THE USE & MISUSE OF SCIENCE FOR CHANGE

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Science for Change Agents, Innovators & Entrepreneurs. Day 1

A fast forward through history from Aristotle to Chaos Theory
The positivist dream
Relativity, Quantum Theory & Uncertainty
The Scientific Method (induction, deduction, repeatability, falsifiability)
Science becomes social science: Durkheim, Weber & Anthropology
Social Science: Explanation vs Understanding vs Liberation
Kuhn, paradigms and the sociology of science
Foucault and the Frankfurt School criticise science and its power
The Lenses and Methodologies of Social Science: Discourse analysis, semiotics, qualitative research, quantitative research, participant observation
MASTERCLASS FOR KAOS PILOTS, DENMARK

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THE USE & MISUSE OF SCIENCE FOR CHANGE

  1. 1. @NICKWECREATE@NICKJANKELSCIENCE FORIMAGINEERSNICK JANKEL, WECREATEKAOS PILOTSFEB 2012
  2. 2. DAY 1THE USE AND MISUSEOF SCIENCE FORCHANGE
  3. 3. TODAYA FAST FORWARD THROUGH HISTORY, PARADIGMS AND COMPETINGSCHOOLS OF SCIENCE, STARTING OUT WITH ”NATURAL SCIENCE”,PROVABILITY/REPEATABILITY, MOVING THROUGH VARIOUS SCHOOLS/PHILOSOPHIES LIKE POSITIVISM, BEHAVIOURISM, ENDING UP WITHQUANTUM PHYSICS AND CHAOS-THEORY. MOVING THROUGH SOCIALSCIENCE, PSYCHOLOGY, ETC.A CHOICE OF LENSES AND METHODS
  4. 4. WHAT ATTRACTED YOU TO THIS SESSION?HOW DOES THIS TOPIC CONNECT TO YOURGOALS? WHAT ABOUT THE TIMES WE ARELIVING IN?WHAT ARE THE TIMES IN YOUR LIFE THATYOU FEEL MOST ENERGIZED AND VITAL IN?
  5. 5. 4PROBLEMS
  6. 6. 4TEAMSPRESENT BACK ON THURS AM A 1 PAGESTRATEGY
  7. 7. “Problems cannot be solved bythe same level of consciousnessthat created them.”ALBERT EINSTEIN
  8. 8. CONSCIOUSNEEDS RAISINGNEED TO KNOW MORE
  9. 9. UNKNOWNSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INTO CAUSESCOMPLEX / ADAPTIVE SYSTEMSAR / AL / AISCENARIO PLANNINGETHNOGRAPHY
  10. 10. “If we knew what we weredoing, it wouldn’t be called‘research’.”ALBERT EINSTEIN
  11. 11. 12
  12. 12. HEARTHANDHEAD
  13. 13. A BRIEFHISTORY OF SCIENCE
  14. 14. 1758
  15. 15. “This year the world is witnessingthe most satisfying phenomenonthat astronomy has ever provided,an event unique to this day,changing our doubts intocertainties, and our hypothesesinto demonstrations.”THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
  16. 16. TELESCOPEGALILEO
  17. 17. MECHANICSPENDULUMS, CALCULUS ETC.
  18. 18. EMPIRICALOBSERVATION
  19. 19. “Truth is sought for its own sake. Andthose who are engaged upon the questfor anything for its own sake are notinterested in other things. Finding thetruth is difficult, and the road to it isrough.”IBN AL-HAYTHAM
  20. 20. INDUCTIONFRANCIS BACON
  21. 21. “There are and can be only two ways ofsearching into and discovering truth.The one flies from the senses andparticulars to the most general axioms,and from these principles, the truth ofwhich it takes for settled andimmoveable, proceeds to judgment andto the discovery of middle axioms. Andthis way is now in fashion. The otherderives axioms from the senses andparticulars, rising by a gradual andunbroken ascent, so that it arrives at themost general axioms last of all. This isthe true way, but as yet untried.”FRANCIS BACON
  22. 22. DESCARTESRATIONALISM / DEDUCTION
  23. 23. BIASESMIND & SENSES
  24. 24. NEWTON
  25. 25. Nature and Natures laws lay hid inthe night: God said, Let Newton be! and allwas light.ALEXANDER POPE
  26. 26. CLOCKWORKUNIVERSE
  27. 27. “We may regard the present state of theuniverse as the effect of its past and thecause of its future. An intellect which atany given moment knew all of the forcesthat animate nature and the mutualpositions of the beings that compose it,if this intellect were vast enough tosubmit the data to analysis, couldcondense into a single formula themovement of the greatest bodies of theuniverse and that of the lightest atom;for such an intellect nothing could beuncertain and the future just like thepast would be present before its eyes.”PIERRE SIMON LA PLACE
  28. 28. MICROSCOPEHOOK, LEEUWENHOEK
  29. 29. ENLIGHTENMENTVOLTAIRE, JEAN-JAQUES ROUSSEAU, LOCKE,HUME ETC
  30. 30. AUTHORITYSCIENCE & REASONOVERTRADITION & RELIGION
  31. 31. REASONBECOMES MORE AND MORE LIKEMECHANISTIC MATERIALISM
  32. 32. 19TH CSCIENCE GETS PROFESSIONAL
  33. 33. CHEMICALDEMISE OF PHLOGISTON THEORYACCURATE MEASUREMENT
  34. 34. PERIODIC TABLEMENDELEEV
  35. 35. ELECTROMAGNETISMFARADAY & MAXWELL
  36. 36. EVOLUTIONDARWIN VS. PALEY
  37. 37. EVOLUTIONDARWIN VS. PALEY
  38. 38. FINCHESGRADUAL CHANGE (NO LEAPS)
  39. 39. SOCIALDARWINISM
  40. 40. “In the long history ofhumankind (and animalkind, too) those wholearned to collaborateand improvise mosteffectively haveprevailed.”CHARLES DARWIN
  41. 41. GERM THEORYPASTEUR, KOCH
  42. 42. “[I]t seems probable that mostof the grand underlyingprinciples have now been firmlyestablished and that furtheradvances are to be soughtchiefly in the rigorous applicationof these principles to all thephenomena which come underour notice…. An eminentphysicist has remarked that thefuture truths of physical scienceare to be looked for in the sixthplace of decimals.”ALBERT MICHELSON, 1894
  43. 43. 20TH CSCIENCE GETS SPOOKY/ED
  44. 44. RELATIVITYEINSTEIN
  45. 45. CHEMIST’SWAR
  46. 46. QUANTUMTHEORY
  47. 47. ENTANGLEMENT147 MILES
  48. 48. UNCERTAINTYLOCATION OR MOMENTUM BUT NOT BOTH
  49. 49. INCOMPLETENESSLOCATION OR MOMENTUM BUT NOT BOTH
  50. 50. CPUSPEEDS
  51. 51. EUGENICSNAZI ‘SCIENCE’
  52. 52. LYSENKOISMSOVIET ‘SCIENCE’
  53. 53. “He is responsible for theshameful backwardness of Sovietbiology and of genetics inparticular, for the disseminationof pseudo-scientific views, foradventurism, for the degradationof learning, and for thedefamation, firing, arrest, evendeath, of many genuinescientists”ANDREI SAKHAROV
  54. 54. HOLOCAUSTINDUSTRIAL SCALE RATIONALISM
  55. 55. “Evil is the product of the abilityof humans to make abstract thatwhich is concrete.”JEAN-PAUL SARTRE
  56. 56. PHYSICIST’SWAR
  57. 57. HIROSHIMAMANHATTAN PROJECT
  58. 58. ARMYINJECTING DISEASE IN 1950
  59. 59. COMPLEXINDUSTRIAL-MILITARY
  60. 60. WWWSOCIAL MEDIA, SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS...
  61. 61. WHAT ISSCIENCE?
  62. 62. WHAT MAKES SOMETHING SCIENTIFIC?
  63. 63. BODYOF KNOWLEDGE
  64. 64. METHODACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE
  65. 65. “Science is the systematic,rational acquisition of newknowledge.”HAAPARANTA & NIINILUOTO
  66. 66. PROCESSFIND CURIOUS PHENOMENA / QUESTIONS
  67. 67. PROCESSFIND CURIOUS PHENOMENA / QUESTIONSOBSERVE A LOTMAKE UP A THEORYDESIGN EXPERIMENT TO TEST THEORYANALYSETELL EVERYONE ABOUT ITREPEAT (BY OTHERS)
  68. 68. OBSERVEINDUCE A THEORYDEDUCE A PREDICTION
  69. 69. DEDUCTFROM GENERAL TO SPECIFIC
  70. 70. INDUCTFROM SPECIFIC TO GENERAL
  71. 71. MYTHOSLOGOS
  72. 72. Mystery kidney disease in Central America
  73. 73. WHAT MIGHT YOU WANT TO OBSERVE?WHAT DATA MIGHT YOU WANT?WHAT KIND OF THEORY WOULD IT GIVE?
  74. 74. PREDICTIONTHEORY NEEDS TO CREATE HYPOTHESES TOTEST / VERIFY
  75. 75. FALSIFICATIONSCIENCE NEEDS TESTABLE PREDICTIONS
  76. 76. “A naturalistic methodology (sometimescalled an "inductive theory of science")has its value, no doubt.... I reject thenaturalistic view: It is uncritical. Itsupholders fail to notice that wheneverthey believe to have discovered a fact,they have only proposed a convention.Hence the convention is liable to turn intoa dogma. This criticism of the naturalisticview applies not only to its criterion ofmeaning, but also to its idea of science,and consequently to its idea of empiricalmethod.”KARL POPPER
  77. 77. WHAT PREDICTIONS MIGHT YOUR THEORYHOLD TRUE?WHAT EXPERIMENTS COULD YOU RUN?
  78. 78. AVOIDSUBJECT BIASEXPERIMENTER BIASSELECTION BIAS
  79. 79. RCT
  80. 80. IN DEVPT
  81. 81. WHAT RCTS COULD YOU RUN?
  82. 82. CRITERIATESTABLEREPEATABLEOBSERVABLEPREDICTABLE
  83. 83. CRITERIAOBJECTIVITYPUBLICITYCRITICAL THINKINGSELF-CORRECTIVENESSAUTONOMYPROGRESSIVENESS
  84. 84. AGENDA-LESS?
  85. 85. VALUE-FREE?
  86. 86. “Science can (potentially at least)explain everything because itsways of trying to understand theuniverse by asking questions of itshould not leave any areas off-limits. The methods of openness,inquiry, curiosity, theory building,hypothesis testing and so on canbe adapted and developed toexplore and try to explainanything.”SUE BLACKMORE
  87. 87. GRANDNARRATIVE
  88. 88. PROGRESS!
  89. 89. TELEOLOYGEIST
  90. 90. CONTROL!PLANETPEOPLE
  91. 91. DEFINE!IQBMIHAPPINESSGDP
  92. 92. EXPLOIT!VALUEENERGY
  93. 93. BEING A SCIENTIST
  94. 94. OBSERVESOMETHING
  95. 95. SUBJECT /OBJECT
  96. 96. VARIABLESPLITS UNITY OF EXPERIENCE
  97. 97. “For is it not possible that science willcreate a monster? Is it not possiblethat an objective approach that frownsupon personal connections betweenthe entities examined will harm people,turn them into miserable, unfriendly,self-righteous mechanisms withoutcharm or humour? "Is it not possible,"asks Kierkegaard, "that my activity asan objective [or critico-rational]observer of nature will weaken mystrength as a human being?" I suspectthe answer to many of these questionsis affirmative and I believe that areform of the sciences that makesthem more anarchic and moresubjective is urgently needed.”PAUL FEYERABEND
  98. 98. GOETHEDELICATE, EMPATHIC EMPIRICISM300 YEARS BEFORE COPENHAGENINTERPRETATION
  99. 99. “It is a calamity that the use of experiment hassevered nature from man, so that he is contentto understand nature merely through whatartificial instruments reveal and by so doingeven restricts her achievements...Microscopesand telescopes, in actual fact, confuse mansinnate clarity of mind.”GOETHE
  100. 100. TAWHIDISLAMIC SCIENCE
  101. 101. DISENCHANTMENTOF WORLD
  102. 102. “The fate of our times ischaracterized byrationalization andintellectualization and, aboveall, by the disenchantment ofthe world. Precisely theultimate and most sublimevalues have retreated frompublic life either into thetranscendental realm of mysticlife or into the brotherliness ofdirect and personal humanrelations.”MAX WEBER, 1918
  103. 103. POWERIMBALANCE
  104. 104. KNOWLEDGEPOWER
  105. 105. “And God said: Let man havedominion of the fish of the sea,and over the fowl of the air.and over the cattle, and over allthe earth, and over everycreeping thing that creepethover the earth.”GENESIS 1, 26
  106. 106. ESSENTIALTRUTH / IDENTITY
  107. 107. FOUCAULTGENEALOGYDISCONTINUITY
  108. 108. FOUCAULTINDUSTRIAL-MILITARY
  109. 109. “A new mode of obtainingpower of mind over mind,in a quantity hithertowithout example.”JEREMY BENTHAM
  110. 110. GAZECONSTRUCTS KNOWER AND KNOWN
  111. 111. “Which speaking,discoursing subjects –which subjects ofexperience andknowledge – do you wantto ‘diminish’ when yousay: ‘I who conduct thisdiscourse am conductinga scientific discourse, andI am a scientist’?”FOUCAULT
  112. 112. SURVEILLANCE
  113. 113. SOUSVEILLANCE
  114. 114. HISTORICALVS ESSENTIAL
  115. 115. DARWINIMPERIALISM & DOMINATION OF NATURE
  116. 116. BIOLOGYNOW IN CONTEXT OF CO-OPERATION &COLLABORATION
  117. 117. EVOLUTIONREVISITED WITHIN COMPLEXITY
  118. 118. GENENOT ISOLATED
  119. 119. 25,000HOW DO WE GET SO COMPLEX?
  120. 120. EPIGENETICSDNA METHYLATIONEVO DEVO
  121. 121. NATURALSELECTION?SPONTANEOUS SELF-ORGANISATION?
  122. 122. CONSTRUCTEDSOCIALLY
  123. 123. SSKEDINBURGH / BATH
  124. 124. TACITAGREEMENTSKNOWLEDGE
  125. 125. PARADIGMKUHNFOUCAULT EPISTEME
  126. 126. KUHN...PRE-PARADIGMPARADIGM (NORMAL SCIENCE)ANOMALYCRISISRESPONSE & EMERGENCE OF NEW PARADIGM
  127. 127. “A new scientific truthdoes not triumph byconvincing its opponentsand making them see thelight, but rather becauseits opponents eventuallydie, and a new generationgrows up that is familiarwith it.”MAX PLANCK
  128. 128. SHIFTSPTOLEMAIC COSMOLOGY - COPERNICANARISTOTELIAN PHYSICS - NEWTONIAN PHYSICSNEWTONIAN PHYSICS - EINSTEIN’S RELATIVITYCLASSICAL MECHANICS - QUANTUM MECHANICSLAMARCK - DARWIN’S THEORYSTATIC BRAIN - NEUROPLASTICITY
  129. 129. REVOLUTIONINCOMENSURABILITY
  130. 130. INVISIBLETEXT BOOKS SHOW LINEARITYCUMULATIVE KNOWLDEGE
  131. 131. GESTALTSHIFT
  132. 132. BOLTZMANNPARADIGM SHIFT
  133. 133. DECLINEEFFECT
  134. 134. RELATIVISMAAARGH
  135. 135. MATERIALISMSTOPS BEFORE BIG BANG AS NO OBJECT /MATERIAL
  136. 136. SCIENCEVS PSEUDOSCIENCE
  137. 137. CARGOCULT
  138. 138. WHAT ISSOCIALSCIENCE?
  139. 139. 168
  140. 140. POSITIVISMTHEOLOGICAL STAGEMETAPHYSICAL STAGESCIENTIFIC (OR POSITIVE) STAGE
  141. 141. POSITIVISMDESCRIBECONTROLPREDICT
  142. 142. COMTEPOST-REVOLUTION
  143. 143. “From science comes prediction;from prediction comes action.”COMMTE
  144. 144. REFORM!DISSATISFACTION WITH WHAT IS
  145. 145. HERMENEUTICS
  146. 146. GEISTESWISSENSCHAFTEN
  147. 147. VERSTEHENVS. ERKLÄREN
  148. 148. “There are limits to what the process ofobservation, experimentation, predictionand falsification can tell us. Until we inventtime-travel and really get a handle on themultiverse, science tells us little abouthistory, for example. Science may be able totell us why we like music, why certain typesof sound appeal more than others, but notwhy Bach is the best. Taking this line inarguments leads to two things. The first isthe view encapsulated by Wittgenstein, thatone should only discuss things that one iskitted out to discuss. Science can onlyelucidate truths that can be framed in atestable, predictable and falsifiable scenario.”A REALIST PHILOSOPHY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE:EXPLANATION AND UNDERSTANDING
  149. 149. ANTIPOSITIVISMMAX WEBER
  150. 150. “[Sociology is ] ... the science whose object is tointerpret the meaning of social action and thereby give acausal explanation of the way in which the actionproceeds and the effects which it produces. By actionin this definition is meant the human behaviour whenand to the extent the agent or agents see it assubjectively meaningful ... the meaning to which werefer may be either (a) the meaning actually intendedeither by an individual agent on a particular historicaloccasion or by a number of agents on an approximateaverage in a given set of cases, or (b) the meaningattributed to the agent or agents, as types, in a puretype constructed in the abstract. In neither case is themeaning thought of as somehow objectively corrector true by some metaphysical criterion. This is thedifference between the empirical sciences of action,such as sociology and history, and any kind of a prioridiscipline, such as jurisprudence, logic, ethics, oraesthetics whose aim is to extract from their subject-matter correct or valid meaning.”MAX WEBER 1922
  151. 151. TRUTHS(S)RELATIVISMPOST MODERNISM (IRONY)
  152. 152. AUTHORIS DEAD
  153. 153. TRUTHWHO OWNS IT?(AND WHAT DO THEY GET FROM IT?)
  154. 154. COLONIALISMRESEARCH WITHOUT CRITICAL THINKINGRECAPITULATES STATUS QUOAND INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES
  155. 155. FRANKFURTSCHOOL
  156. 156. CRITICALTHINKING
  157. 157. “The emancipation of humanbeings from the circumstancesthat enslave them.”HORKHEIMER
  158. 158. 1-DMAN
  159. 159. “The means of communication, theirresistible output of theentertainment and informationindustry carry with them prescribedattitudes and habits, certainintellectual and emotional reactionswhich bind the consumers to theproducers and, through the latter tothe whole social system. The productsindoctrinate and manipulate; theypromote a false consciousness whichis immune against its falsehood...Thusemerges a pattern of one-dimensionalthought and behavior.”HERBERT MARCUSE
  160. 160. MARXISTTHEORY
  161. 161. “Philosophers have onlyinterpreted the world in variousways; the point is to change it.”MARX
  162. 162. CRITIQUETHE CRITIQUE
  163. 163. PRIVILEGENEGATIVE DIALECTICS
  164. 164. DECONSTRUCTIONDERRIDA ETC.
  165. 165. HABERMAS
  166. 166. “The positivist thesis of unifiedscience, which assimilates all thesciences to a natural-scientificmodel, fails because of the intimaterelationship between the socialsciences and history, and the factthat they are based on a situation-specific understanding of meaningthat can be explicated onlyhermeneutically ... access to asymbolically prestructured realitycannot be gained by observationalone.”JURGEN HABERMAS
  167. 167. “No pedagogy which is trulyliberating can remain distantfrom the oppressed by treatingthem as unfortunates and bypresenting for their emulationmodels from among theoppressors. The oppressed mustbe their own example in thestruggle for their redemption.”PAULO FREIRE 1970
  168. 168. SOCIALSCIENCETRUE? VALUE-FREE?
  169. 169. POPPERVS. KUHN
  170. 170. DIALOGICTRUTHBAKHTIN
  171. 171. MAPNOT NECESSARILY THE TERRITORY BUT ITCAN HELP GUIDE US PRACTICALLY
  172. 172. “What man needs is not just thepersistent posing of ultimatequestions, but the sense of what isfeasible, what is possible, what iscorrect, here and now. Thephilosopher, of all people, must, Ithink, be aware of the tensionbetween what he claims to achieveand the reality in which he findshimself.” HANS-GEORG GADAMER
  173. 173. PRAGMATISMBETWEEN IDEALISM & EMPIRICISM
  174. 174. “In Aristotle’s words phronesis is a‘true state, reasoned, and capable ofaction with regard to things that aregood or bad for man.’ Phronesis goesbeyond both analytical, scientificknowledge (episteme) and technicalknowledge or know-how (techne)and involves judgments and decisionsmade in the manner of a virtuososocial and political actor.”BENT FLYVBJERG
  175. 175. VICO
  176. 176. “Men are not isolated non-socialatoms, but are men only when inintrinsic relations’ to one another.”JOHN DEWEY
  177. 177. DEWEYEXPERMENTALISTRELATIONAL
  178. 178. PHRONESISWHERE ARE WE GOING?IS THIS DESIRABLE?WHO GAINS AND WHO LOSES, AND BYWHICH MECHANISMS OF POWER?WHAT, IF ANYTHING, SHOULD WE DOABOUT IT?
  179. 179. HEARTOPEN, OPTIMISTIC
  180. 180. INTENTION KNOWLEDGE TERMS LENSES REDUCTIONISM EXPLANATION OF NATURALISM / REALISM EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS KNOW ‘TRUTH’ WHAT IS PROOF INDUCTION / DEDUCTIONPREDICT / CONTROL CORROBORATION OF EVIDENCE BASE INSTRUMENTALISM NATURE WHAT WORKS RCTS SEMIOTICS CONTEXT APPRECIATE / UNDERSTANDING OF HERMENEUTICS QUAL / QUANT EMPATHISE HOW THINGS ARE PO DISCOURSE ANALYSIS DECONSTRUCTION CRITICISM OF WHY STRUCTURALISM DISEMPOWER ‘ARCHEOLOGY’ THINGS ARE POST MODERNISM CRITICAL THEORY SYSTEMS / CYNEFIN INSIGHT INTO HOW TO ACTION RESEARCH IMPROVE EMANCIPATION CHANGE THINGS CRITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS
  181. 181. CONNECTNICK@WECREATE.CCWECREATE.CC (THIS WILL BE UP IN FEW DAYS)NICKJANKEL.COM

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