills that we take for
headaches and the common flu .
Example: Narcotics - Pain pills
Used to control moderate to severe pain,
however it builds up „physiological
tolerance‟ over time, whereby more is
needed to get the same effect. Physical
dependence is also a side effect with
people experiencing discomfort if the
S Alarming rates of addiction to
prescribed narcotics is now visible in
society today. Methadone and codeine
are two popular types of prescribed
medications that may lead to addiction
though they are prescribed to deal with
Did you know?
One of the most addictive drug was:
First introduced by a pharmaceutical company
as a legitimate fairly well researched drug
S Dispensed as medication
S More powerful than any other commonly used
S Cheaper to manufacture
S Caused no lingering cravings
Other factors to consider when critiquing
S -Does the costs outweigh the benefits?
S -Placebo effect
S -Dealing with the symptoms rather than the
S -Over prescribing active drugs