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CP US - Ch. 21 - Sec. 2-3
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CP US - Ch. 21 - Sec. 2-3

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Transcript

  • 1. The American Expeditionary Force
    • May 1918- Americans sent to Europe
    • July 1918- 85,000 Americans help defend Paris
    • August 1918- 500,000 Americans under the command of John J. Pershing enter the war
    • September 1918- 1.25 million Americans were fighting in France
    • November 1918- War ends
  • 2. The American Expeditionary Force
    • Americans made an immediate impact upon the Allied war effort
    • Although their arrival was late, they made the difference that decided the war
    • US casualties- 50,280 men
      • Very little compared to the rest of the Allied nations
  • 3. The Home Front- Mobilization of Men and Women
    • Selective Service Act (1917)
      • Established a draft
      • All men between the ages of 21 and 31 had to register for military service
      • Women served in the Nurses Corps of the army and navy and enlisted for office jobs
      • Created the need for food, clothing, equipment, and arms for the new, larger army
  • 4. The Home Front- Shipbuilding Program
    • US navy was in better shape than the army thanks to TR
    • US government contracted for 10 million tons of ships and built shipyards to construct them
    • US used the convoy system to cross the Atlantic to protect themselves against the German subs
  • 5. The Home Front- Mobilizing Money
    • Expenses and loans for the war ran into the billions of dollars
      • $23 billion for US war effort alone
      • $10 billion for Allied loans
    • US government used taxes and loans to pay for these expenses
      • Government taxes brought in $10.5 billion
      • Government bonds brought in $23 billion
        • Liberty Loans and Victory Loans
  • 6. The Home Front- Government Intervention
    • Some private businesses were taken over by the government
    • Transportation
      • Railroads
      • Railway express systems
      • Inland waterway systems
    • Communications
      • Telephone, telegraph, and cable companies
  • 7. The Home Front- Government Intervention
    • Council of Defense
      • National food-control program
      • Run by Herbert Hoover
        • Conducted the Belgian War Relief Program
      • Broad powers over the production and distribution of food, fuel, fertilizer, and farm machinery
  • 8. The Home Front- Government Intervention
    • Food Administration
      • Run by Herbert Hoover
      • Voluntary “wheatless, meatless, heatless days”
      • Urged the planting of “war gardens”
      • Prices on farm crops were set higher to encourage farmers to grow more
      • Use of grain to make beverage alcohol was banned
      • Coal was rationed for home use
      • Fuel and food output rose, while home consumption decreased
  • 9. The Home Front- Government Intervention
    • The War Industries Board
      • Run by Bernard M. Baruch
        • Wall Street Financier
      • Decided what goods to produce
      • Set prices for government purchases of supplies
      • Increased production
      • Decreased waste
  • 10. The Home Front- Labor Force
    • Women
      • 1 million women filled the labor gap left by the 4 million enlisted men
        • False hope for women’s rights and equality
        • Women were asked to be “patriotic” and allow the returning soldiers to have their jobs back
    • Minorities
      • African-Americans moved north to take advantage of the availability of jobs
  • 11. The Home Front- Labor Force
    • US Employment Service
      • Helped to fill essential jobs in vital industries
    • National War Labor Board
      • Created to arbitrate labor disputes during war time
  • 12. The Home Front- War Propaganda
    • Committee on Public Information
      • The Creel Commission
        • Run by journalist George Creel
        • Assigned to “sell the war to America”
      • Published a daily Official Bulletin
      • To convince and to reassure Americans that the war was a crusade for freedom and democracy
    • Results of the War Propaganda
      • Stirred up spy scares and a frantic hunt for traitors
  • 13. The Home Front- Civil Liberties Attacked
    • Espionage Act
      • President was given powers of censorship
      • Enacted heavy penalties against anyone who handed out info about any place connected with the national defense
  • 14. The Home Front- Civil Liberties Attacked
    • Trading with the Enemy Act
      • US newspapers that printed in a foreign language had to submit English versions for inspection
  • 15. The Home Front- Civil Liberties Attacked
    • The Sedition Act
      • Imposed penalties on anyone who used disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the US government, flag, or uniform
  • 16. The Home Front- First Amendment Restrictions
    • Results of Decreased Civil Liberties
      • Citizens who disagreed in any way with the government were harassed
      • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) were relocated from Arizona to New Mexico where they were interned
      • Socialist Eugene V. Debs was sentenced to jail for ten years for denouncing the war
        • Ran for the presidency while in jail in 1920
        • Released in 1921

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