CP US - Ch. 21 - Sec. 2-3


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CP US - Ch. 21 - Sec. 2-3

  1. 1. The American Expeditionary Force <ul><li>May 1918- Americans sent to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>July 1918- 85,000 Americans help defend Paris </li></ul><ul><li>August 1918- 500,000 Americans under the command of John J. Pershing enter the war </li></ul><ul><li>September 1918- 1.25 million Americans were fighting in France </li></ul><ul><li>November 1918- War ends </li></ul>
  2. 2. The American Expeditionary Force <ul><li>Americans made an immediate impact upon the Allied war effort </li></ul><ul><li>Although their arrival was late, they made the difference that decided the war </li></ul><ul><li>US casualties- 50,280 men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very little compared to the rest of the Allied nations </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Home Front- Mobilization of Men and Women <ul><li>Selective Service Act (1917) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established a draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All men between the ages of 21 and 31 had to register for military service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women served in the Nurses Corps of the army and navy and enlisted for office jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created the need for food, clothing, equipment, and arms for the new, larger army </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Home Front- Shipbuilding Program <ul><li>US navy was in better shape than the army thanks to TR </li></ul><ul><li>US government contracted for 10 million tons of ships and built shipyards to construct them </li></ul><ul><li>US used the convoy system to cross the Atlantic to protect themselves against the German subs </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Home Front- Mobilizing Money <ul><li>Expenses and loans for the war ran into the billions of dollars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$23 billion for US war effort alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$10 billion for Allied loans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US government used taxes and loans to pay for these expenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government taxes brought in $10.5 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government bonds brought in $23 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty Loans and Victory Loans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Home Front- Government Intervention <ul><li>Some private businesses were taken over by the government </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railway express systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inland waterway systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone, telegraph, and cable companies </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Home Front- Government Intervention <ul><li>Council of Defense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National food-control program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run by Herbert Hoover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted the Belgian War Relief Program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad powers over the production and distribution of food, fuel, fertilizer, and farm machinery </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Home Front- Government Intervention <ul><li>Food Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Run by Herbert Hoover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary “wheatless, meatless, heatless days” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urged the planting of “war gardens” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prices on farm crops were set higher to encourage farmers to grow more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of grain to make beverage alcohol was banned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal was rationed for home use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel and food output rose, while home consumption decreased </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Home Front- Government Intervention <ul><li>The War Industries Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Run by Bernard M. Baruch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wall Street Financier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decided what goods to produce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set prices for government purchases of supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased waste </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Home Front- Labor Force <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 million women filled the labor gap left by the 4 million enlisted men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>False hope for women’s rights and equality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women were asked to be “patriotic” and allow the returning soldiers to have their jobs back </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Minorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African-Americans moved north to take advantage of the availability of jobs </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Home Front- Labor Force <ul><li>US Employment Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped to fill essential jobs in vital industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National War Labor Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created to arbitrate labor disputes during war time </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Home Front- War Propaganda <ul><li>Committee on Public Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Creel Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Run by journalist George Creel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned to “sell the war to America” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Published a daily Official Bulletin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To convince and to reassure Americans that the war was a crusade for freedom and democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results of the War Propaganda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stirred up spy scares and a frantic hunt for traitors </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Home Front- Civil Liberties Attacked <ul><li>Espionage Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President was given powers of censorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enacted heavy penalties against anyone who handed out info about any place connected with the national defense </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Home Front- Civil Liberties Attacked <ul><li>Trading with the Enemy Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US newspapers that printed in a foreign language had to submit English versions for inspection </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Home Front- Civil Liberties Attacked <ul><li>The Sedition Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposed penalties on anyone who used disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the US government, flag, or uniform </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Home Front- First Amendment Restrictions <ul><li>Results of Decreased Civil Liberties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens who disagreed in any way with the government were harassed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) were relocated from Arizona to New Mexico where they were interned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialist Eugene V. Debs was sentenced to jail for ten years for denouncing the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ran for the presidency while in jail in 1920 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Released in 1921 </li></ul></ul></ul>