Chapter
5Module
1            1
Consumer behavior                    2
Chapter
Objec4ves1. Define consumer behavior and explain why consumers buy  what they do.2. Describe the prepurchase, purc...
PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS          Start with...PROBLEM RECOGNITIONConsumer Behavior - processthrough which we select, pur...
The purchase decision processconsists of five stages (forimportant purchases) Marketers frequently address these stages wi...
The purchase decision processconsists of five stages (forimportant purchases) Marketers frequently address these stages wi...
A true story.                6
Step 1       Problem: Mr and Mrs       Nichols needed new           furniture.Step 4                         7
Step 1       Problem: Mr and Mrs       Nichols needed new           furniture.Step 4       Solution: Mr and Mrs       Nich...
Step 1       Problem: Mr and Mrs       Nichols needed new           furniture.Step 4       Solution: Mr and Mrs       Nich...
Step 1       Problem: Mr and Mrs       Nichols needed new           furniture.Step 4       Solution: Mr and Mrs       Nich...
Problem solved? End of Story?                  8
New Problem Recognized.                      StepIdeal
State:
Where
    1       Actual State: we
want
to
be               ...
New Problem Recognized.                      StepIdeal
State:
Where
    1       Actual State: we
want
to
be               ...
New Problem Recognized.                      StepIdeal
State:
Where
    1       Actual State: we
want
to
be               ...
New Problem Recognized.                      StepIdeal
State:
Where
    1       Actual State: we
want
to
be               ...
Step 2       Information search                            10
Step 2       Information search        What Kinds of information is recalled        from internal search?                ...
Step 2       Information search        What Kinds of information is recalled        from internal search?        - Brands...
Step 2       Information search        What Kinds of information is recalled        from internal search?        - Brands...
Step 2       Information search        What Kinds of information is recalled        from internal search?        - Brands...
Step 2       Information search        What Kinds of information is recalled        from internal search?        - Brands...
Step 2       Information search                            10
Step 3     Evaluate alternatives                          11
Step 3     Evaluate alternatives                          11
Step 3     Evaluate alternatives                          11
Step 3     Evaluate alternatives                          11
Step 3     Evaluate alternatives                          11
Step 3     Evaluate alternatives                          11
Step 3     Evaluate alternatives                          11
Step 3     Evaluate alternatives                          11
Step 3     Evaluate alternatives         What’s the risk?                            11
Step   3     Evaluate alternativesEvaluative Criteria         Price      Ease of use     Effectiveness      Side-effects  ...
Step  4           Make a decision.And Here’s  why.  Look up “scat mat”on youtube!                                 12
Step  4           Make a decision.And Here’s  why.  Look up “scat mat”on youtube!                                 12
Not all decisions are made         this way.    Price = quality   Familiarity: name        brand  Perceived quality -     ...
The involvement  continuum.                  14
The involvement  continuum.         Cognitive                     14
The involvement  continuum.         Cognitive        Behavioral                     14
Think About it...1. What was something you recently purchased?2. How was the problem recognized?3. How did you search for ...
Step 5     Post-purchase Evaluation              on?       sf acti           on? S ati               tisf acti       D iss...
Step 5     Post-purchase Evaluation              on?       sf acti           on? S ati               tisf acti        Diss...
17
Did I purchase the   right thing?              17
Did I purchase the   right thing?      How can I feel     better about it?               17
Was there a better      deal?                     Did I purchase the                        right thing?                  ...
Was there a better      deal?          What will people                         think?                                    ...
ing .     uc ceR ed an      onD iss                18
ing .     uc ce                   The company will                reinforce my decision.R ed an      onD iss              ...
ing .     uc ce                                          The company will                                       reinforce ...
ing .         I’ll look and     uc ce                                            The company will                  see wha...
Scat Mat Postpurchase     Evaluation.                   19
Scat Mat Postpurchase     Evaluation.                   19
Scat Mat Postpurchase     Evaluation.                   19
End
Module
1               20
Chapter
5
Module
2             21
Internal Influences on  consumer Behavior        Motivation.         Learning.       Perceptions.         Attitudes.     Pe...
Motivation. An internal  state that drives us tosatisfy needs.                         23
Motivation. An internal  state that drives us tosatisfy needs.                         23
Motivation. An internal  state that drives us tosatisfy needs.                         23
Motivation. An internal  state that drives us tosatisfy needs.                         23
Motivation. An internal  state that drives us tosatisfy needs.                         23
Motivation. An internal  state that drives us tosatisfy needs.                         23
Motivation. An internal  state that drives us tosatisfy needs.                         23
Learning.Behavioral Learning: people associate adrive or perception (hunger) with a behavior(eating)Classical Conditioning...
Perceptions.Your meaningful interpretation of         Green package =information: brands, slogans, events,         healthy...
Perceptions.Your meaningful interpretation of         Green package =information: brands, slogans, events,         healthy...
Attitudes.Attitudes: a lasting evaluation of a person, object,issue... Can be positively or negatively valenced....A learn...
Attitudes.Attitudes: a lasting evaluation of a person, object,issue... Can be positively or negatively valenced....A learn...
Attitudes.Attitudes: a lasting evaluation of a person, object,issue... Can be positively or negatively valenced....A learn...
Attitudes.Attitudes: a lasting evaluation of a person, object,issue... Can be positively or negatively valenced....A learn...
Attitudes.Attitudes: a lasting evaluation of a person, object,issue... Can be positively or negatively valenced....A learn...
Colgate and BayerHow did the ads change attitudes for these products?                                                     ...
Personal factors.Personality: affects a person’s consistent behaviors orresponses to recurring situations. Personality tra...
Personal factors.Personality: affects a person’s consistent behaviors orresponses to recurring situations. Personality tra...
Personal factors.Personality: affects a person’s consistent behaviors orresponses to recurring situations. Personality tra...
From Bridget Brennan’s“European don’t eat or      “Why She Buys” drink in their cars.”                                    ...
From Bridget Brennan’s“European don’t eat or        “Why She Buys” drink in their cars.”           “Just stick it between ...
From Bridget Brennan’s“European don’t eat or        “Why She Buys” drink in their cars.”           “Just stick it between ...
How
do
women
shop?• They
check
prices• They
ask
for
help
and
informa4on• They
spend
less
4me
in
a
store
  when
a
man
is
wi...
Gender
&
Market
Trends•   Women
with
high
power
jobs•   ShiIs
in
breadwinning
in
the
home•   Delayed
marriages•   High
div...
How
do
men
shop?• Men
do
not
ask
for
help• Men
do
not
try
things
on• Men
spend
liPle
4me
in
the
  store,
compared
to
women...
Think
about
this....• How
long
do
you
spend
decided
what
pair
of
  jeans
to
buy
when
you
are
out
shopping?• On
your
last
t...
End
Module
2               34
Chapter
5
Module
3             35
Situational Influences on    consumer Behavior      physical environment          Social Groups             Culture       R...
PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS                  SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES• Purchase Task - what is the reason for engaging in the ...
PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS                  SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES• Purchase Task - what is the reason for engaging in the ...
PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS                  SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES• Purchase Task - what is the reason for engaging in the ...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES             ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOROpinion LeadersCan be friends, celebrities, experts in thefield, o...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES             ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOROpinion LeadersCan be friends, celebrities, experts in thefield, o...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES             ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOROpinion LeadersCan be friends, celebrities, experts in thefield, o...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES             ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOROpinion LeadersCan be friends, celebrities, experts in thefield, o...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES              ON CONSUMER BEHAVIORCulture is society’s personality. It is values, beliefs, customs...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES          ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR             REFERENCE GROUPS   Reference Groups• Membership Group•...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES            ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR                       SOCIAL CLASSSocial Class - divisions of a s...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES            ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR                       SOCIAL CLASSSocial Class - divisions of a s...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES            ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR                       SOCIAL CLASSSocial Class - divisions of a s...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES            ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR                       SOCIAL CLASSSocial Class - divisions of a s...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES            ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR                       SOCIAL CLASSSocial Class - divisions of a s...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES          ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR       Gender Roles & Sex Typed GoodsGender Roles are society’s expe...
SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES          ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR       Gender Roles & Sex Typed GoodsGender Roles are society’s expe...
Influences on purchase decision processfrom both internal and external sources                                          5-15
End
Module
3               44
Consumer BehaviorConsumer behavior consists ofthe actions a person takes inpurchasing and using productsand services, incl...
Purchase Decision ProcessThe purchase decision processconsists of the five stages a buyerpasses through in making choicesa...
Evaluative CriteriaEvaluative criteria consist ofFactors that represent both theobjective attributes of a brandand the sub...
Consideration SetA consideration set is the groupof brands that a consumer wouldconsider acceptable from amongall the bran...
Cognitive DissonanceCognitive dissonance is thefeeling of postpurchasepsychological tension or anxietyconsumers may experi...
InvolvementInvolvement is the personal,social, and economic significanceof the purchase to the consumer.
Situational InfluencesSituational influences consist of the fiveaspects of the purchase situation thatimpacts the consumer...
MotivationMotivation is the energizing forcethat stimulates behavior to satisfya need.                                    ...
PersonalityPersonality is a person’sconsistent behaviors or responsesto recurring situations.                             ...
Self-ConceptSelf-concept is the way peoplesee themselves and the way theybelieve others see them.                         ...
PerceptionPerception is the process bywhich an individual selects,organizes, and interpretsinformation to create ameaningf...
Subliminal PerceptionSubliminal perception involvesseeing or hearing messageswithout being aware of them.                 ...
Perceived RiskPerceived risk is the anxietiesfelt because the consumer cannotanticipate the outcomes of apurchase but beli...
LearningLearning consists of thosebehaviors that result from(1) repeated experience and(2) reasoning.                     ...
Brand LoyaltyBrand loyalty is a favorableattitude toward and consistentpurchase of a single brand overtime.               ...
AttitudeAn attitude is a learnedpredisposition to respond to anobject or class of objects in aconsistently favorable orunf...
BeliefsBeliefs are a consumer’ssubjective perception of how aproduct or brand performs ondifferent attributes based onpers...
LifestyleLifestyle is a mode of living thatis identified by how people spendtheir time and resources, whatthey consider im...
Opinion LeadersOpinion leaders are individualswho exert direct or indirect socialinfluence over others.                   ...
Word of MouthWord of mouth involves theinfluencing of people duringconversations.                               5-51
Reference GroupsReference groups consists ofpeople to whom an individuallooks as a basis for self-appraisalor as a source ...
Consumer SocializationConsumer socialization is theprocess by which people acquirethe skills, knowledge, andattitudes nece...
Family Life CycleA family life cycle consists ofthe distinct phases that a familyprogresses through fromformation to retir...
Social ClassSocial class consists of therelatively permanent,homogeneous divisions in asociety into which people sharingsi...
SubculturesSubcultures are the subgroupswithin the larger, or national,culture with unique values, ideas,and attitudes.   ...
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Chapter 5

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  • Consumer behavior is the process individuals or groups go through to select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and desires. Consumer decision making is an ongoing process—it’s more than what happens at the moment a consumer pays for a product.\n\nMarketers need to understand the many factors that influence each step in the consumer-behavior process—internal factors unique to each of us, situational factors at the time of purchase, and the social influences of people around us.\n
  • Steps in the Consumer Decision Process\nResearchers realize that decision makers possess a set of approaches ranging from painstaking analysis to pure whim, depending on the importance of what is being bought and how much effort the person is willing to put into the decision.\nExtended Problem Solving versus Habitual Decision Making\nMarketers describe an “effort” continuum that is anchored on one end by habitual decision making and at the other end by extended problem solving. \n\nWhen consumers make important decisions, they go through the five steps of extended problem solving: \n\n•Problem recognition\n•Information search\n•Evaluation of alternatives\n•Product choice\n•Postpurchase behavior\n\nWith habitual decision making, consumers make little or no conscious effort. \n\nMany decisions fall somewhere in the middle and are characterized by limited problem solving. This means that consumers do some work to make a decision but not a great deal\n
  • Steps in the Consumer Decision Process\nResearchers realize that decision makers possess a set of approaches ranging from painstaking analysis to pure whim, depending on the importance of what is being bought and how much effort the person is willing to put into the decision.\nExtended Problem Solving versus Habitual Decision Making\nMarketers describe an “effort” continuum that is anchored on one end by habitual decision making and at the other end by extended problem solving. \n\nWhen consumers make important decisions, they go through the five steps of extended problem solving: \n\n•Problem recognition\n•Information search\n•Evaluation of alternatives\n•Product choice\n•Postpurchase behavior\n\nWith habitual decision making, consumers make little or no conscious effort. \n\nMany decisions fall somewhere in the middle and are characterized by limited problem solving. This means that consumers do some work to make a decision but not a great deal\n
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  • Step 1: Problem Recognition\nProblem recognition occurs whenever a consumer sees a significant difference between her current state of affairs and some desired or ideal state. \n\nMost problem recognition occurs spontaneously. However, marketers can develop creative advertising messages that stimulate consumers to recognize that their current state just doesn’t equal their desired state. \n
  • Step 1: Problem Recognition\nProblem recognition occurs whenever a consumer sees a significant difference between her current state of affairs and some desired or ideal state. \n\nMost problem recognition occurs spontaneously. However, marketers can develop creative advertising messages that stimulate consumers to recognize that their current state just doesn’t equal their desired state. \n
  • Step 1: Problem Recognition\nProblem recognition occurs whenever a consumer sees a significant difference between her current state of affairs and some desired or ideal state. \n\nMost problem recognition occurs spontaneously. However, marketers can develop creative advertising messages that stimulate consumers to recognize that their current state just doesn’t equal their desired state. \n
  • Step 1: Problem Recognition\nProblem recognition occurs whenever a consumer sees a significant difference between her current state of affairs and some desired or ideal state. \n\nMost problem recognition occurs spontaneously. However, marketers can develop creative advertising messages that stimulate consumers to recognize that their current state just doesn’t equal their desired state. \n
  • Step 1: Problem Recognition\nProblem recognition occurs whenever a consumer sees a significant difference between her current state of affairs and some desired or ideal state. \n\nMost problem recognition occurs spontaneously. However, marketers can develop creative advertising messages that stimulate consumers to recognize that their current state just doesn’t equal their desired state. \n
  • Step 2: Information Search\nInformation search is the step of the decision-making process in which the consumer checks his memory and surveys the environment to identify what options are out there that might solve his problem. \nThe Internet as a Search Tool\nIncreasingly, consumers are using Internet search engines, portals, or “shopping robots” to find information. \n\nThe role of marketers during the information search step of the consumer decision-making process is to make the information consumers want and need about their product easily accessible\n
  • Step 2: Information Search\nInformation search is the step of the decision-making process in which the consumer checks his memory and surveys the environment to identify what options are out there that might solve his problem. \nThe Internet as a Search Tool\nIncreasingly, consumers are using Internet search engines, portals, or “shopping robots” to find information. \n\nThe role of marketers during the information search step of the consumer decision-making process is to make the information consumers want and need about their product easily accessible\n
  • Step 2: Information Search\nInformation search is the step of the decision-making process in which the consumer checks his memory and surveys the environment to identify what options are out there that might solve his problem. \nThe Internet as a Search Tool\nIncreasingly, consumers are using Internet search engines, portals, or “shopping robots” to find information. \n\nThe role of marketers during the information search step of the consumer decision-making process is to make the information consumers want and need about their product easily accessible\n
  • Step 2: Information Search\nInformation search is the step of the decision-making process in which the consumer checks his memory and surveys the environment to identify what options are out there that might solve his problem. \nThe Internet as a Search Tool\nIncreasingly, consumers are using Internet search engines, portals, or “shopping robots” to find information. \n\nThe role of marketers during the information search step of the consumer decision-making process is to make the information consumers want and need about their product easily accessible\n
  • Step 2: Information Search\nInformation search is the step of the decision-making process in which the consumer checks his memory and surveys the environment to identify what options are out there that might solve his problem. \nThe Internet as a Search Tool\nIncreasingly, consumers are using Internet search engines, portals, or “shopping robots” to find information. \n\nThe role of marketers during the information search step of the consumer decision-making process is to make the information consumers want and need about their product easily accessible\n
  • Step 2: Information Search\nInformation search is the step of the decision-making process in which the consumer checks his memory and surveys the environment to identify what options are out there that might solve his problem. \nThe Internet as a Search Tool\nIncreasingly, consumers are using Internet search engines, portals, or “shopping robots” to find information. \n\nThe role of marketers during the information search step of the consumer decision-making process is to make the information consumers want and need about their product easily accessible\n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Step 3: Evaluation of Alternatives\nThere are two components to this stage of the decision-making process. First, a consumer armed with information identifies a small number of products in which he is interested. Then he narrows down his choices by deciding which of all the possibilities are feasible and by comparing the pros and cons of each remaining option.\n\nAs a buyer begins to look systematically at different possibilities he/she will also identify important characteristics or evaluative criteria. \n
  • Consumers make a product choice when they decide on one alternative or product and act on this choice.\n\n
  • Heuristics\nConsumers often rely on decision guidelines when weighing the claims that companies make. These heuristics, or rules, help simplify the decision-making process. One such heuristic is “price = quality.” Many people willingly buy the more expensive brand because they assume that if it costs more, it must be better.\n\nThe most common heuristic may be brand loyalty. Brand loyalty assumes that people buy from the same company over and over because they believe that the company makes superior products. Consumers who have brand loyalties feel that it’s not worth the effort to consider competing options. The creation of brand loyalty is a prized goal for marketers.\n\nAnother heuristic is based on country of origin. We assume that a product has certain characteristics if it comes from a certain country. Sometimes a marketer wants to encourage a country association even when none exists. \n
  • With habitual decision making, consumers make little or no conscious effort. \n\nMany decisions fall somewhere in the middle and are characterized by limited problem solving. This means that consumers do some work to make a decision but not a great deal\n\nNot All Decisions are the Same\nThe effort we put into decisions depends on our level of involvement. Involvement is the importance of the perceived consequences of the purchase to the person. We tend to be more involved in the decision-making process for products that we think are risky in some way. Perceived risk exists when there is uncertainty about a product, the product is complex or hard to understand, the buyer will be embarrassed if he/she chose the wrong product, etc. \n\n
  • With habitual decision making, consumers make little or no conscious effort. \n\nMany decisions fall somewhere in the middle and are characterized by limited problem solving. This means that consumers do some work to make a decision but not a great deal\n\nNot All Decisions are the Same\nThe effort we put into decisions depends on our level of involvement. Involvement is the importance of the perceived consequences of the purchase to the person. We tend to be more involved in the decision-making process for products that we think are risky in some way. Perceived risk exists when there is uncertainty about a product, the product is complex or hard to understand, the buyer will be embarrassed if he/she chose the wrong product, etc. \n\n
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  • Step 5: Postpurchase Evaluation\nIn the last step of the decision-making process, the consumer evaluates just how good a choice it was. The evaluation of the product results in a level of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction, which is determined by the overall feelings, or attitude, a person, has about a product after purchasing it.\n\nHow well a product meets or exceeds expectations determines customer satisfaction. Consumers assess product quality by comparing what they have bought to a performance standard created by a mixture of information from marketing communications, informal information sources such as friends and family, and their own experience with the product category. This is why it is very important that marketers create accurate expectations of their product in advertising and other communications.\nMarketers also try to ascertain what influences in consumers’ lives affect the decision-making process. There are three main categories: internal, situational, and social influences. A discussion of each follows.\n\n
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  • My dog was able to chew up the scat mat without getting the buzz!\n
  • My dog was able to chew up the scat mat without getting the buzz!\n
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  • Internal Influences on Consumers’ Decisions\nInternal influences are those things that cause each of us to interpret information about the outside world, including what is best or different from another. The following is a discussion of some of those factors.\n
  • Motivation\nMotivation is an internal state that drives us to satisfy needs. Once we activate a need, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer toward some goal that will reduce this tension by eliminating the need.\n\nThe theory, hierarchy of needs, categorizes motives according to the five levels of importance, the more basic needs being on the bottom of the hierarchy and the higher needs at the top. The hierarchy suggests that before a person can meet needs in a given level, she must first meet the lower level’s needs. Figure 5.5 shows the category of needs.\n
  • Motivation\nMotivation is an internal state that drives us to satisfy needs. Once we activate a need, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer toward some goal that will reduce this tension by eliminating the need.\n\nThe theory, hierarchy of needs, categorizes motives according to the five levels of importance, the more basic needs being on the bottom of the hierarchy and the higher needs at the top. The hierarchy suggests that before a person can meet needs in a given level, she must first meet the lower level’s needs. Figure 5.5 shows the category of needs.\n
  • Motivation\nMotivation is an internal state that drives us to satisfy needs. Once we activate a need, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer toward some goal that will reduce this tension by eliminating the need.\n\nThe theory, hierarchy of needs, categorizes motives according to the five levels of importance, the more basic needs being on the bottom of the hierarchy and the higher needs at the top. The hierarchy suggests that before a person can meet needs in a given level, she must first meet the lower level’s needs. Figure 5.5 shows the category of needs.\n
  • Motivation\nMotivation is an internal state that drives us to satisfy needs. Once we activate a need, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer toward some goal that will reduce this tension by eliminating the need.\n\nThe theory, hierarchy of needs, categorizes motives according to the five levels of importance, the more basic needs being on the bottom of the hierarchy and the higher needs at the top. The hierarchy suggests that before a person can meet needs in a given level, she must first meet the lower level’s needs. Figure 5.5 shows the category of needs.\n
  • Motivation\nMotivation is an internal state that drives us to satisfy needs. Once we activate a need, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer toward some goal that will reduce this tension by eliminating the need.\n\nThe theory, hierarchy of needs, categorizes motives according to the five levels of importance, the more basic needs being on the bottom of the hierarchy and the higher needs at the top. The hierarchy suggests that before a person can meet needs in a given level, she must first meet the lower level’s needs. Figure 5.5 shows the category of needs.\n
  • Motivation\nMotivation is an internal state that drives us to satisfy needs. Once we activate a need, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer toward some goal that will reduce this tension by eliminating the need.\n\nThe theory, hierarchy of needs, categorizes motives according to the five levels of importance, the more basic needs being on the bottom of the hierarchy and the higher needs at the top. The hierarchy suggests that before a person can meet needs in a given level, she must first meet the lower level’s needs. Figure 5.5 shows the category of needs.\n
  • Behavioral Learning: Behavioral learning theories assume that learning takes place as the result of connections that form between events that we perceive. In one type of behavioral learning, classical conditioning, a person perceives two stimuli at about the same time. After a while, the person transfers his response from one stimulus to the other. \n\nAnother common form of behavioral learning is called operant conditioning, which occurs when people learn that their actions result in rewards or punishments. This feedback influences how they will respond in similar situations in the future.\nLearning\nLearning is a change in behavior caused by information or experience. Learning can occur deliberately or when we are not trying. Psychologies have many theories explaining the learning process. The following is a discussion of some of those theories.\n\n
  • Perception\nPerception is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information from the outside world. We receive information in the form of sensations, the immediate response of our sensory receptors—eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and fingers—to such basic stimuli as light, color, and sound. Our impressions about products often are based on their physical qualities. We try to make sense of the sensations we receive by interpreting them in light of our past experiences.\n\nThe perception process has implications for marketers because, as consumers absorb and make sense of the vast quantities of information competing for their attention, the odds are that any single message will get lost in the clutter. To help understand this process, marketers need to understand exposure, attention, and interpretation.\n\nThe stimulus must be within range of people’s sensory receptors to be noticed (exposure). Many people believe that even messages they can’t see will persuade them to buy advertised products. Claims about subliminal advertising of messages surface frequently. However, there is little evidence to support this technique and it is generally believed that it has no effect on our perception of products.\n\nAttention is the extent to which mental processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus. Consumers are more likely to pay attention to messages that speak to their current needs.\n\nConsumers assign meaning to the stimulus (interpretation). This meaning is influenced by prior associations they have learned and assumptions they make.\n
  • 4.4Attitudes\nAn attitude is a lasting evaluation of a person, object, or issue. Consumers have attitudes about brands.\n\nA person’s attitude has three components: affect, cognition, and behavior. \n\nAffect is the feeling component of attitudes. Affect refers to the overall emotional response a person has to a product. Affect is usually dominant for expressive products.\n\nCognition, the knowing component, is the belief or knowledge a person has about a product and its important characteristic.\n\nBehavior, the doing component, involves a consumer’s intention to do something, such as the intention to purchase or use a certain product.\n\nDepending on the nature of the product, one of these three components—feeling, knowing, or doing—will be the dominant influence in creating an attitude toward a product. Marketers often need to decide which part of an attitude is the most important driver of consumers’ preferences.\n\n
  • 4.4Attitudes\nAn attitude is a lasting evaluation of a person, object, or issue. Consumers have attitudes about brands.\n\nA person’s attitude has three components: affect, cognition, and behavior. \n\nAffect is the feeling component of attitudes. Affect refers to the overall emotional response a person has to a product. Affect is usually dominant for expressive products.\n\nCognition, the knowing component, is the belief or knowledge a person has about a product and its important characteristic.\n\nBehavior, the doing component, involves a consumer’s intention to do something, such as the intention to purchase or use a certain product.\n\nDepending on the nature of the product, one of these three components—feeling, knowing, or doing—will be the dominant influence in creating an attitude toward a product. Marketers often need to decide which part of an attitude is the most important driver of consumers’ preferences.\n\n
  • 4.4Attitudes\nAn attitude is a lasting evaluation of a person, object, or issue. Consumers have attitudes about brands.\n\nA person’s attitude has three components: affect, cognition, and behavior. \n\nAffect is the feeling component of attitudes. Affect refers to the overall emotional response a person has to a product. Affect is usually dominant for expressive products.\n\nCognition, the knowing component, is the belief or knowledge a person has about a product and its important characteristic.\n\nBehavior, the doing component, involves a consumer’s intention to do something, such as the intention to purchase or use a certain product.\n\nDepending on the nature of the product, one of these three components—feeling, knowing, or doing—will be the dominant influence in creating an attitude toward a product. Marketers often need to decide which part of an attitude is the most important driver of consumers’ preferences.\n\n
  • 4.4Attitudes\nAn attitude is a lasting evaluation of a person, object, or issue. Consumers have attitudes about brands.\n\nA person’s attitude has three components: affect, cognition, and behavior. \n\nAffect is the feeling component of attitudes. Affect refers to the overall emotional response a person has to a product. Affect is usually dominant for expressive products.\n\nCognition, the knowing component, is the belief or knowledge a person has about a product and its important characteristic.\n\nBehavior, the doing component, involves a consumer’s intention to do something, such as the intention to purchase or use a certain product.\n\nDepending on the nature of the product, one of these three components—feeling, knowing, or doing—will be the dominant influence in creating an attitude toward a product. Marketers often need to decide which part of an attitude is the most important driver of consumers’ preferences.\n\n
  • 4.4Attitudes\nAn attitude is a lasting evaluation of a person, object, or issue. Consumers have attitudes about brands.\n\nA person’s attitude has three components: affect, cognition, and behavior. \n\nAffect is the feeling component of attitudes. Affect refers to the overall emotional response a person has to a product. Affect is usually dominant for expressive products.\n\nCognition, the knowing component, is the belief or knowledge a person has about a product and its important characteristic.\n\nBehavior, the doing component, involves a consumer’s intention to do something, such as the intention to purchase or use a certain product.\n\nDepending on the nature of the product, one of these three components—feeling, knowing, or doing—will be the dominant influence in creating an attitude toward a product. Marketers often need to decide which part of an attitude is the most important driver of consumers’ preferences.\n\n
  • 4.4Attitudes\nAn attitude is a lasting evaluation of a person, object, or issue. Consumers have attitudes about brands.\n\nA person’s attitude has three components: affect, cognition, and behavior. \n\nAffect is the feeling component of attitudes. Affect refers to the overall emotional response a person has to a product. Affect is usually dominant for expressive products.\n\nCognition, the knowing component, is the belief or knowledge a person has about a product and its important characteristic.\n\nBehavior, the doing component, involves a consumer’s intention to do something, such as the intention to purchase or use a certain product.\n\nDepending on the nature of the product, one of these three components—feeling, knowing, or doing—will be the dominant influence in creating an attitude toward a product. Marketers often need to decide which part of an attitude is the most important driver of consumers’ preferences.\n\n
  • 4.4Attitudes\nAn attitude is a lasting evaluation of a person, object, or issue. Consumers have attitudes about brands.\n\nA person’s attitude has three components: affect, cognition, and behavior. \n\nAffect is the feeling component of attitudes. Affect refers to the overall emotional response a person has to a product. Affect is usually dominant for expressive products.\n\nCognition, the knowing component, is the belief or knowledge a person has about a product and its important characteristic.\n\nBehavior, the doing component, involves a consumer’s intention to do something, such as the intention to purchase or use a certain product.\n\nDepending on the nature of the product, one of these three components—feeling, knowing, or doing—will be the dominant influence in creating an attitude toward a product. Marketers often need to decide which part of an attitude is the most important driver of consumers’ preferences.\n\n
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  • Personality\nPersonality is the set of unique psychological characteristics that consistently influences the way a person responds to situations in the environment\nPersonality Traits\nFor marketers, differences in personality traits such as thrill seeking underscore the potential value of considering personality when they are crafting their marketing strategies. The following are some specific personality traits relevant to marketing strategies:\n\n•Innovativeness is the degree to which a person likes to try new things.\n•Materialism is the amount of emphasis placed on owning products.\n•Self-confidence is the degree to which a person has a positive evaluation of her abilities, including the ability to make a good decision.\n•Sociability is the degree to which a person enjoys social interaction.\n-- Need for cognition is the degree to which a person likes to think about things and expend the necessary effort to process brand information.\n\n-http://www.colorquiz.com ‘personality’ assessment based on color preferences\n\nThe Self: Are You What You Buy?\nConsumers buy products that are extensions of their personalities. Marketers try to create brand personalities that will appeal to different types of people. \nAge \nA person’s age is another internal influence on purchasing behavior. Many of us feel we have more in common with those of our own age because we share a common set of experiences and memories about cultural events.\nThe Family Life Cycle\nMarketers know that the process of change continues throughout consumers’ lives. The purchase of goods and services may depend more on consumers’ current position in the family life cycle—the stages through which family members pass as they grow older—than on chronological age.\nLifestyle\nA lifestyle is a pattern of living that determines how people choose to spend their time, money, and energy and that reflects their values, tastes, and preferences. Consumers often choose goods, services, and activities that are associated with a certain lifestyle.\n\nMarketers often develop marketing strategies that recognize that people can be grouped into market segments based on similarities in lifestyle preferences.\n\nPsychographics\nPsychographic analysis groups consumers according to psychological and behavioral similarities. By describing people in terms of their activities, interests, and opinions (AIO) marketers create profiles of customers who resemble each other in terms of their activities and patterns of product use.\nIt is important to profile consumers in terms of their lifestyle because this helps tell marketers why people act. Demographic characteristics tell marketers what products people buy.\n\n\n
  • Personality\nPersonality is the set of unique psychological characteristics that consistently influences the way a person responds to situations in the environment\nPersonality Traits\nFor marketers, differences in personality traits such as thrill seeking underscore the potential value of considering personality when they are crafting their marketing strategies. The following are some specific personality traits relevant to marketing strategies:\n\n•Innovativeness is the degree to which a person likes to try new things.\n•Materialism is the amount of emphasis placed on owning products.\n•Self-confidence is the degree to which a person has a positive evaluation of her abilities, including the ability to make a good decision.\n•Sociability is the degree to which a person enjoys social interaction.\n-- Need for cognition is the degree to which a person likes to think about things and expend the necessary effort to process brand information.\n\n-http://www.colorquiz.com ‘personality’ assessment based on color preferences\n\nThe Self: Are You What You Buy?\nConsumers buy products that are extensions of their personalities. Marketers try to create brand personalities that will appeal to different types of people. \nAge \nA person’s age is another internal influence on purchasing behavior. Many of us feel we have more in common with those of our own age because we share a common set of experiences and memories about cultural events.\nThe Family Life Cycle\nMarketers know that the process of change continues throughout consumers’ lives. The purchase of goods and services may depend more on consumers’ current position in the family life cycle—the stages through which family members pass as they grow older—than on chronological age.\nLifestyle\nA lifestyle is a pattern of living that determines how people choose to spend their time, money, and energy and that reflects their values, tastes, and preferences. Consumers often choose goods, services, and activities that are associated with a certain lifestyle.\n\nMarketers often develop marketing strategies that recognize that people can be grouped into market segments based on similarities in lifestyle preferences.\n\nPsychographics\nPsychographic analysis groups consumers according to psychological and behavioral similarities. By describing people in terms of their activities, interests, and opinions (AIO) marketers create profiles of customers who resemble each other in terms of their activities and patterns of product use.\nIt is important to profile consumers in terms of their lifestyle because this helps tell marketers why people act. Demographic characteristics tell marketers what products people buy.\n\n\n
  • Personality\nPersonality is the set of unique psychological characteristics that consistently influences the way a person responds to situations in the environment\nPersonality Traits\nFor marketers, differences in personality traits such as thrill seeking underscore the potential value of considering personality when they are crafting their marketing strategies. The following are some specific personality traits relevant to marketing strategies:\n\n•Innovativeness is the degree to which a person likes to try new things.\n•Materialism is the amount of emphasis placed on owning products.\n•Self-confidence is the degree to which a person has a positive evaluation of her abilities, including the ability to make a good decision.\n•Sociability is the degree to which a person enjoys social interaction.\n-- Need for cognition is the degree to which a person likes to think about things and expend the necessary effort to process brand information.\n\n-http://www.colorquiz.com ‘personality’ assessment based on color preferences\n\nThe Self: Are You What You Buy?\nConsumers buy products that are extensions of their personalities. Marketers try to create brand personalities that will appeal to different types of people. \nAge \nA person’s age is another internal influence on purchasing behavior. Many of us feel we have more in common with those of our own age because we share a common set of experiences and memories about cultural events.\nThe Family Life Cycle\nMarketers know that the process of change continues throughout consumers’ lives. The purchase of goods and services may depend more on consumers’ current position in the family life cycle—the stages through which family members pass as they grow older—than on chronological age.\nLifestyle\nA lifestyle is a pattern of living that determines how people choose to spend their time, money, and energy and that reflects their values, tastes, and preferences. Consumers often choose goods, services, and activities that are associated with a certain lifestyle.\n\nMarketers often develop marketing strategies that recognize that people can be grouped into market segments based on similarities in lifestyle preferences.\n\nPsychographics\nPsychographic analysis groups consumers according to psychological and behavioral similarities. By describing people in terms of their activities, interests, and opinions (AIO) marketers create profiles of customers who resemble each other in terms of their activities and patterns of product use.\nIt is important to profile consumers in terms of their lifestyle because this helps tell marketers why people act. Demographic characteristics tell marketers what products people buy.\n\n\n
  • Personality\nPersonality is the set of unique psychological characteristics that consistently influences the way a person responds to situations in the environment\nPersonality Traits\nFor marketers, differences in personality traits such as thrill seeking underscore the potential value of considering personality when they are crafting their marketing strategies. The following are some specific personality traits relevant to marketing strategies:\n\n•Innovativeness is the degree to which a person likes to try new things.\n•Materialism is the amount of emphasis placed on owning products.\n•Self-confidence is the degree to which a person has a positive evaluation of her abilities, including the ability to make a good decision.\n•Sociability is the degree to which a person enjoys social interaction.\n-- Need for cognition is the degree to which a person likes to think about things and expend the necessary effort to process brand information.\n\n-http://www.colorquiz.com ‘personality’ assessment based on color preferences\n\nThe Self: Are You What You Buy?\nConsumers buy products that are extensions of their personalities. Marketers try to create brand personalities that will appeal to different types of people. \nAge \nA person’s age is another internal influence on purchasing behavior. Many of us feel we have more in common with those of our own age because we share a common set of experiences and memories about cultural events.\nThe Family Life Cycle\nMarketers know that the process of change continues throughout consumers’ lives. The purchase of goods and services may depend more on consumers’ current position in the family life cycle—the stages through which family members pass as they grow older—than on chronological age.\nLifestyle\nA lifestyle is a pattern of living that determines how people choose to spend their time, money, and energy and that reflects their values, tastes, and preferences. Consumers often choose goods, services, and activities that are associated with a certain lifestyle.\n\nMarketers often develop marketing strategies that recognize that people can be grouped into market segments based on similarities in lifestyle preferences.\n\nPsychographics\nPsychographic analysis groups consumers according to psychological and behavioral similarities. By describing people in terms of their activities, interests, and opinions (AIO) marketers create profiles of customers who resemble each other in terms of their activities and patterns of product use.\nIt is important to profile consumers in terms of their lifestyle because this helps tell marketers why people act. Demographic characteristics tell marketers what products people buy.\n\n\n
  • Personality\nPersonality is the set of unique psychological characteristics that consistently influences the way a person responds to situations in the environment\nPersonality Traits\nFor marketers, differences in personality traits such as thrill seeking underscore the potential value of considering personality when they are crafting their marketing strategies. The following are some specific personality traits relevant to marketing strategies:\n\n•Innovativeness is the degree to which a person likes to try new things.\n•Materialism is the amount of emphasis placed on owning products.\n•Self-confidence is the degree to which a person has a positive evaluation of her abilities, including the ability to make a good decision.\n•Sociability is the degree to which a person enjoys social interaction.\n-- Need for cognition is the degree to which a person likes to think about things and expend the necessary effort to process brand information.\n\n-http://www.colorquiz.com ‘personality’ assessment based on color preferences\n\nThe Self: Are You What You Buy?\nConsumers buy products that are extensions of their personalities. Marketers try to create brand personalities that will appeal to different types of people. \nAge \nA person’s age is another internal influence on purchasing behavior. Many of us feel we have more in common with those of our own age because we share a common set of experiences and memories about cultural events.\nThe Family Life Cycle\nMarketers know that the process of change continues throughout consumers’ lives. The purchase of goods and services may depend more on consumers’ current position in the family life cycle—the stages through which family members pass as they grow older—than on chronological age.\nLifestyle\nA lifestyle is a pattern of living that determines how people choose to spend their time, money, and energy and that reflects their values, tastes, and preferences. Consumers often choose goods, services, and activities that are associated with a certain lifestyle.\n\nMarketers often develop marketing strategies that recognize that people can be grouped into market segments based on similarities in lifestyle preferences.\n\nPsychographics\nPsychographic analysis groups consumers according to psychological and behavioral similarities. By describing people in terms of their activities, interests, and opinions (AIO) marketers create profiles of customers who resemble each other in terms of their activities and patterns of product use.\nIt is important to profile consumers in terms of their lifestyle because this helps tell marketers why people act. Demographic characteristics tell marketers what products people buy.\n\n\n
  • Personality\nPersonality is the set of unique psychological characteristics that consistently influences the way a person responds to situations in the environment\nPersonality Traits\nFor marketers, differences in personality traits such as thrill seeking underscore the potential value of considering personality when they are crafting their marketing strategies. The following are some specific personality traits relevant to marketing strategies:\n\n•Innovativeness is the degree to which a person likes to try new things.\n•Materialism is the amount of emphasis placed on owning products.\n•Self-confidence is the degree to which a person has a positive evaluation of her abilities, including the ability to make a good decision.\n•Sociability is the degree to which a person enjoys social interaction.\n-- Need for cognition is the degree to which a person likes to think about things and expend the necessary effort to process brand information.\n\n-http://www.colorquiz.com ‘personality’ assessment based on color preferences\n\nThe Self: Are You What You Buy?\nConsumers buy products that are extensions of their personalities. Marketers try to create brand personalities that will appeal to different types of people. \nAge \nA person’s age is another internal influence on purchasing behavior. Many of us feel we have more in common with those of our own age because we share a common set of experiences and memories about cultural events.\nThe Family Life Cycle\nMarketers know that the process of change continues throughout consumers’ lives. The purchase of goods and services may depend more on consumers’ current position in the family life cycle—the stages through which family members pass as they grow older—than on chronological age.\nLifestyle\nA lifestyle is a pattern of living that determines how people choose to spend their time, money, and energy and that reflects their values, tastes, and preferences. Consumers often choose goods, services, and activities that are associated with a certain lifestyle.\n\nMarketers often develop marketing strategies that recognize that people can be grouped into market segments based on similarities in lifestyle preferences.\n\nPsychographics\nPsychographic analysis groups consumers according to psychological and behavioral similarities. By describing people in terms of their activities, interests, and opinions (AIO) marketers create profiles of customers who resemble each other in terms of their activities and patterns of product use.\nIt is important to profile consumers in terms of their lifestyle because this helps tell marketers why people act. Demographic characteristics tell marketers what products people buy.\n\n\n
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  • When, where, and how consumers shop are called situational influences and shape purchase choices. The following is a discussion of specific situational factors:\n\n
  • The Physical Environment\nPeople’s moods and behaviors are strongly influenced by their physical surroundings. The store environment influences many purchases.\nArousal and pleasure determine whether a shopper will react positively or negatively to a store environment. \n2 Time\nMarketers know that the time of day, the season of the year, and how much time one has to make a purchase affects decision making. Time is one of consumers’ most limited resources. \n\nMany consumers believe that they are more pressed for time than ever before. This sense of time poverty makes consumers responsive to marketing innovations that allow them to save time, including such services as one-hour photo processing, drive-through lanes at fast-food restaurants, and ordering products on the Web.\n
  • The Physical Environment\nPeople’s moods and behaviors are strongly influenced by their physical surroundings. The store environment influences many purchases.\nArousal and pleasure determine whether a shopper will react positively or negatively to a store environment. \n2 Time\nMarketers know that the time of day, the season of the year, and how much time one has to make a purchase affects decision making. Time is one of consumers’ most limited resources. \n\nMany consumers believe that they are more pressed for time than ever before. This sense of time poverty makes consumers responsive to marketing innovations that allow them to save time, including such services as one-hour photo processing, drive-through lanes at fast-food restaurants, and ordering products on the Web.\n
  • Opinion Leaders\nAn opinion leader is a person that influences other’s attitudes or behaviors because others perceive her as possessing expertise about the product. Opinion leaders usually exhibit high levels of interest in the product category and may continuously update their knowledge by reading, talking with salespeople, and so on. Because of this involvement, opinion leaders are valuable information sources, and, unlike commercial endorsers who are paid to represent the interest of just one company, they have no ax to grind and can impart both positive and negative information about the product. \n\n\n
  • Opinion Leaders\nAn opinion leader is a person that influences other’s attitudes or behaviors because others perceive her as possessing expertise about the product. Opinion leaders usually exhibit high levels of interest in the product category and may continuously update their knowledge by reading, talking with salespeople, and so on. Because of this involvement, opinion leaders are valuable information sources, and, unlike commercial endorsers who are paid to represent the interest of just one company, they have no ax to grind and can impart both positive and negative information about the product. \n\n\n
  • Opinion Leaders\nAn opinion leader is a person that influences other’s attitudes or behaviors because others perceive her as possessing expertise about the product. Opinion leaders usually exhibit high levels of interest in the product category and may continuously update their knowledge by reading, talking with salespeople, and so on. Because of this involvement, opinion leaders are valuable information sources, and, unlike commercial endorsers who are paid to represent the interest of just one company, they have no ax to grind and can impart both positive and negative information about the product. \n\n\n
  • \nFamilies, friends, and classmates often influence our decisions, as do larger groups with which we identify, such as ethnic groups and political parties.\n\nCultural values are deeply held beliefs about right and wrong ways to live. \n\nMarketers who understand a culture’s values can tailor their product offerings accordingly.\n
  • Group Membership\nPeople act differently in groups than they do on their own. With more people in a group, it becomes less likely that any one member will be singled out for attention, and normal restraints on behavior may be reduced. In many cases, group members show a greater willingness to consider riskier alternatives than they would if each member made the decision alone.\n\nBecause many of the things we buy are consumed in the presence of others, group behaviors are important to marketers.\n\nReference Groups\nA reference group is a set of people a consumer wants to please or imitate. Consumers “refer to” these groups in evaluating their behavior—what they wear, where they go, what brands they buy, and so on. \nConformity\nConsumers often change their behavior to gain acceptance into a particular reference group. Conformity is at work when a person changes as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure.\n\n
  • Social Class\nSocial class is the overall rank of people in a society. People who are within the same class work in similar occupations, have similar income levels, and usually share taste in clothing, decorating styles, and leisure activities. These people also share many political and religious beliefs, as well as ideas regarding valued activities and goals. Luxury goods often serve as status symbols.\n\n
  • Social Class\nSocial class is the overall rank of people in a society. People who are within the same class work in similar occupations, have similar income levels, and usually share taste in clothing, decorating styles, and leisure activities. These people also share many political and religious beliefs, as well as ideas regarding valued activities and goals. Luxury goods often serve as status symbols.\n\n
  • Social Class\nSocial class is the overall rank of people in a society. People who are within the same class work in similar occupations, have similar income levels, and usually share taste in clothing, decorating styles, and leisure activities. These people also share many political and religious beliefs, as well as ideas regarding valued activities and goals. Luxury goods often serve as status symbols.\n\n
  • Social Class\nSocial class is the overall rank of people in a society. People who are within the same class work in similar occupations, have similar income levels, and usually share taste in clothing, decorating styles, and leisure activities. These people also share many political and religious beliefs, as well as ideas regarding valued activities and goals. Luxury goods often serve as status symbols.\n\n
  • Social Class\nSocial class is the overall rank of people in a society. People who are within the same class work in similar occupations, have similar income levels, and usually share taste in clothing, decorating styles, and leisure activities. These people also share many political and religious beliefs, as well as ideas regarding valued activities and goals. Luxury goods often serve as status symbols.\n\n
  • Social Class\nSocial class is the overall rank of people in a society. People who are within the same class work in similar occupations, have similar income levels, and usually share taste in clothing, decorating styles, and leisure activities. These people also share many political and religious beliefs, as well as ideas regarding valued activities and goals. Luxury goods often serve as status symbols.\n\n
  • Gender Roles\nSome of the strongest pressures to conform come from our sex roles, society’s expectations regarding the appropriate attitudes, behaviors, and appearance for men and women. These assumptions about the proper roles of men and women, flattering or not, are deeply ingrained in marketing communications.\n\n“Sex-Typed Products”\nMany products take on masculine or feminine attributes, and consumers often associate them with one gender or another. Marketers play a part in teaching us how society expects us to act as men and women. As consumers, we see women and men portrayed differently in marketing communications and in products promoted to the two groups. \n\n\n
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  • Chapter 5

    1. 1. Chapter
5Module
1 1
    2. 2. Consumer behavior 2
    3. 3. Chapter
Objec4ves1. Define consumer behavior and explain why consumers buy what they do.2. Describe the prepurchase, purchase, and postpurchase activities in which consumers engage when they buy a product or service.3. Explain how internal factors influence consumers’ decision- making processes.4. Show how situational factors at the time and place of purchase influence consumer behavior.5. Explain how consumers’ relationships with other people, including such trends as consumerism and environmentalism, influence their decision-making processes. 3
    4. 4. PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS Start with...PROBLEM RECOGNITIONConsumer Behavior - processthrough which we select, purchase, useand dispose of market offerings thatsatisfy our wants and needs........includes actions a person takes inpurchasing and using products andservices, including the mental andsocial processes that come before andafter these actions. 5-3
    5. 5. The purchase decision processconsists of five stages (forimportant purchases) Marketers frequently address these stages with advertising and marketing messages. 5-4
    6. 6. The purchase decision processconsists of five stages (forimportant purchases) Marketers frequently address these stages with advertising and marketing messages. 5-4
    7. 7. A true story. 6
    8. 8. Step 1 Problem: Mr and Mrs Nichols needed new furniture.Step 4 7
    9. 9. Step 1 Problem: Mr and Mrs Nichols needed new furniture.Step 4 Solution: Mr and Mrs Nichols went to Ikea. 7
    10. 10. Step 1 Problem: Mr and Mrs Nichols needed new furniture.Step 4 Solution: Mr and Mrs Nichols went to Ikea. 7
    11. 11. Step 1 Problem: Mr and Mrs Nichols needed new furniture.Step 4 Solution: Mr and Mrs Nichols went to Ikea. 7
    12. 12. Problem solved? End of Story? 8
    13. 13. New Problem Recognized. StepIdeal
State:
Where
 1 Actual State: we
want
to
be Where we are now
    14. 14. New Problem Recognized. StepIdeal
State:
Where
 1 Actual State: we
want
to
be Where we are now Old couch. Same behavior.
    15. 15. New Problem Recognized. StepIdeal
State:
Where
 1 Actual State: we
want
to
be Where we are now Well, Grandma lets me. Ruff!! Old couch. Same behavior.
    16. 16. New Problem Recognized. StepIdeal
State:
Where
 1 Actual State: we
want
to
be Where we are now Well, Grandma lets me. Ruff!! Old couch. Same behavior.
    17. 17. Step 2 Information search 10
    18. 18. Step 2 Information search  What Kinds of information is recalled from internal search? 10
    19. 19. Step 2 Information search  What Kinds of information is recalled from internal search? - Brands 10
    20. 20. Step 2 Information search  What Kinds of information is recalled from internal search? - Brands - Attributes 10
    21. 21. Step 2 Information search  What Kinds of information is recalled from internal search? - Brands - Attributes - Evaluations/Attitudes 10
    22. 22. Step 2 Information search  What Kinds of information is recalled from internal search? - Brands - Attributes - Evaluations/Attitudes - Experiences 10
    23. 23. Step 2 Information search 10
    24. 24. Step 3 Evaluate alternatives 11
    25. 25. Step 3 Evaluate alternatives 11
    26. 26. Step 3 Evaluate alternatives 11
    27. 27. Step 3 Evaluate alternatives 11
    28. 28. Step 3 Evaluate alternatives 11
    29. 29. Step 3 Evaluate alternatives 11
    30. 30. Step 3 Evaluate alternatives 11
    31. 31. Step 3 Evaluate alternatives 11
    32. 32. Step 3 Evaluate alternatives What’s the risk? 11
    33. 33. Step 3 Evaluate alternativesEvaluative Criteria Price Ease of use Effectiveness Side-effects Return policyHealth risks/behavioral risk Etc... 11
    34. 34. Step 4 Make a decision.And Here’s why. Look up “scat mat”on youtube! 12
    35. 35. Step 4 Make a decision.And Here’s why. Look up “scat mat”on youtube! 12
    36. 36. Not all decisions are made this way. Price = quality Familiarity: name brand Perceived quality - China? Brand loyalty Heuristics 13
    37. 37. The involvement continuum. 14
    38. 38. The involvement continuum. Cognitive 14
    39. 39. The involvement continuum. Cognitive Behavioral 14
    40. 40. Think About it...1. What was something you recently purchased?2. How was the problem recognized?3. How did you search for information to solve theproblem? What sources did you use?4. On what criteria did you evaluate alternatives?5. What choice did you make? How long did it takebefore a purchase was made?6. What is your post-purchase evaluation?7. Overall, where do you place this process on theinvolvement continuum? 15
    41. 41. Step 5 Post-purchase Evaluation on? sf acti on? S ati tisf acti D issa Overall attitude or feeling about a purchase after we have made it. 16
    42. 42. Step 5 Post-purchase Evaluation on? sf acti on? S ati tisf acti Dissonance... D issa Overall attitude or feeling about a purchase after we have made it. 16
    43. 43. 17
    44. 44. Did I purchase the right thing? 17
    45. 45. Did I purchase the right thing? How can I feel better about it? 17
    46. 46. Was there a better deal? Did I purchase the right thing? How can I feel better about it? 17
    47. 47. Was there a better deal? What will people think? Did I purchase the right thing? How can I feel better about it? 17
    48. 48. ing . uc ceR ed an onD iss 18
    49. 49. ing . uc ce The company will reinforce my decision.R ed an onD iss 18
    50. 50. ing . uc ce The company will reinforce my decision.R ed an onD iss I’ll ask my friends. 18
    51. 51. ing . I’ll look and uc ce The company will see what the experts reinforce my decision.R ed an say. onD iss I’ll ask my friends. 18
    52. 52. Scat Mat Postpurchase Evaluation. 19
    53. 53. Scat Mat Postpurchase Evaluation. 19
    54. 54. Scat Mat Postpurchase Evaluation. 19
    55. 55. End
Module
1 20
    56. 56. Chapter
5
Module
2 21
    57. 57. Internal Influences on consumer Behavior Motivation. Learning. Perceptions. Attitudes. Personal Factors. Psychographics Demographics 22
    58. 58. Motivation. An internal state that drives us tosatisfy needs. 23
    59. 59. Motivation. An internal state that drives us tosatisfy needs. 23
    60. 60. Motivation. An internal state that drives us tosatisfy needs. 23
    61. 61. Motivation. An internal state that drives us tosatisfy needs. 23
    62. 62. Motivation. An internal state that drives us tosatisfy needs. 23
    63. 63. Motivation. An internal state that drives us tosatisfy needs. 23
    64. 64. Motivation. An internal state that drives us tosatisfy needs. 23
    65. 65. Learning.Behavioral Learning: people associate adrive or perception (hunger) with a behavior(eating)Classical Conditioning: we learn viastimuli: a stimulus (burger smell) causes aresponse (feeling hungry).Operant Conditioning: actions (eatingburgers) leads to a reward (satisfy hunger) orpunishment (heartburn). 24
    66. 66. Perceptions.Your meaningful interpretation of Green package =information: brands, slogans, events, healthymessages, etc.. Big car = durableThe process of selecting, organizing, &interpreting information. Mercedes = $$ 25
    67. 67. Perceptions.Your meaningful interpretation of Green package =information: brands, slogans, events, healthymessages, etc.. Big car = durableThe process of selecting, organizing, &interpreting information. Mercedes = $$ 25
    68. 68. Attitudes.Attitudes: a lasting evaluation of a person, object,issue... Can be positively or negatively valenced....A learned predisposition to respond favorably orunfavorably to a stimuli.Marketers often try to CHANGE our attitudes aboutproducts and brands by... 26
    69. 69. Attitudes.Attitudes: a lasting evaluation of a person, object,issue... Can be positively or negatively valenced....A learned predisposition to respond favorably orunfavorably to a stimuli.Marketers often try to CHANGE our attitudes aboutproducts and brands by... 26
    70. 70. Attitudes.Attitudes: a lasting evaluation of a person, object,issue... Can be positively or negatively valenced....A learned predisposition to respond favorably orunfavorably to a stimuli.Marketers often try to CHANGE our attitudes aboutproducts and brands by... 26
    71. 71. Attitudes.Attitudes: a lasting evaluation of a person, object,issue... Can be positively or negatively valenced....A learned predisposition to respond favorably orunfavorably to a stimuli.Marketers often try to CHANGE our attitudes aboutproducts and brands by... 26
    72. 72. Attitudes.Attitudes: a lasting evaluation of a person, object,issue... Can be positively or negatively valenced....A learned predisposition to respond favorably orunfavorably to a stimuli.• Changing Beliefs About a Brand’s Attributes• Marketers often try toImportance our attitudes about Changing Perceived CHANGE products and brands by... of Attributes• Add New Product Attributes 26
    73. 73. Colgate and BayerHow did the ads change attitudes for these products? 5-25
    74. 74. Personal factors.Personality: affects a person’s consistent behaviors orresponses to recurring situations. Personality traits: i.e.introvert, extrovert, competitive, cooperative, self-monitor,materialistic...Demographics: Observable, measurablecharacteristics: male/female, age, ethnicity, married/single,occupation.Psychographics: lifestyle characteristics or patterns ofliving: outdoorsy, athletic, family-oriented, pet-friendly, carenthusiasts, etc... 28
    75. 75. Personal factors.Personality: affects a person’s consistent behaviors orresponses to recurring situations. Personality traits: i.e. Self Concept:introvert, extrovert, competitive, cooperative, self-monitor,materialistic... “You are what you buy”Demographics: Observable, measurablecharacteristics: male/female, age, ethnicity, married/single,occupation. Agree?Psychographics: lifestyle characteristics or patterns ofliving: outdoorsy, athletic, family-oriented, pet-friendly, carenthusiasts, etc... 28
    76. 76. Personal factors.Personality: affects a person’s consistent behaviors orresponses to recurring situations. Personality traits: i.e. Self Concept:introvert, extrovert, competitive, cooperative, self-monitor,materialistic... “You are what you buy”Demographics: Observable, measurablecharacteristics: male/female, age, ethnicity, married/single,occupation. Agree?Psychographics: lifestyle characteristics or patterns ofliving: outdoorsy, athletic, family-oriented, pet-friendly, carenthusiasts, etc... Do you buy things and seek experiences that add richness, satisfaction and substance to your life? 28
    77. 77. From Bridget Brennan’s“European don’t eat or “Why She Buys” drink in their cars.” 29
    78. 78. From Bridget Brennan’s“European don’t eat or “Why She Buys” drink in their cars.” “Just stick it between your legs” 29
    79. 79. From Bridget Brennan’s“European don’t eat or “Why She Buys” drink in their cars.” “Just stick it between your legs” 29
    80. 80. How
do
women
shop?• They
check
prices• They
ask
for
help
and
informa4on• They
spend
less
4me
in
a
store
 when
a
man
is
with
them:

1/2
as
 long
as
when
with
a
female
friend• They
try
on
clothing,
and
don’t
 always
buy
it• They
buy
the
inside
of
cars,
not
 the
outside.• Women
care
about
aesthe4cs
and
 func4onality 30
    81. 81. Gender
&
Market
Trends• Women
with
high
power
jobs• ShiIs
in
breadwinning
in
the
home• Delayed
marriages• High
divorce
rate
(household
trends)• “life
stage”
not
age 31
    82. 82. How
do
men
shop?• Men
do
not
ask
for
help• Men
do
not
try
things
on• Men
spend
liPle
4me
in
the
 store,
compared
to
women.• Men
do
not
check
price
tags
 as
oIen
as
women.• In
a
woman’s
company,
men
 usually
pay.• Men
care
about
power
of
 products. 32
    83. 83. Think
about
this....• How
long
do
you
spend
decided
what
pair
of
 jeans
to
buy
when
you
are
out
shopping?• On
your
last
trip,
what
brands
did
you
 consider?• At
the
grocery
store,
do
you
bring
a
list?• Do
you
use
a
frequent
shopper
card? Do
you
think
your
behavior
was
gender‐ related? 33
    84. 84. End
Module
2 34
    85. 85. Chapter
5
Module
3 35
    86. 86. Situational Influences on consumer Behavior physical environment Social Groups Culture Rituals and values opinion leaders 36
    87. 87. PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES• Purchase Task - what is the reason for engaging in the decision? My kids have been begging to go to Disney World.• Physical Environment - in-store music, smell, crowds, layout of the store, etc... Influences moods and behaviors and overall shopping experience.• Antecedent states - includes consumer moods or amount of money one has to spend. Things a consumer brings into the purchase decision.• Temporal effects - How much time is available to make the decision, seasonality, “time poverty” 5-14
    88. 88. PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES• Purchase Task - what is the reason for engaging in the decision? My kids have been begging to go to Disney World.• Physical Environment - in-store music, smell, crowds, layout of the store, etc... Influences moods and behaviors and overall shopping experience.• Antecedent states - includes consumer moods or amount of money one has to spend. Things a consumer brings into the purchase decision.• Temporal effects - How much time is available to make the decision, seasonality, “time poverty” 5-14
    89. 89. PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES• Purchase Task - what is the reason for engaging in the decision? My kids have been begging to go to Disney World.• Physical Environment - in-store music, smell, crowds, layout of the store, etc... Influences moods and behaviors and overall shopping experience.• Antecedent states - includes consumer moods or amount of money one has to spend. Things a consumer brings into the purchase decision.• Temporal effects - How much time is available to make the decision, seasonality, “time poverty” 5-14
    90. 90. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOROpinion LeadersCan be friends, celebrities, experts in thefield, or just people you look up to. Thosewho exert direct or indirect influence.Word of MouthPeople influencing each other. WOM isthe powerful source of social influence onconsumers. Why?? 5-27
    91. 91. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOROpinion LeadersCan be friends, celebrities, experts in thefield, or just people you look up to. Thosewho exert direct or indirect influence.Word of MouthPeople influencing each other. WOM isthe powerful source of social influence onconsumers. Why?? 67% of consumer purchases are credited to WOM 5-27
    92. 92. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOROpinion LeadersCan be friends, celebrities, experts in thefield, or just people you look up to. Thosewho exert direct or indirect influence.Word of MouthPeople influencing each other. WOM isthe powerful source of social influence onconsumers. Why??Is WOM good or 67% of consumerbad? Is it always purchases are reliable? credited to WOM 5-27
    93. 93. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOROpinion LeadersCan be friends, celebrities, experts in thefield, or just people you look up to. Thosewho exert direct or indirect influence.Word of MouthPeople influencing each other. WOM isthe powerful source of social influence onconsumers. Why??Is WOM good or Online WOM is becoming 67% of consumerbad? Is it always purchases are with synonymous reliable? credited to WOM traditional WOM 5-27
    94. 94. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIORCulture is society’s personality. It is values, beliefs, customs,and tastes, produced or practiced by a group of people. Aconsumer’s culture influences his buying decisions.Rituals and Values- Cultures have their own rituals, such asweddings and funerals that have specific activities and productsassociated with them. 5-29
    95. 95. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR REFERENCE GROUPS Reference Groups• Membership Group• Aspiration Group• Dissociative Group 5-28
    96. 96. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR SOCIAL CLASSSocial Class - divisions of a society where people share values,interests, and behaviors. What is the best indicator of social class? 5-30
    97. 97. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR SOCIAL CLASSSocial Class - divisions of a society where people share values,interests, and behaviors. Determined by: Occupation, Source of Income, Education What is the best indicator of social class? 5-30
    98. 98. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR SOCIAL CLASSSocial Class - divisions of a society where people share values,interests, and behaviors. Determined by: Occupation, Source of Income, EducationEducation is the key to upward mobility of social class in the US. What is the best indicator of social class? 5-30
    99. 99. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR SOCIAL CLASSSocial Class - divisions of a society where people share values,interests, and behaviors. Determined by: Occupation, Source of Income, EducationEducation is the key to upward mobility of social class in the US. What is the best indicator of social class? 5-30
    100. 100. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR SOCIAL CLASSSocial Class - divisions of a society where people share values,interests, and behaviors. Determined by: Occupation,peopleof Income, Education Status symbols allow Source to show their class. But - the importance of symbols will change over time...Education is the key to upward mobility of social class in the US. What is the best indicator of social class? 5-30
    101. 101. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Gender Roles & Sex Typed GoodsGender Roles are society’s expectations regarding theappropriate attitudes, behaviors, and appearance for men andwomen 42
    102. 102. SOCIOCULTURAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Gender Roles & Sex Typed GoodsGender Roles are society’s expectations regarding theappropriate attitudes, behaviors, and appearance for men andwomen 42
    103. 103. Influences on purchase decision processfrom both internal and external sources 5-15
    104. 104. End
Module
3 44
    105. 105. Consumer BehaviorConsumer behavior consists ofthe actions a person takes inpurchasing and using productsand services, including the mentaland social processes that comebefore and after these actions.
    106. 106. Purchase Decision ProcessThe purchase decision processconsists of the five stages a buyerpasses through in making choicesabout which products and servicesto buy: (1) problem recognition,(2) information search, (3) alternativeevaluation, (4) purchase decision,and (5) postpurchase behavior.
    107. 107. Evaluative CriteriaEvaluative criteria consist ofFactors that represent both theobjective attributes of a brandand the subjective ones aconsumer uses to comparedifferent products and brands.
    108. 108. Consideration SetA consideration set is the groupof brands that a consumer wouldconsider acceptable from amongall the brands in the product classof which he or she is aware.
    109. 109. Cognitive DissonanceCognitive dissonance is thefeeling of postpurchasepsychological tension or anxietyconsumers may experience whenfaced with two or more highlyattractive alternatives.
    110. 110. InvolvementInvolvement is the personal,social, and economic significanceof the purchase to the consumer.
    111. 111. Situational InfluencesSituational influences consist of the fiveaspects of the purchase situation thatimpacts the consumer’s purchase decisionprocess:(1) the purchase task,(2) social surroundings,(3) physical surroundings,(4) temporal effects, and(5) antecedent states.
    112. 112. MotivationMotivation is the energizing forcethat stimulates behavior to satisfya need. 5-39
    113. 113. PersonalityPersonality is a person’sconsistent behaviors or responsesto recurring situations. 5-40
    114. 114. Self-ConceptSelf-concept is the way peoplesee themselves and the way theybelieve others see them. 5-41
    115. 115. PerceptionPerception is the process bywhich an individual selects,organizes, and interpretsinformation to create ameaningful picture of the world. 5-42
    116. 116. Subliminal PerceptionSubliminal perception involvesseeing or hearing messageswithout being aware of them. 5-43
    117. 117. Perceived RiskPerceived risk is the anxietiesfelt because the consumer cannotanticipate the outcomes of apurchase but believes that theremay be negative consequences. 5-44
    118. 118. LearningLearning consists of thosebehaviors that result from(1) repeated experience and(2) reasoning. 5-45
    119. 119. Brand LoyaltyBrand loyalty is a favorableattitude toward and consistentpurchase of a single brand overtime. 5-46
    120. 120. AttitudeAn attitude is a learnedpredisposition to respond to anobject or class of objects in aconsistently favorable orunfavorable way. 5-47
    121. 121. BeliefsBeliefs are a consumer’ssubjective perception of how aproduct or brand performs ondifferent attributes based onpersonal experience, advertising,and discussions with other people. 5-48
    122. 122. LifestyleLifestyle is a mode of living thatis identified by how people spendtheir time and resources, whatthey consider important in theirenvironment, and what they thinkof themselves and the worldaround them. 5-49
    123. 123. Opinion LeadersOpinion leaders are individualswho exert direct or indirect socialinfluence over others. 5-50
    124. 124. Word of MouthWord of mouth involves theinfluencing of people duringconversations. 5-51
    125. 125. Reference GroupsReference groups consists ofpeople to whom an individuallooks as a basis for self-appraisalor as a source of personalstandards. 5-52
    126. 126. Consumer SocializationConsumer socialization is theprocess by which people acquirethe skills, knowledge, andattitudes necessary to function asconsumers. 5-53
    127. 127. Family Life CycleA family life cycle consists ofthe distinct phases that a familyprogresses through fromformation to retirement, eachphase bringing with it identifiablepurchasing behaviors. 5-54
    128. 128. Social ClassSocial class consists of therelatively permanent,homogeneous divisions in asociety into which people sharingsimilar values, interests, andbehavior can be grouped. 5-55
    129. 129. SubculturesSubcultures are the subgroupswithin the larger, or national,culture with unique values, ideas,and attitudes. 5-56

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