Science for Change-Agents: 1) The Use & Misuse of Science
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Science for Change-Agents: 1) The Use & Misuse of Science

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Brief history of science from Aristotle, Galileo, Bacon, Descartes to Max Weber, Foucault

Brief history of science from Aristotle, Galileo, Bacon, Descartes to Max Weber, Foucault
Theories of Science: Induction, deduction
Critical thinking of science

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    Science for Change-Agents: 1) The Use & Misuse of Science Science for Change-Agents: 1) The Use & Misuse of Science Presentation Transcript

    • SCIENCE FOR CHANGE-AGENTS Part I: The Use & Misuse of Science Part II: Innovating in Complexity Part III: Transforming Systems Part IV: Changing Human Behaviour Part V: Insight-driven Innovation © WECREATE WORLDWIDE LTD 2013 www.wecreateworldwide.com
    • PASSION NOT PROFESSION (THOUGH I USE SCIENCE EACH DAY)
    • ABOUT US FOUNDED 2005 to help SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT MATTER and so contribute to a world that works for all We believe STRATEGIC INNOVATION, driven by creative leadership & enabled by innovation cultures, is the most POWERFUL TOOLSET FOR SYSTEMIC change on the planet We are a networked business - ensuring full alignment & values match with each project We create the container & space for optimal learning, growth & transformation for leaders, teams & orgs
    • WHAT WE DO BREAKTHROUGH INNOVATION BREAKTHROUGH LEADERSHIP BREAKTHROUGH CULTURES for a brilliant world
    • SOME OF IS no.1 CULTURE OUR CLIENTS
    • If breakthrough was easy, everyone would be doing it... and they are not. Why? We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them. Albert Einstein
    • © 2013 Ripe & Ready Media Ltd. All right reserved. Not for distribution without specific written agreement. Ripe & Ready is a ® of Ripe & Ready Media Ltd.
    • PART I THE USE AND MISUSE OF SCIENCE © WECREATE WORLDWIDE LTD 2013 www.wecreateworldwide.com
    • WHAT IS SCIENCE? WHY IS SCIENCE IMPORTANT? HOW IS SCIENCE DONE?
    • 10
    • EVIDENCE -BASED
    • “If you want to lose weight, don’t eat. This is not medicine, it’s thermodynamics. If you take in more than you use, you store it.” MAYOR MICHAEL BLOOMBERG
    • “The previous belief of many lay people and health professionals that obesity is simply the result of a lack of willpower and an inability to discipline eating habits is no longer defensible.” RICHARD L ATKINSON, EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF MEDICINE AND NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES, THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN; EDITOR OF THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
    • “All calories are not equal. We are increasingly understanding that attributing obesity to personal responsibility is very simplistic.” JONATHAN C K WELLS, PROFESSOR OF CHILD NUTRITION, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON
    • SCIENCE HAS NO FINAL ANSWERS!
    • Though everyone endorses science when it can cure disease, monitor the environment, or bash political opponents, the intrusion of science into the territories of the humanities has been deeply resented. Just as reviled is the application of scientific reasoning to religion. In the major journals of opinion, scientific carpetbaggers are regularly accused of determinism, reductionism, essentialism, positivism, and worst of all, something called “scientism.” STEVEN PINKER, THE NEW REPUBLIC
    • PART I THE USE AND MISUSE OF SCIENCE i) a very brief history of science © WECREATE WORLDWIDE LTD 2013 www.wecreateworldwide.com
    • MAP NOT NECESSARILY THE TERRITORY
    • “The hunt for the origins of modern science has long been a favourite occupation of historians. They differ widely about the key moment which saw science’s birth, tracing it to the philosophers of Classical Greece, or celebrating the canonical achievements of 17th-century heroes such as Galileo, Bacon, Descartes, Boyle and Newton, or insisting with great plausibility that until at least the early 19th century, the typical institutions and techniques of the natural sciences simply didn’t exist. These different stories depend on widely divergent versions of what distinguishes the scientific enterprise, whether method, personnel, hardware or expertise.” SIMON SCHAFFER
    • 1705 XMAS, 1758 (53 YEARS LATER)
    • “This year the world is witnessing the most satisfying phenomenon that astronomy has ever provided, an event unique to this day, changing our doubts into certainties, and our hypotheses into demonstrations.” THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
    • 16TH C SCIENCE GETS STARTED
    • ARISTOTLE AUTHORITY
    • ESSENCES predict nature in spite of observation
    • SCHOLASTICS
    • toledo translation centre
    • PTOLEMY COPERNICUS
    • 17TH C SCIENCE GETS FIESTY
    • GIORDANO BRUNO MANY worlds
    • GALILEO’S VISION TOOK SPIRIT OF RENAISSANCE (EMPIRICAL, COMPETITIVE, EXPERIMENTAL, DOUBTING) ONTO NIGHT SKY
    • “Science originated from the fusion of two old traditions, the tradition of philosophical thinking that began in ancient Greece and the tradition of skilled crafts that began even earlier and flourished in medieval Europe. Philosophy supplied the concepts for science, and skilled crafts provided the tools.” FREEMAN DYSON
    • MANY MOONS
    • DESCARTES OBJECTIVE SCIENCE 1640S
    • CERTITUDE AVOID BIASES OF MIND & SENSES METAPHYSICAL FOUNDATIONS OF SCIENCE
    • EMPIRICAL OBSERVATION
    • Prometheus, Teacher in Every Art, Brought the Fire That Hath Proved to Mortals a Means to Mighty Ends.
    • INDUCTION FRANCIS BACON
    • “There are and can be only two ways of searching into and discovering truth. The one flies from the senses and particulars to the most general axioms, and from these principles, the truth of which it takes for settled and immoveable, proceeds to judgment and to the discovery of middle axioms. And this way is now in fashion. The other derives axioms from the senses and particulars, rising by a gradual and unbroken ascent, so that it arrives at the most general axioms last of all. This is the true way, but as yet untried.” FRANCIS BACON
    • Al Haytham. 1021
    • “Truth is sought for its own sake. And those who are engaged upon the quest for anything for its own sake are not interested in other things. Finding the truth is difficult, and the road to it is rough.” IBN AL-HAYTHAM
    • TAWHID UNITY OF ALL THINGS
    • NEWTON CODIFIED IT INTO MECHANICAL SCIENCE
    • “Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in the night:  God said, Let Newton be! and all was light.” ALEXANDER POPE
    • GOETHE v NEWTON HOLISTIC VS MECHANISTIC UR-PLANT
    • Nature, it seems, must always clash with Art And yet, before we know it, both are one GOETHE
    • CLOCKWORK UNIVERSE NEWTONIANS (NOT NEWTON! HE ALSO PRACISED ALCHEMY)
    • MACHINES PENDULUMS, CALCULUS ETC.
    • Searching wits, of more mechanic parts Who grac’d their age with new-invented arts VIRGIL VIA DRYDEN (& NOBEL)
    • 18TH C SCIENCE GETS POWERFUL
    • “We may regard the present state of the universe as the effect of its past and the cause of its future. An intellect which at any given moment knew all of the forces that animate nature and the mutual positions of the beings that compose it, if this intellect were vast enough to submit the data to analysis, could condense into a single formula the movement of the greatest bodies of the universe and that of the lightest atom; for such an intellect nothing could be uncertain and the future just like the past would be present before its eyes.” PIERRE SIMON LA PLACE
    • THE ENLIGHTENMENT VOLTAIRE, JEAN-JAQUES ROUSSEAU, LOCKE, HUME ETC
    • AUTHORITY SCIENCE & REASON VS. TRADITION & RELIGION
    • REASON BECOMES INCREASINGLY MECHANISTIC MATERIALISM... LOGICAL EMPIRICISM
    • SPINNING JENNY
    • WATT STEAM ENGINE
    • COTTON GIN
    • “Whoever invents the car, invents the car crash.”
    • 19TH C SCIENCE GETS PROFESSIONAL
    • CHEMICAL DEMISE OF PHLOGISTON THEORY ACCURATE MEASUREMENT
    • PERIODIC TABLE MENDELEEV
    • ELECTRO MAGNETISM FARADAY & MAXWELL
    • EVOLUTION DARWIN (NATURAL SELECTION) VS. PALEY (DESIGN)
    • EVOLUTION DARWIN VS. PALEY
    • SOCIAL DARWINISM
    • “In the long history of humankind (and animal kind, too) those who learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively have prevailed.” CHARLES DARWIN
    • DEATH OF GOD
    • GERM THEORY PASTEUR, KOCH
    • MECHANIC’S WAR
    • “[I]t seems probable that most of the grand underlying principles have now been firmly established and that further advances are to be sought chiefly in the rigorous application of these principles to all the phenomena which come under our notice…. An eminent physicist has remarked that the future truths of physical science are to be looked for in the sixth place of decimals.” ALBERT MICHELSON, 1894
    • 20TH C SCIENCE GETS SPOOKY(ED)
    • RELATIVITY EINSTEIN
    • CHEMIST’S WAR
    • QUANTUM THEORY
    • BELL ENTANGLEMENT 18 MILES
    • HEISENBERG UNCERTAINTY LOCATION OR MOMENTUM BUT NOT BOTH
    • GÖDEL INCOMPLETENESS CONSISTENT OR COMPLETE BUT NOT BOTH
    • BIOLOGIST’S WAR EUGENICS: IS IT ‘SCIENCE’?
    • LYSENKOISM SOVIET ‘SCIENCE’
    • “He is responsible for the shameful backwardness of Soviet biology and of genetics in particular, for the dissemination of pseudo-scientific views, for adventurism, for the degradation of learning, and for the defamation, firing, arrest, even death, of many genuine scientists” ANDREI SAKHAROV
    • HOLOCAUST INDUSTRIAL SCALE RATIONALISM
    • “Evil is the product of the ability of humans to make abstract that which is concrete.” JEAN-PAUL SARTRE
    • PHYSICIST’S WAR
    • ARMY INJECTING DISEASE IN 1950
    • COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL-MILITARY
    • GDP ALLOCATE RESOURCES IN A WAR
    • TECHNOCRATS RULE THE WORLD ECONOMISTS, GENETICISTS, ENTREPRENEURS, TECHNOLOGISTS
    • “The means of communication, the irresistible output of the entertainment and information industry carry with them prescribed attitudes and habits, certain intellectual and emotional reactions which bind the consumers to the producers and, through the latter to the whole social system. The products indoctrinate and manipulate; they promote a false consciousness which is immune against its falsehood...Thus emerges a pattern of one-dimensional thought and behavior.” HERBERT MARCUSE
    • ALGORITHMS RUN THE WORLD
    • WWW SOCIAL MEDIA, SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS...
    • PART I THE USE AND MISUSE OF SCIENCE 2) the nature of science © WECREATE WORLDWIDE LTD 2013 www.wecreateworldwide.com
    • “Nullius in Verba.” Take Nobody’s Word for It. ROYAL SOCIETY
    • BODY OF KNOWLEDGE
    • METHOD ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE
    • “Science is the systematic, rational acquisition of new knowledge.” HAAPARANTA & NIINILUOTO
    • PROCESS FIND CURIOUS PHENOMENA / QUESTIONS
    • PROCESS FIND CURIOUS PHENOMENA / QUESTIONS OBSERVE A LOT MAKE UP A THEORY DESIGN EXPERIMENT TO TEST THEORY ANALYSE TELL EVERYONE ABOUT IT REPEAT (BY OTHERS)
    • OBSERVE INDUCE A THEORY DEDUCE A PREDICTION
    • THEORY THEORY NEEDS TO CREATE HYPOTHESES TO TEST / VERIFY
    • FALSIFICATION SCIENCE NEEDS TESTABLE PREDICTIONS
    • DEDUCT FROM GENERAL TO SPECIFIC
    • INDUCT FROM SPECIFIC TO GENERAL
    • Mystery kidney disease in Central America
    • WHAT IS YOUR HYPOTHESIS? WHAT PREDICTIONS MIGHT YOUR THEORY HOLD TRUE? WHAT EXPERIMENTS COULD YOU RUN TO TEST IT? WHAT DATA MIGHT YOU WANT TO COLLECT?
    • AVOID SUBJECT BIAS EXPERIMENTER BIAS SELECTION BIAS
    • RCT
    • IN SOCIAL IMPACT
    • CRITERIA PREDICTABLE OBSERVABLE / QUANTIFIABLE / MEASURABLE TESTABLE REPEATABLE
    • CRITERIA CLEAR TERMINOLOGY OBJECTIVITY PUBLICITY CRITICAL THINKING SELF-CORRECTIVENESS AUTONOMY PROGRESSIVENESS
    • OPERATIONALISE LIFE
    • LOVE WHO LOVES their partner / friend MORE?
    • PART I THE USE AND MISUSE OF SCIENCE 3) the contradictions of science © WECREATE WORLDWIDE LTD 2013 www.wecreateworldwide.com
    • “Science is an inherent contradiction — systematic wonder — applied to the natural world. In its mundane form, the methodical instinct prevails and the result, an orderly procession of papers, advances the perimeter of knowledge, step by laborious step… Who knows how many scientific revolutions have been missed because their potential inaugurators disregarded the whimsical, the incidental, the inconvenient inside the laboratory?” THE GENERAL THEORY OF LOVE
    • CREATIVITY vs. RIGOUR
    • “Science is not formal logic - it needs the free play of the mind in as great a degree as any other creative art. It is true that this is a gift which can hardly be taught, but its growth can be encouraged in those who already possess it.” MAX BORN
    • “The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious - the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle of true art and true science. EINSTEIN
    • WONDERFUL IMPACTS WHICH HAVE CHANGED & SHAPED ALL OUR LIVES
    • WONDER vs. CONTROL
    • “[I]f you are going to teach people to make observations, you should show that something wonderful can come from them.” RICHARD FEYNMAN
    • CONTROL! PLANET PEOPLE PROFIT
    • NORMALISE! IQ BMI HAPPINESS GDP
    • POSITIVISM DESCRIBE CONTROL PREDICT
    • “From science comes prediction; from prediction comes action.” COMMTE
    • CHANGE! DISSATISFACTION WITH WHAT IS
    • “Philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it.” MARX
    • EXPLOIT! VALUE ENERGY
    • “‘I am come in very truth leading to you Nature with all her children, to bind her to your service and make her your slave.’” FRANCIS BACON
    • SCIENCE BASED ON ‘TORTURING NATURE’ (CF. CAROLYN MERCHANT)
    • “And God said: Let man have dominion of the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air. and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth over the earth.” GENESIS 1, 26
    • LIBERATION vs. ALIENATION
    • PROGRESS! BUT... NIGERIA, HUNTER-GATHERERS
    • TECHNOLOGY EMPOWERS US TO CONNECT, COLLABORATE, CO-CREATE
    • TECHNOLOGY ENCHAINS US AS PRODUCERS / CONSUMERS
    • PART I THE USE AND MISUSE OF SCIENCE 4) thinking critically about science © WECREATE WORLDWIDE LTD 2013 www.wecreateworldwide.com
    • KNOWLEDGE POWER
    • “How odd it is that anyone should not see that all observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service!” CHARLES DARWIN
    • FOUCAULT GENEALOGY DISCONTINUITY
    • FOUCAULT INDUSTRIAL-MILITARY
    • “A new mode of obtaining power of mind over mind, in a quantity hitherto without example.” JEREMY BENTHAM
    • GAZE CONSTRUCTS KNOWER AND KNOWN
    • SURVEILLANCE
    • SOUSVEILLANCE
    • MEASUREMENT DISENCHANTS THE WORLD MAKES US ACT STRANGE E.G. THE WELCOME NURSE
    • OBSERVE SOMETHING SPLITS UNITY OF EXPERIENCE
    • “For is it not possible that science will create a monster? Is it not possible that an objective approach that frowns upon personal connections between the entities examined will harm people, turn them into miserable, unfriendly, self-righteous mechanisms without charm or humour? "Is it not possible," asks Kierkegaard, "that my activity as an objective [or critico-rational] observer of nature will weaken my strength as a human being?" I suspect the answer to many of these questions is affirmative and I believe that a reform of the sciences that makes them more anarchic and more subjective is urgently needed.” PAUL FEYERABEND
    • GOETHE DELICATE, EMPATHIC EMPIRICISM 300 YEARS BEFORE COPENHAGEN INTERPRETATION
    • “It is a calamity that the use of experiment has severed nature from man, so that he is content to understand nature merely through what artificial instruments reveal and by so doing even restricts her achievements...Microscopes and telescopes, in actual fact, confuse man's innate clarity of mind.” GOETHE
    • SCIENTISM REDUCTION OF EVERYTHING TO SCIENCE
    • “The fate of our times is characterized by rationalization and intellectualization and, above all, by the 'disenchantment of the world.' Precisely the ultimate and most sublime values have retreated from public life either into the transcendental realm of mystic life or into the brotherliness of direct and personal human relations.” MAX WEBER, 1918
    • HISTORICAL VS ESSENTIAL
    • DARWIN IMPERIALISM & DOMINATION OF NATURE
    • EVOLUTION REVISITED WITHIN COMPLEXITY IN CONTEXT OF CO-OPERATION & COLLABORATION
    • EPIGENETICS DNA METHYLATION
    • SCIENCE CONSTRUCTED SOCIALLY
    • PARADIGM KUHN FOUCAULT EPISTEME
    • “A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.” MAX PLANCK
    • KUHN... PRE-PARADIGM PARADIGM (NORMAL SCIENCE) ANOMALY CRISIS RESPONSE & EMERGENCE OF NEW PARADIGM
    • “Elegant explanations are the Kuhnian solvent that leaches the glue from old paradigms, making space for new theories to take hold” EDGE.ORG
    • SHIFTS PTOLEMAIC COSMOLOGY - COPERNICAN ARISTOTELIAN PHYSICS - NEWTONIAN PHYSICS NEWTONIAN PHYSICS - EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITY CLASSICAL MECHANICS - QUANTUM MECHANICS LAMARCK - DARWIN’S THEORY STATIC BRAIN - NEUROPLASTICITY
    • EVERY PAST THEORY HAS BEEN ‘WRONG’
    • INVISIBLE TEXT BOOKS SHOW LINEARITY CUMULATIVE KNOWLDEGE
    • SCIENCE IS NEVER ‘TRUE’...
    • “'It is imperative that we give up the idea of ultimate sources of knowledge, and admit that all knowledge is human; that it is mixed with our errors, our prejudices, our dreams, and our hopes; that all we can do is to grope for truth even though it is beyond our reach. There is no authority beyond the reach of criticism.” KARL POPPER
    • RELATIVE AAARGH!!!!
    • INTERPRETIVE TURN POST-MODERNISM
    • “The positivist thesis of unified science, which assimilates all the sciences to a natural-scientific model, fails because of the intimate relationship between the social sciences and history, and the fact that they are based on a situation-specific understanding of meaning that can be explicated only hermeneutically ... access to a symbolically prestructured reality cannot be gained by observation alone.” JURGEN HABERMAS
    • TRUTHS(S)
    • PART I R E M I ASCIENCE THE USE AND MISUSEL OF C S 5) appropriate science I D © WECREATE WORLDWIDE LTD 2013 www.wecreateworldwide.com
    • “Which speaking, discoursing subjects – which subjects of experience and knowledge – do you want to ‘diminish’ when you say: ‘I who conduct this discourse am conducting a scientific discourse, and I am a scientist’?” MICHEL FOUCAULT
    • BIG PROBLEMS COMPLEX ECONOMIES / COMMUNITIES / BODIES INTERCONNECTED & CHAOTIC
    • BIG DATA INTERNET OF THINGS WEARABLES
    • BUT (AND ITS A BIG ONE)
    • IRRATIONAL beliefs driven by emotions SYSTEM favors predictability (surviving) over creativity (thriving) Sources: Antonio D’Amasio, Baba Shiv, Andrew Newberg, Jonathan Haidt
    • “Emotions are mechanisms that set the brains highest goals... they probably evolved because they were hard to fake.” Steven Pinker
    • RIGID less neural plasticity as age so rely on old favor predictability over spontaneity even data does not dissuade us Source: Scientific American
    • HORIZONS EMBODIED COGNITION MINDFULNESS / COMPASSION CHANGES BRAIN VAGAL NERVE STIMULATION BIOLOGY OF OXCYTOCIN 2 MILLION GUT NERVES (PARKINSON’S)
    • “Until we invent time-travel and really get a handle on the multiverse, science tells us little about history, for example. Science may be able to tell us why we like music, why certain types of sound appeal more than others, but not why Bach is the best.” A REALIST PHILOSOPHY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE: EXPLANATION AND UNDERSTANDING
    • TRUTH WHO OWNS IT? WHAT DO THEY GET FROM IT? HOW DOES IT FEEL? IS THAT FEAR / PATTERN OR INTUITION?
    • “In Aristotle’s words phronesis is a ‘true state, reasoned, and capable of action with regard to things that are good or bad for man.’ Phronesis goes beyond both analytical, scientific knowledge (episteme) and technical knowledge or know-how (techne) and involves judgments and decisions made in the manner of a virtuoso social and political actor.” BENT FLYVBJERG
    • SCIENCE INCREDIBLE - VERIFIABLE EXPLANATIONS FOR MANY EVENTS LIMITED - LOOKS FOR LINEARITY WHERE NON-LINEARITY RULES: CREATIVITY, MIND/BODY CONNECTION, QUANTUM, COMPLEX SYSTEMS, CULTURE, HAPPINESS
    • TRUTH CO-CREATED BY EACH OF US SCIENCE INFORMS INTUITION GUIDES
    • MIDDLE WAY BETWEEN IDEALISM & EMPIRICISM BETWEEN INSIGHT & INTUITION BETWEEN SCIENCE & SPIRIT BETWEEN EQUALITY & MERITOCRACY
    • WHAT IS SCIENCE? WHY IS SCIENCE IMPORTANT? HOW IS SCIENCE DONE?
    • Ask me anything nick@wecreateworldwide.com @nickjankel © WECREATE WORLDWIDE LTD 2013 @nickjankel www.wecreateworldwide.com