PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY

S
Presenters':

S Makeisha Bonner

S Sheralda Small
S Marshawn Young
S Monique Williams
What is Psychopharmacology?
 Pharmacology comes from a classical Greek

word pharmakos, meaning medicine or drug
and Logu...
Drugs?
 Use – Ingestion of drugs without the experience of any

negative consequences.
 Misuse – When a person experienc...
Drug is...
S an exogenous chemical that

significantly alters the function of
certain bodily cells.
S medication to treat ...
S Drugs have effects and sites of action:

S Drug Effects is defined as the changes that

can be observed in an animal’s
p...
Routes of drug
administration

S
Intravenous (I.V)

S Intravenous simply means into the vein.
S The most common form of administration
S Drug is administer...
Injection
Via catheter (drip)
Intraperitoneal (I.P) injection
S Is rapid but not as rapid as an I.V injection
S It is injected through the abdominal wal...
Peritoneal cavity
Intramuscular injection (I.M)
S Injected directly into a large muscle eg, upper arm, thigh

or buttocks.
S It is absorbed ...
Capillaries
Subcutaneous injection (SC)
S Injected into the space beneath the skin
S This method is only useful if a small dosage is w...
Oral administration

S The most common form of administering drugs to

humans.
S Amphetamines are taken orally.
Sublingual administration
S Done by placing drugs beneath the tongue and allowing it

to dissolved.
S It is absorbed into ...
Intrarectal administration

S Suppositories- inserted into the rectum
S Rectal suppositories are used to administer drugs ...
Inhalation or aerosol drugs
administration
S Drug is inhaled and absorbed by the lungs
S Most commonly used in asthmatic c...
Topical administration

S Drug is absorbed directly through the skin or mucous

membrane
S In the form of creams, gels, lo...
Drug Effectiveness
S Drugs vary in effectiveness and the best way to measure the

effectiveness of a drug is to plot a dos...
Effects of Repeated Exposure
S Tolerance > whenever a drug is

repeatedly administered, there is a
decrease in its effecti...
Placebo Effects

S A placebo is a substance given in the place

of a psychologically active drug that in truth
has no psyc...
Benefits of
Psychopharmacology
S 1) Medication can provide quick relief

from symptoms. This is useful if the
patient's pr...
2) Some disorders (typically those with a

clear biological basis) don't respond to
therapy and can only be treated
pharma...
4) Medication is, to an extent, effective
regardless of the patient's attitude. The
patient gets better without facing
dif...
The Roles of the
Pharmaceutical Industry
S Promote health care technology.

S Play a central role in new drug

development...
S Initiating requests for labelling indications

and safety warnings.
S Influencing consumer patterns of new

products by ...
Criticisms of
Psychopharmacology
S Though it facilitates human enhancement,

it is still debatable whether pharmacology
do...
S -Fictional book ‘Brave New World’ by

Huxley who creates a world where human
beings are no longer just that, they become...
S Any chemical entity that alters body &

brain function or structure when
administered is a drug, that includes
everyday ...
Example: Narcotics - Pain pills
Used to control moderate to severe pain,
however it builds up „physiological
tolerance‟ ov...
S Alarming rates of addiction to

prescribed narcotics is now visible in
society today. Methadone and codeine
are two popu...
Did you know?
One of the most addictive drug was:
First introduced by a pharmaceutical company
as a legitimate fairly well...
Other factors to consider when critiquing
psychopharmacology
S -Does the costs outweigh the benefits?
S -Placebo effect
S ...
Pharmacology
Pharmacology
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Pharmacology

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  • Disadvantage- it requires special skills therefore only trained individuals can administer using this method.
  • It is used for particular forms of medication that are administered in small amounts. Depending on the chemical properties of the drug, the medication may either be absorbed fairly quickly or more gradually
  • A person with type 1 diabetes typically injects insulin subcutaneously
  • Injected in the layer of skin directly below the dermisand epidermis
  • Nebulizer and inhaler and smoking
  • Pharmacology

    1. 1. PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY S
    2. 2. Presenters': S Makeisha Bonner S Sheralda Small S Marshawn Young S Monique Williams
    3. 3. What is Psychopharmacology?  Pharmacology comes from a classical Greek word pharmakos, meaning medicine or drug and Logus meaning study.  Psychopharmacology is the interdisciplinary field combining Psychology with Pharmacology, and is the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behaviour.
    4. 4. Drugs?  Use – Ingestion of drugs without the experience of any negative consequences.  Misuse – When a person experiences negative consequences from the use of drugs.  Abuse – Continued use drugs in spite of negative consequences.  Dependence / Addiction – “Compulsive” use of drugs regardless of the consequences.
    5. 5. Drug is... S an exogenous chemical that significantly alters the function of certain bodily cells. S medication to treat a disease S A chemical that can be abused
    6. 6. S Drugs have effects and sites of action: S Drug Effects is defined as the changes that can be observed in an animal’s physiological process and behaviour. S Sites of action are the points at which drug molecules interact with molecules located in or on cells of the body, affecting some biochemical process of these cells.
    7. 7. Routes of drug administration S
    8. 8. Intravenous (I.V) S Intravenous simply means into the vein. S The most common form of administration S Drug is administered through an hypodermic needle S Is immediately absorbed by the bloodstream S Reaches the brain within seconds
    9. 9. Injection
    10. 10. Via catheter (drip)
    11. 11. Intraperitoneal (I.P) injection S Is rapid but not as rapid as an I.V injection S It is injected through the abdominal wall into the peritoneal cavity S The Peritoneal cavity is the space between the two membranes that separate the organs in the abdominal cavity from the abdominal wall. S Is the most common route for administering drugs to animals
    12. 12. Peritoneal cavity
    13. 13. Intramuscular injection (I.M) S Injected directly into a large muscle eg, upper arm, thigh or buttocks. S It is absorbed through capillaries that supply the muscle S If slow absorption is desired, the drug maybe mixed with another drug such as ephedrine to do so. Ephedrine constricts blood flow. S Morphine and penicillin is administered intramuscularly as well as sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol valerate
    14. 14. Capillaries
    15. 15. Subcutaneous injection (SC) S Injected into the space beneath the skin S This method is only useful if a small dosage is what is needed because a large amount would be painful S Fat soluble drugs can be dissolved in vegetable oil and administered, this allows the drug to seep through the deposit of oil over a period of time. S If slower absorption is required the drug may be placed in a silicone capsule and implanted beneath the skin
    16. 16. Oral administration S The most common form of administering drugs to humans. S Amphetamines are taken orally.
    17. 17. Sublingual administration S Done by placing drugs beneath the tongue and allowing it to dissolved. S It is absorbed into the bloodstream by capillaries S Diffused into the blood through tissues under the tongue S Steroids, vitamins and minerals are taken sublingually
    18. 18. Intrarectal administration S Suppositories- inserted into the rectum S Rectal suppositories are used to administer drugs that may upset the stomach and cause emesis S It is absorbed by the body‟s circulatory system and blood vessels in the rectum. S An enema is administered this way
    19. 19. Inhalation or aerosol drugs administration S Drug is inhaled and absorbed by the lungs S Most commonly used in asthmatic conditions or specific lung conditions that cause difficulty in breathing. Diseases including emphysema, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease S The route from the lungs to the brain is very short therefore recreational drugs such as marijuana and nicotine takes almost immediate effect.
    20. 20. Topical administration S Drug is absorbed directly through the skin or mucous membrane S In the form of creams, gels, lotions and/or oitment S Cocaine is absorbed in the mucus membrane and provides rapid delivery to the brain.
    21. 21. Drug Effectiveness S Drugs vary in effectiveness and the best way to measure the effectiveness of a drug is to plot a dose-response curve S Different drugs have different sites of action S The Affinity of the drug with its site of action
    22. 22. Effects of Repeated Exposure S Tolerance > whenever a drug is repeatedly administered, there is a decrease in its effectiveness. S Sensitization > in other cases, the more a drug is repeatedly administered, there is an increase in its effectiveness.
    23. 23. Placebo Effects S A placebo is a substance given in the place of a psychologically active drug that in truth has no psychological effect, that is used in experiments to control the mere effects of administering a drug.
    24. 24. Benefits of Psychopharmacology S 1) Medication can provide quick relief from symptoms. This is useful if the patient's problem is severe but occurs only rarely (e.g. seizures or occasional panic attacks), or if the patient is in immediate physical danger (suicide risk).
    25. 25. 2) Some disorders (typically those with a clear biological basis) don't respond to therapy and can only be treated pharmacologically. Again, seizures are an example. 3) Medication is cheaper and less time consuming than therapy.
    26. 26. 4) Medication is, to an extent, effective regardless of the patient's attitude. The patient gets better without facing difficult personal issues they would rather ignore.
    27. 27. The Roles of the Pharmaceutical Industry S Promote health care technology. S Play a central role in new drug development, designing of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that provide the data required to support efficacy and novel treatments.
    28. 28. S Initiating requests for labelling indications and safety warnings. S Influencing consumer patterns of new products by health care providers and the public.
    29. 29. Criticisms of Psychopharmacology S Though it facilitates human enhancement, it is still debatable whether pharmacology does more harm than good. In the not so distant future it is possible for us to see some aspects of pharmacology spiral into phenomenon’s such as cloning in order to create more efficient ‘human beings’.
    30. 30. S -Fictional book ‘Brave New World’ by Huxley who creates a world where human beings are no longer just that, they become almost ‘super-human’. With most babies made in tubes and natural born babies viewed as inferior.
    31. 31. S Any chemical entity that alters body & brain function or structure when administered is a drug, that includes everyday pills that we take for headaches and the common flu .
    32. 32. Example: Narcotics - Pain pills Used to control moderate to severe pain, however it builds up „physiological tolerance‟ over time, whereby more is needed to get the same effect. Physical dependence is also a side effect with people experiencing discomfort if the suddenly stop.
    33. 33. S Alarming rates of addiction to prescribed narcotics is now visible in society today. Methadone and codeine are two popular types of prescribed medications that may lead to addiction though they are prescribed to deal with pain.
    34. 34. Did you know? One of the most addictive drug was: First introduced by a pharmaceutical company as a legitimate fairly well researched drug S Dispensed as medication S More powerful than any other commonly used pain drug S Cheaper to manufacture S Caused no lingering cravings
    35. 35. Other factors to consider when critiquing psychopharmacology S -Does the costs outweigh the benefits? S -Placebo effect S -Dealing with the symptoms rather than the cause S -Over prescribing active drugs

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