APA Style, Writing and You A.P.A. DOESN’T MEAN“AGGRAVATING PAPER APPLICATIONS”Presenter: Nichole Hertel, M.Ed.Doctoral Resident and Teaching FellowUniversity of Houston
Tonight’s Agenda Jokes Some Questions about APA What is APA Style? Define “education” Helpful Advice to Survive Writing Brief Overview of the Dissertation Chapters APA Formatting of Your Paper Any Questions?
Jokes – In Honor of Halloween What is a Mummys favorite type of music? Wrap!!!!! Why do demons and ghouls hang out together? Because demons are a ghouls best friend! Whats a monsters favorite bean? A human bean. Why cant the boy ghost have babies? Because he has a Hallo-weenie.
About Me 3rd year doctoral student – C&I graduate in summer (hopefully!) Bachelor of Journalism (UH ) Master in Education, Secondary Instruction (HBU) Taught secondary and elementary grades Currently teach Class Mgmt to pre-service teachers at Sugar Land and Main campuses Mom of two
Before We Begin, Let’s Answer Some Questions about APA… What is APA? Why is it so important? What does it do and do I benefit from it? Why do we use it in the field of education?
What is the APA? APA = The American Psychological Association a professional organization representing psychologists in the U.S. around 150,000 members an annual budget of around $70M Founded in July 1892 at Clark University by a group of 26 men First president was G. Stanley Hall There are currently 54 divisions and it is affiliated with 60 state, territorial, and Canadian provincial associations (Note: Occasionally confused with the America Psychiatric Association)
APA Organization Mission Statement To advance psychology: as a science and profession and as a means of promoting health, education, and human welfare by the encouragement of psychology in all its branches in the broadest and most liberal manner; by the promotion of research in psychology and the improvement of research methods and conditions; by the improvement of the qualifications and usefulness of psychologists through high standards of ethics, conduct, education, and achievement; by the establishment and maintenance of the highest standards of professional ethics and conduct of the members of the Association; by the increase and diffusion of psychological knowledge through meetings, professional contacts, reports, papers, discussions, and publications; thereby to advance scientific interests and inquiry, and the application of research findings to the promotion of health, education, and the public welfare
What is APA Style? A widely accepted style of documentation particularly in the social sciences area Specifies multiple items within your paper: the names and order of headings paragraph formatting organization of citations and references, arrangement of tables, figures and appendices
What is APA Style? Cont. And it uses Harvard referencing keyed to a subsequent list of References Harvard referencing is also referred to as the author-date system of citations and parenthetical referencing The APA Publication Manual provides basic guidelines for documenting both print and electronic resources.
Why is APA Style So Important? For You… Can make organizing your paper MUCH easier For Your Reader… Can make your paper easier to read for your intended audience
What Does it Do & Do I Benefit From It? -YES! If you wish to publish in a psychological or educational journal, then this is the style you will need to follow It allows for protection in your writing through the use of references Protects sources/authors you are quoting from being plagiarized Protects you, the writer, from accusations of plagiarism
Why Do We Use It In the Education Field? Education is found under the social sciences umbrella The social sciences are comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals A few examples: Anthropology, communications studies, criminology, economics, geography, history, political science, psychology, social studies and sociology
What is “Education” Anyway? Education encompasses teaching others (outward) and learning specific skills (inward) It is the imparting of knowledge, positive judgment and well-developed wisdom from the inward self to and outward source
What is “Education” Anyway? Cont. “To educate” = to draw out From the Latin “educare” to facilitate the realization of an individuals potential and talents. It is an application of pedagogy a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning specifically draws on disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology
Why, again, is APA Style Used? Main reason: To give writers a standard format to follow when preparing their manuscripts for publication Makes the editorial process go smoother Provides editors with benchmarks against which to measure the quality of writing Rules make converting writte work into published pages a more consistent process
A Few Helpful Resources in Your Journey… Let’s take a look together
Now It’s Your Turn You will need these things for the next part: Something to write with This handout The second handout titled “Sample APA Style Used in A Candidacy Paper” The third titled “Levels of Heading” The fourth titled APA Sample Paper The dissertation in front of you (to share) Your brains
General Formatting for Education Papers First, the words “papers,” “proposal,” “candidacy paper,” “dissertation,” and “article” are going to mean the same thing in terms of this discussion
The Real Dissertations Thumb through the dissertation in front of you What do you see?
How Are the Papers Set Up? Cover Page Table of Contents Abstract Body of Paper Chapters Headings Sections and Subsections Tables and Figures Citations References Appendices Tables Figures
Body Chapters Briefly 5 main dissertation chapters: The introductory part The literature review The methodology The results The discussion All dissertation chapters have their specific characteristics
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Presents the main problems which will be discussed in your dissertation Important to demonstrate that your work is significant Ending of this chapter is a statement of your research question Think: How you came to this topic
Chapter 2: LITERARY REVIEW Main points which were presented in other researches on this topic Qualitative studies "talk to" the literature can be integrated throughout the paper, with advisors approval Quantitive studies present the literature Relatively small compared to the rest of the chapters 4-5 concepts/key terms presented (develop completely) Think: History of my topic
Chapter 3: METHOLOGY Describes the methods and investigation Try to prove your ideas by different references Present your own ideas and viewpoints include strong rationales Will lead-in to your conclusion in the next chapter AKA persuasive argument paper Think: Turn your reader into an agreer
Chapter 4: RESULTS Sum up all of your research Show that all the necessary questions have been answered Be crystal clear and laconic Series of chapters/subchapters divided by logical and natural layout of the inquiry Think: Scientific Method Syntax (not actual scientific method used)
Chapter 5: DISCUSSION Compare your results with the results made by others Demonstrate your knowledge and skills in theory and practice End with the new knowledge you are bringing to the field (leads to Chapter 6) Think: The reason I should get an "A" on this assignment is because…
Chapter 6: REFLECTION Optional Chapter but push in Education now is on the self-reflective practitioner I call it the “I.E.S.” Chapter Think: What impact did my learning have directly on me?
Last Words on Dissertation Chapters Very important to create a logical connection often happens slowly The more interesting your info is presented, the more captivated your reader becomes in your paper Good for us because advisor/editors will read to enjoy and learn rather than to critique
APA Within Your Paper Covers mainly Chapters 2-5 Specific Parts Are: Sections and Subsections Headings Tables and Figures Citations References
Sections and Subsections Typically include the following 7 sections Title Page Abstract Body References Tables (new page for each table) Figure captions Figures (new page for each figure) Also, avoid having one sub-section heading in a paper. Let’s look at Handout #2
Headings Aid in establishing the hierarchy of the sections of a paper to help orient the reader Topics within a paper that have equal importance will have the same level of headings throughout the paper Can also function as an outline to reveal the papers organization
Levels of Headings Consists of five possible formatting arrangements, each according to the levels of subordination. The headings are numbered Level 1, Level 2, and so forth to Level 5 Level 1: Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings Level 2: Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Level 3: Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with period. Level 4: Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with period. Level 5: Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with period Let’s Look at Handout 3
Tables and Figures “table” = data that is entered in columns and rows “figure” = all other kinds of illustration or representation of data Integrated throughout the paper where needed AND attached at the end of the document Data should not be just left as a narrative Put into SOME kind of graphic or chart form -- either as a table or as a figure (such as a bar graph or a pie chart)
Tables and Figures Cont. In the paper body, center table/figure and label all information Describe table (pretend the table is not there and your are telling the reader about it) At the end of the document after Appendices, one table/ figure per page What you should use depends on what facts you are trying to display Think: What is the most informative way to display the information?
Hints About Tables and Figures Figures should not have tick marks for the measures should have titles for the x and y axis should not have outline around the graph should not have minor lines on the chart the legend should either not exist if the graph is simple or should be inside the chart need to be on a figure captions page, with an explanation of the data represented do not have page numbers, and should have penciled in, on the back the top and the figure caption that corresponds to it. Tables do have page numbers do not have vertical lines
Citations Reference citations in text are done using parenthetical referencing Involves enclosing the authors surname and the date of publication within parentheses, separated by a comma, generally placed immediately after the reference or at the end of the sentence in which the reference is made. Also common for the authors to be the subject or object of a sentence. In the case of a quotation, the page number is also included in the citation.
Citation Examples Example 1 – Pauling (2005) writes that “after a successful experiment, I discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism” (p. 123). Example 2 – Pauling (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism. Example 3 - A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling, 2005).
Direct vs. Indirect Quotes Direct Quotation = exactly what the author wrote Indirect Quotation = a paraphrasing of what the author wrote The same rules apply, the format being (Author, Year, Page Number).
Direct vs. Indirect Quote Examples Example #1 – When asked why his behavior had changed so dramatically, Max simply said he believed it was because of the reinforcement (Pauling, 2004, p. 69). Example #2 – When asked why his behavior had changed so dramatically, Max simply said, "I think its the reinforcement" (Pauling, 2004, p. 69).
Statistical Expressions in APA There are certain ways to do this as well Don’t be concerned about it yet If needed, ask Dr. Ruban for assistance Take EDRS 8382
References Full bibliographic information Found at the end of the paper Can only include articles that are cited within the body of an paper This is the distinction between a document having a Reference section and a bibliography, which may incorporate sources which may have been read by the authors as background, but not referred to or included in the body of a document
Types of References Print sources Electronic sources
Handout #4 – The Complete Sample Paper Use this paper as a future reference