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  1. 1. Thomas F. X. Noble Barry S. Strauss Duane J. Osheim Kristen B. Neuschel Elinor Accampo David D. Roberts William B. Cohen Chapter 1The Ancestors of the West
  2. 2. Overview (1 of 3)• Origins, to ca. 3000 B.C. – The First Human Beings – The Revolution in Human Culture, ca. 70,000–10,000 B.C. – The Coming of Agriculture, ca. 10,000–5000 B.C. – Neolithic and Copper Age Europe, 7000–2500 B.C. – The Emergence of Civilization, 3500–3000 B.C.
  3. 3. Overview (2 of 3)• Mesopotamia, to ca. 1600 B.C. – The City-States of Sumer – Conquest and Assimilation, ca. 2350–1900 B.C. – Hammurabi’s Code – Divine Masters – Arts and Sciences
  4. 4. Overview (3 of 3)• Egypt, to ca. 1100 B.C. – Divine Kingship – Life and Afterlife – War Abroad, 1786–ca. 1150 B.C. – Reform at Home and Its Aftermath, 1352–1075 B.C. – Arts and Sciences in the New Kingdom
  5. 5. Origins, to ca. 3000 B.C. (1 of 2)• Anatomically modern human beings are called homo sapiens sapiens and first appeared about 100,000 years ago.• Humans lived by hunting animals and gathering nuts and berries until agriculture was invented shortly after 10,000 B.C. in western Asia.• Early Europeans were skilled metalworkers and architects, but they lagged behind the more advanced regions, Egypt and Mesopotamia.
  6. 6. Origins, to ca. 3000 B.C. (2 of 2)• The first civilizations in Mesopotamia and Egypt emerged between 3500 and 3000 B.C. and probably contained the first cities.• Civilization meant bigger and more complex societies, with specialized labor forces, strong governments, and well- structured armies.• Along with cities, came writing, which developed independently in Egypt and Mesopotamia between about 3500 and about 3100 B.C.
  7. 7. Mesopotamia, to ca. 1600 B.C.• Approximately thirty city-states of southern Mesopotamia spoke Sumerian and flourished in the third millennium B.C.• Sargon, an Akkadian, conquered the Sumerian cities of Mesopotamia and united them in one kingdom.• Hammurabi’s Code (1792–1750 B.C.), one of the earliest collections of laws, reveals the inequality and harshness of Mesopotamian society.• Mesopotamians were religious, believed in many gods, and expected only a grim and shadowy Netherworld after death.• Mesopotamia’s rich culture excelled in mathematics, astronomy, and epic poetry.
  8. 8. Egypt, to ca. 1100 B.C. (1 of 2)• The Nile River, with its dependable annual flooding, gave ancient Egypt fertile soil, economic prosperity, and an optimistic worldview.• Egypt invented the idea of worshiping the king as a god; eventually, the king became known as pharaoh.• Egyptians believed in a happy afterlife after death, as long as the gods judged that the dead person had led a life without sin.• Egypt’s New Kingdom was a great military power that expanded into southwest Asia.• The earliest known Indo-European civilization is that of the Hittites, who established a great kingdom in today’s Turkey and left thousands of documents.
  9. 9. Egypt, to ca. 1100 B.C. (2 of 2)• The conflicts between Hittites and Egyptians led to history’s first great system of diplomacy, its first well-documented battle (Qadesh), and its first peace treaty between equals.• The Amarna reform of the 1300s was history’s first great struggle between church and state.• The Egyptians excelled at architecture, such as the pyramids, as well as at sculpture and medicine, and they invented the solar calendar that we still use (in revised form) today.• We are not sure why, but the great civilizations of the ancient Near East all either declined, split apart, or collapsed not long after 1200 B.C.