Sculpture is the act and art of making three- dimensional works of art such as statues. It is an artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials. Softer materials can also be used such as plastic, clay, polymer etc. Sculptures may be carved, chiseled, modeled, cast, or constructed.
Relief is "sculpture that projects in vary degrees from a two-dimensional background." Relief sculpture is among the oldest forms of sculpted art. Bas-relief has a very low degree of relief from the base, and is present in the surfaces of famous buildings such as the Parthenon in Greece. Alto-relief sculpture has a high degree of relief; the sculptures emerge from the flat base background, such as the sculptures of ancient pharaohs on their temples in Egypt. Sunken-relief sculptures are actually carved into the base itself and have a negative degree of relief.
Relief sculpture of the 2nd century CE found in Italy,now in the Terme Museum
Free-standing sculpture also known as sculpture in-the- round, likely represents the form of sculpture most recognizable to modern people. Free-standing sculpture is any work of sculpture which can be viewed from any angle around the pedestal. This kind of sculpture includes some of the most famous works of sculpture throughout time: the statuary works of the Greek, Roman, Medieval and Classical eras, including Michaelangelos David.
Title: "Nike of Samothrace"Discovered in Greece
Kinetic sculpture is free-standing sculpture that moves, either by mechanical power or under the power of wind or water. Fountains are a form of kinetic sculpture, although in that special case the sculpture is not powered by the water but lives within the shapes and forms of the water as it arcs over and through the air.
“Spira” located at Fort Lauderdale, Florida at theBroward County Courthouse.
Assemblage sculpture is sculpture pieced togetherfrom found or scavenged items that havelittle or no relationship to one another.Contemporary Art Dialogues websitedefines assemblage art as "non-traditionalsculpture, made from re-combining foundobjects. Some of these objects are junkfrom the streets." These pieced-togetherbits of castoff debris are arranged in anaesthetically pleasing shape to the artistand then presented to its audiences toprovoke thought and reaction. Collages area sort of two-dimensional representation ofassemblage sculpture.
Carving is a process in which the artistsubtracts or cuts away from a solidmaterial to reach the desired form. Itcan be a very painstaking and timeconsuming method because of thehard and weighty materials, such asmarble or other stones, that areoften used. However, artists alsocarve softer substances such as woodand even soap.
Modeling is the process of manipulating softmaterials to create a three-dimensionalform. Unlike carving, modeling requiressoft substances that can be easily andrapidly shaped by the sculptors hands.Clay is the most frequent material usedfor modeling, however, others such asplaster, papier-maché, and wax are alsocommon.
Casting is a method of obtaining the permanence of a modeled work by making a mold and casting it in a durable material such as bronze. Two methods of casting are used: sand casting and the cire-perdue or "lost wax" process. The lost-wax process is more widely used, however, both have been frequently employed since antiquity.
Construction and Assemblage Emerging in the twentieth-century, the techniques of assemblageand construction consist of combiningand joining various materials to form athree-dimensional object. Thesemethods originated from thetechnique collage, which waspopularized by the Cubists during theearly part of the twentieth century.