Particpatory Ecosystem Services Mapping in the River Tamar Catchment, UK

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In 2012, the Tamar Catchment Partnership, comprising around 100 individuals from across the catchment representing over 30 different interest groups, worked collaboratively, through over 70 hours of …

In 2012, the Tamar Catchment Partnership, comprising around 100 individuals from across the catchment representing over 30 different interest groups, worked collaboratively, through over 70 hours of discussion and consultation, to collate and assess all of the evidence relating to ecosystem service provision in the Tamar Catchment.
They also worked to develop a shared understanding of the environmental challenges, priorities and opportunities that are currently faced in the catchment and that may be faced in the future.
Having developed this shared understanding, they went gone on to agree a shared vision for which measures may need to be undertaken in the catchment and where they may need to be delivered in order to achieve the greatest possible enhancement in both the ecological health of our natural environments and their ability to provide the ecosystem services required.

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  • 1. The Tamar Plan Developing a shared catchment vision
  • 2. The Tamar Catchment: 1,800km2 and 300,000+ people
  • 3. Phase 1: A shared strategic vision  Gaining a shared understanding of the issues in the catchment, developing a toolbox  of interventions & identifying multifunctional land. Phase 2: Action planning for catchment change Who is going to do deliver the interventions & how the  funding streams will be integrated to ensure  cost‐effective realisation of benefits  The Tamar Plan Approach
  • 4. Developing a shared strategic vision Our ultimate goal is to create a catchment plan that is… 1. Strategic Interventions are delivered in a targeted and timely manner  to achieve the greatest amount of benefit 2. Integrated Adopts a variety of different measures tailored to each  situation and ecosystem services objective 3. Costed and funded   The  cost of each intervention is determined and  funding acquired from the most appropriate  stakeholder 4. Balanced Delivers improvements, but not at the  expense of food production or economic  sustainability
  • 5. TIMELINE PAST FUTUREPRESENT Timeline: the shared strategic vision & delivery action plans The final Tamar Strategic Plan will need integrate existing delivery plans  with a number of new delivery plans  Tamar  Strategic  Vision Other delivery plans? Tamar Food Plan Public  Engagement Plan PCC Green  Infrastructure Plan Catchment Sensitive  Farming Tamar Estuary Plan Forestry Commission  Strategic Plans PR14 Catchment  Management 
  • 6. Healthy habitats  for wildlife Ecosystem Services Recreational &  cultural use Provision of  clean water Regulation of  river flows Benefits Biodiversity Productivity Low cost Ecological health High quality  Safe Flood prevention High base flows Ecosystem Water Land Biota Which ecosystem components play a key role..? Developing a shared understanding An ‘ecosystem services’ approach… where..? Who benefits - where are they..?
  • 7. Developing a shared understanding WFD Ecosystem Services  Biodiversity  Productivity  Treatment cost  Eco. health  Aesthetics  Safety  Flood risk  Base flow Impacts Healthy habitats  for wildlife Recreational &  cultural use Provision of  clean water Regulation of  river flows Ecosystem Water Land Biota Risks/threats Pressure 1 Pressure 2 Pressure 3 Pressure 4 PRACTICE INNATE PHYSICAL  CHARACTER ‘Markets’ Potential for trade ‐ Beneficiaries ‐ Buyers ‐ Society…? do they or will they pay..? An ‘ecosystem services’ approach… Which ecosystem components play a key role..? where..? Who suffers - where are they..?
  • 8. Risks/threats Pressure 1 Pressure 2 Pressure 3 Pressure 4 PRACTICE INNATE PHYSICAL  CHARACTER Developing a shared understanding An ‘ecosystem services’ approach… Ecosystem Services  Biodiversity  Productivity  Treatment cost  Eco. health  Aesthetics  Safety  Flood risk  Base flow Impacts Healthy habitats  for wildlife Recreational &  cultural use Provision of  clean water Regulation of  river flows Ecosystem Water Land Biota ‘Markets’ Potential for trade ‐ Beneficiaries ‐ Buyers ‐ Society…? Where do these occur…and what is their impact How can we reduce these risks…? Where can we get the most benefits..? Are there key locations vital for service provision..? Can we predict or detect improvements flowing back through the system..?who pays..? Can work to improve one service also improve others..? - Same land or same activity do they or will they pay..? Which ecosystem components play a key role..? where..? Who suffers - where are they..?
  • 9. • Relevant interest groups identified to ensure inclusiveness • 7 working groups established (met 3 times during year) • Over 60 workgroup representatives (plus many others involved outside meetings) • Every attempt made to make use of (link) existing information/plans • Other activities arranged e.g. farm walk, presentation to Chamber of Commerce  Ecological Networks Group Carbon Management  Group Recreation Activities Group Water Quality Group Water Resources Group Engagement & Food Group Point Pollution Group Developing a shared understanding A participatory stakeholder‐led approach… 
  • 10. Developing a shared understanding The Ecosystem Services Working Groups (1 – 5) Water Quality: The provision of clean water into the aquatic environment for the benefit of river ecosystem  health, recreational safety and drinking water supply. Water Quantity: The regulation of water movement in the landscape to ensure that base‐flows are  maintained and to reduce the risk of flooding. Space for Wildlife: The protection and enhancement of functional networks of habitat to support healthy  wildlife populations and biodiversity at a landscape scale. Carbon Sequestration: The regulation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases through land management. Recreation, Leisure & Culture: The provision of accessible spaces and resources for recreation, leisure and cultural  activities and to increase health and wellbeing. A participatory stakeholder‐led approach… 
  • 11. Developing a shared understanding A participatory stakeholder‐led approach…   Where is the ecosystem service experienced (who benefits/suffers?)  What features in the landscape regulate/degrade the service? • ‘Environmental infrastructure’  • Risks & pressures  To what extent is the service currently being delivered/degraded?  What can be done to enhance the service?  Which areas should be targeted for measures that enhance provision? • Where is the greatest cost‐benefit (‘bang‐for‐buck’) to be achieved? • Priority – suitability ‐ opportunity  What work is already underway – how is it funded?  Could current outcomes be improved if measures were more integrated /targeted?  What new sources of funding be developed?
  • 12. Developing a shared understanding The Ecosystem Services Working Groups (1 – 5) Water Quality: The provision of clean water into the aquatic environment for the benefit of river ecosystem  health, recreational safety and drinking water supply. Water Quantity: The regulation of water movement in the landscape to ensure that base‐flows are  maintained and to reduce the risk of flooding. Space for Wildlife: The protection and enhancement of functional networks of habitat to support healthy  wildlife populations and biodiversity at a landscape scale. Carbon Sequestration: The regulation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases through land management. Recreation, Leisure & Culture: The provision of accessible spaces and resources for recreation, leisure and cultural  activities and to increase health and wellbeing. A participatory stakeholder‐led approach… 
  • 13. Water Quality Is there a problem…where is it experienced…?  Local ecological impacts  Distal ecological, social & economic impacts
  • 14. Water Quality Is there a problem…where is it experienced…?  Local ecological impacts  Distal ecological, social & economic impacts  Raw drinking water impacts WFD: Article 7 “…avoid deterioration in [water] quality to  reduce the level of purification treatment  required in the production of drinking water.”
  • 15. Water Quality – point sources The contribution of point sources of pollution  Variety of different pollutants  Many different sources  Varying contributions in different locations
  • 16. Water Quality – point sources Point sources of pollution – a lot has already been done…. Clean Sweep Clean Sweep is South West  Water's £2 billion project to  transform the South West  Region’s bathing waters and  sewerage network.  £63 million in Plymouth  The Plymouth Urban  Diffuse Pollution Project EA, PCC and SWW working to  improve water quality at  Plymouth Hoe by identifying  and fixing point sources.
  • 17. Water Quality – diffuse sources Contribution of pollution from diffuse sources in the catchment Nutrients  • Phosphorus compounds • Nitrates/Nitrites • Ammonia compounds Physico‐chemistry • Dissolved oxygen • Colour • Turbidity / suspended solids • Smell & taste Microbiology • Faecal indicator organisms (FIO) • Other bacteria • Cryptosporidium spp. • Algae Pesticides • Acid herbicides • Neutral herbicides • Insecticides
  • 18. Water Quality – diffuse sources A well established toolbox of measures to reduce rural diffuse pollution
  • 19. Water Quality – diffuse sources A well established toolbox of measures to reduce rural diffuse pollution
  • 20. Water Quality – diffuse sources Identifying land most likely to having an  impact on water quality:  opportunity  Soil hydrology & condition • Run‐off risk • Leaching risk  Topography (i.e. slope)  Hydrological connectivity  • Proximity to watercourse • Flood plain • Surface & sub‐surface flow accumulation  Land cover  • Natural habitats (wetland, woodland or peatland) • Farmed land (tillage or permanent grass)
  • 21. Water Quality – diffuse sources Identifying land most likely to having an  impact on water quality:  opportunity  Soil hydrology & condition • Run‐off risk • Leaching risk  Topography (i.e. slope)  Hydrological connectivity  • Proximity to watercourse • Flood plain • Surface & sub‐surface flow accumulation  Land cover  • Natural habitats (wetland, woodland or peatland) • Farmed land (tillage or permanent grass)
  • 22. Water Quality – diffuse sources Current funding & activities specifically working to improve water quality –
  • 23. Developing a shared understanding The Ecosystem Services Working Groups (1 – 5) Water Quality: The provision of clean water into the aquatic environment for the benefit of river ecosystem  health, recreational safety and drinking water supply. Water Quantity: The regulation of water movement in the landscape to ensure that base‐flows are  maintained and to reduce the risk of flooding. Space for Wildlife: The protection and enhancement of functional networks of habitat to support healthy  wildlife populations and biodiversity at a landscape scale. Carbon Sequestration: The regulation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases through land management. Recreation, Leisure & Culture: The provision of accessible spaces and resources for recreation, leisure and cultural  activities and to increase health and wellbeing. A participatory stakeholder‐led approach… 
  • 24. Water Regulation (base‐flows) Is there a problem…where is it experienced…?  Base‐flows – during periods of low rainfall • Drinking water • Ecological health • Dilution of pollution • Hydropower
  • 25. Water Regulation (base‐flows) Is there a problem…where is it experienced…?  Base‐flows – during periods of low rainfall • Drinking water • Ecological health • Dilution of pollution • Hydropower 1. Climate Change
  • 26. Water Regulation (base‐flows) Is there a problem…where is it experienced…?  Base‐flows – during periods of low rainfall • Drinking water • Ecological health • Dilution of pollution • Hydropower 1. Climate Change 2. Population Growth
  • 27. Water Regulation (base‐flows) Measures to enhance & sustain base‐flows (land‐based approaches) 
  • 28. Water Regulation (base‐flows) Targeting measures to enhance & sustain  base‐flows in rivers & streams  Wetland creation suitability mapping • Soil hydrology (+ physico‐chemistry) • Hydrological regime • Exclusion areas  e.g. high grade farm land Tamar 2000  Wetland Research Project
  • 29. Water Regulation (base‐flows) Targeting measures to enhance & sustain  base‐flows in rivers & streams  Wetland creation suitability mapping • Soil hydrology (+ physico‐chemistry) • Hydrological regime • Exclusion areas  e.g. high grade farm land Wetland Vision Map
  • 30. Water Regulation (base‐flows) Targeting measures to enhance & sustain  base‐flows in rivers & streams  Wetland creation suitability mapping • Soil hydrology (+ physico‐chemistry) • Hydrological regime • Exclusion areas  e.g. high grade farm land Wetland Vision Map
  • 31. Water Regulation (high flows)  High flows – flood risk management  • Damage to property • Economic impacts Is there a problem…where is it experienced…? Policy 1 Areas of little or no flood risk where we will continue to monitor and advise Policy 4 Areas of low, moderate or high flood risk where we are already managing the flood risk effectively but where we may need to take further actions to keep pace with climate change Policy 6 Areas of low to moderate flood risk where we will take action with others to store water or manage run‐off in locations that provide overall flood risk reduction or environmental benefits
  • 32. Water Regulation (high flows) Targeting land‐based flood risk management  Large body of evidence at small‐scale • Demonstrable benefits • High cost‐benefit ratio
  • 33. Water Regulation (high flows) Targeting land‐based flood risk management  Large body of evidence at small‐scale • Demonstrable benefits • High cost‐benefit ratio
  • 34. Water Regulation (high flows) Targeting land‐based flood risk management  Large body of evidence at small‐scale • Demonstrable benefits • High cost‐benefit ratio
  • 35. Developing a shared understanding The Ecosystem Services Working Groups (1 – 5) Water Quality: The provision of clean water into the aquatic environment for the benefit of river ecosystem  health, recreational safety and drinking water supply. Water Quantity: The regulation of water movement in the landscape to ensure that base‐flows are  maintained and to reduce the risk of flooding. Space for Wildlife: The protection and enhancement of functional networks of habitat to support healthy  wildlife populations and biodiversity at a landscape scale. Carbon Sequestration: The regulation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases through land management. Recreation, Leisure & Culture: The provision of accessible spaces and resources for recreation, leisure and cultural  activities and to increase health and wellbeing. A participatory stakeholder‐led approach… 
  • 36. Spaces for wildlife Current provision of habitats &  functional ecological networks
  • 37. Spaces for wildlife Current provision of habitats &  functional ecological networks  Woodland Inventory (FC)  Ancient Woodland Inventory  NE Habitat Inventories (LRC data?)  Culm Inventory (?)
  • 38. Spaces for wildlife Measures to enhance the provision  of ecological networks  Wetland restoration & creation  Woodland creation  Peatland restoration  Habitat creation on farmland  Where…? • Greatest chance of success  i.e. functional network • Suitable land for the habitat i.e. high quality outcome • Strategic Nature Areas
  • 39. Spaces for wildlife Measures to enhance the provision  of ecological networks  Wetland restoration & creation  Woodland creation  Peatland restoration  Habitat creation on farmland  Where…? • Greatest chance of success  i.e. functional network • Suitable land for the habitat i.e. high quality outcome • Strategic Nature Areas Wetland  suitability map + Proximity to  existing habitat
  • 40. Spaces for wildlife Measures to enhance the provision  of ecological networks  Wetland restoration & creation  Woodland creation  Peatland restoration  Habitat creation on farmland  Where…? • Greatest chance of success  i.e. functional network • Suitable land for the habitat i.e. high quality outcome • Strategic Nature Areas Wetland  suitability map + Proximity to  existing habitat
  • 41. Spaces for wildlife Measures to enhance the provision  of ecological networks  Wetland restoration & creation  Woodland creation  Peatland restoration  Habitat creation on farmland  Where…? • Greatest chance of success  i.e. functional network • Suitable land for the habitat i.e. high quality outcome • Strategic Nature Areas Wetland  suitability map + Proximity to  existing habitat
  • 42. Spaces for wildlife Measures to enhance the provision  of ecological networks  Wetland restoration & creation  Woodland creation  Peatland restoration  Habitat creation on farmland  Where…? • Greatest chance of success  i.e. functional network • Suitable land for the habitat i.e. high quality outcome • Strategic Nature Areas Wetland  suitability map + Proximity to  existing habitat
  • 43. Developing a shared understanding The Ecosystem Services Working Groups (1 – 5) Water Quality: The provision of clean water into the aquatic environment for the benefit of river ecosystem  health, recreational safety and drinking water supply. Water Quantity: The regulation of water movement in the landscape to ensure that base‐flows are  maintained and to reduce the risk of flooding. Space for Wildlife: The protection and enhancement of functional networks of habitat to support healthy  wildlife populations and biodiversity at a landscape scale. Carbon Sequestration: The regulation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases through land management. Recreation, Leisure & Culture: The provision of accessible spaces and resources for recreation, leisure and cultural  activities and to increase health and wellbeing. A participatory stakeholder‐led approach… 
  • 44. Carbon Sequestration Carbon sequestration can be increased in a  number of ways –  Changes in land management practices • Reduced tillage • Increased soil organic matter • Reduced use of fertilisers  Landuse change • tillage – permanent grassland – woodland   Water table management (re‐wetting land)  Where…? • Land with high sequestration potential • Cost‐effectiveness for the farm business • No increase in emission of other GHGs
  • 45. Carbon Sequestration Carbon sequestration can be increased in a  number of ways –  Changes in land management practices • Reduced tillage • Increased soil organic matter • Reduced use of fertilisers  Landuse change • tillage – permanent grassland – woodland   Water table management (re‐wetting land)  Where…? • Land with high sequestration potential • Cost‐effectiveness for the farm business • No increase in emission of other GHGs
  • 46. Carbon Sequestration Carbon sequestration can be increased in a  number of ways –  Changes in land management practices • Reduced tillage • Increased soil organic matter • Reduced use of fertilisers  Landuse change • tillage – permanent grassland – woodland   Water table management (re‐wetting land)  Where…? • Land with high sequestration potential • Cost‐effectiveness for the farm business • No increase in emission of other GHGs
  • 47.  Changes in land management practices • Reduced tillage • Increased soil organic matter • Reduced use of fertilisers  Landuse change • tillage – permanent grassland – woodland   Water table management (re‐wetting land)  Where…? • Land with high sequestration potential • Cost‐effectiveness for the farm business • No increase in emission of other GHGs Carbon Sequestration Carbon sequestration can be increased in a  number of ways –
  • 48. Developing a shared understanding The Ecosystem Services Working Groups (1 – 5) Water Quality: The provision of clean water into the aquatic environment for the benefit of river ecosystem  health, recreational safety and drinking water supply. Water Quantity: The regulation of water movement in the landscape to ensure that base‐flows are  maintained and to reduce the risk of flooding. Space for Wildlife: The protection and enhancement of functional networks of habitat to support healthy  wildlife populations and biodiversity at a landscape scale. Carbon Sequestration: The regulation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases through land management. Recreation, Leisure & Culture: The provision of accessible spaces and resources for recreation, leisure and cultural  activities and to increase health and wellbeing. A participatory stakeholder‐led approach… 
  • 49. Recreational Resources There are 2 types of recreation:‐  Attractions or location‐specific resources that offer specific activities or a specialty  or high quality experience for a particular interest group.  Publically accessible spaces where people spend their casual or informal  recreation and leisure time. Image: Fir0002/Flagstaffotos Image: Ross Hoddinott
  • 50. Recreational Resources Where are recreational opportunities  provided now? Recreation in the Tamar • Boating & sailing • Canoeing (rivers, estuary & sea) • Angling (coarse/game/sea) • Rowing (gig rowing, rowing boats etc.) • Surfing, wind-surfing & kite surfing • Water-skiing (lakes, estuary & sea) • Swimming (freshwater & sea) • Diving & snorkelling • Coasteering & canyoning • Shooting • Ornithology & natural history • Walking, hiking, rambling & running • Caravanning & camping • Orienteering & geocaching • Cycling • Motorsports (motorbikes / 4x4) • Equestrian • Heritage, parks & gardens • Leisure & casual recreation • Photography, art & spiritual activities • Voluntary work & conservation • Local community activities • Other sports (golf, cricket, football etc.)
  • 51. Recreational Resources Where are the priority areas for creating  new recreational opportunities  Improve existing ‘green’ infrastructure  Increase access to existing greenspaces  Increase connectivity   Increase provision to address deficiency  or meet new demand.
  • 52. Recreational Resources Where are the priority areas for creating  new recreational opportunities  Improve existing ‘green’ infrastructure  Increase access to existing greenspaces  Increase connectivity   Increase provision to address deficiency  or meet new demand.
  • 53. Recreational Resources Where are the priority areas for creating  new recreational opportunities  Improve existing ‘green’ infrastructure  Increase access to existing greenspaces  Increase connectivity   Increase provision to address deficiency  or meet new demand. Tourism and Rural Access in Cornwall – Kensey Trail
  • 54. Developing a shared vision Identifying multi‐functional ES areas… Risks/threats Pressure 1 Pressure 2 Pressure 3 Pressure 4 PRACTICE INNATE PHYSICAL  CHARACTER Ecosystem Services  Biodiversity  Productivity  Treatment cost  Eco. health  Aesthetics  Safety  Flood risk  Base flow Impacts Healthy habitats  for wildlife Recreational &  cultural use Provision of  clean water Regulation of  river flows Ecosystem Water Land Biota ‘Markets’ Potential for trade ‐ Beneficiaries ‐ Buyers ‐ Society…? Where do these occur…and what is their impact How can we reduce these risks…? Where can we get the most benefits..? Are there key locations vital for service provision..? Can we predict or detect improvements flowing back through the system..?who pays..? Can work to improve one service also improve others..? - Same land or same activity do they or will they pay..? Which ecosystem components play a key role..? where..? Who suffers - where are they..?
  • 55. Multifunctional ES Areas Several key themes emerge…  Risk (innate or practice‐derived)  Suitability/feasibility for intervention  Key strategic areas – beneficiaries • Where are they..? • What are their needs..? Optimal cost‐beneficial targeting of  interventions Delivering measures in multifunctional  areas could enhance delivery of multiple  ecosystem services 
  • 56. Multifunctional  priority areas Delivery  Framework Toolbox of  interventions Habitat creation Landuse change Farm infrastructure Best practice advice Integrated vision for the  catchment