Running Secure Server Software on Insecure Hardware without a Parachute - RSA 2014

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In this session we will look in depth into what happens when we throw away the assumption that server hardware is trusted. We discuss advanced techniques for protecting software on untrusted clients and how to apply them to servers running on untrusted hardware. This includes anti-reverse engineering methods, secure key management and how to design a system for renewal.

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Running Secure Server Software on Insecure Hardware without a Parachute - RSA 2014

  1. 1. Running Secure Server Software on Insecure Hardware without a Parachute SESSION ID: STU-M06B Nicholas Sullivan Systems Engineer
 CloudFlare
 @grittygrease
  2. 2. What this talk is about ! The web is changing — consolidation at the edge ! Fundamental assumptions about server security are wrong ! How do we design server software with the worst case in mind? ! Distinguish between long and short term secrets ! Devise approaches for protecting each #RSAC !2
  3. 3. Let’s Talk About Web Infrastructure
  4. 4. #RSAC !4
  5. 5. Global Website Traffic #RSAC !5
  6. 6. Global Website Traffic with CDN #RSAC !6
  7. 7. Current Map #RSAC !7
  8. 8. Future Map #RSAC !8
  9. 9. Future Map #RSAC !9
  10. 10. Edge Computing Threat Model
  11. 11. Traditional server threat model ! Assume server is secure ! Add layers of protection to keep attackers out ! Network layer protection ! Operating System Level: principle of least privilege ! Protection against maliciously installed code ! More advanced barriers #RSAC !11
  12. 12. Globally distributed servers ! Less jurisdictional control = less physical security ! Physical access trumps static defense layers ! ! Traditional defenses helpful, but not ideal ! Cannot rely on security of keys ! Single break-in results in immediate compromise #RSAC !12
  13. 13. A More Effective Approach
  14. 14. Approach system security the ‘DRM way’ ! Assume attacker has bypassed all static defenses ! Goal is to refresh secrets before they are compromised ! Split system into long-term secrets and short-term secrets ! Focus on renewability of secrets #RSAC !14
  15. 15. Secrets must be split into two tiers ! Long-term Secrets ! Useful for attacker for long period of time ! Do not store at the edge ! ! Short-term Secrets ! Expire after a short period of time ! Cannot be re-used #RSAC !15
  16. 16. Example: Traditional TLS termination ! TLS handshake with nginx and Apache ! SSL keys on disk ! Read from disk, use in memory ! ! Cryptographic elements at risk if server is compromised ! Private key ! Session key #RSAC !16
  17. 17. TLS revisited for untrusted hardware ! Long term secrets ! Private key ! ! Short term secrets ! Session key ! Session IDs and Session ticket keys ! Credentials to access private keys #RSAC !17
  18. 18. How to Protect 
 Short-term Secrets
  19. 19. Short-term secrets — threat model ! Must live on machines in unsafe locations ! ! ! Memory Control Flow By the time a secret is broken, it should be expired ! Don’t keep secrets in a useable state ! Impose computational cost to retrieve the original secret ! Expire secrets quickly ! #RSAC !19
  20. 20. Techniques from DRM are applicable ! White-box cryptography ! Code obfuscation #RSAC !20
  21. 21. Standard Cryptography Threat Model Eve Alice Bob #RSAC !21
  22. 22. White-box Cryptography Threat Model Eve Alice Bob #RSAC !22
  23. 23. White-box Cryptography Threat Model Aleve Bob #RSAC !23
  24. 24. White-box cryptography ! Hide the cryptographic key from everyone ! Protect against key extraction in the strongest threat model ! ! Takes time to extract key — lots of math ! Choose difficulty based on secret lifetime #RSAC !24
  25. 25. White-box cryptography implementations ! Commercial products ! ! Irdeto, Arxan, SafeNet, etc. Open source ! OpenWhiteBox #RSAC !25
  26. 26. Code obfuscation #RSAC !26
  27. 27. Code obfuscation ! Making reverse engineering difficult ! Compile-time control-flow modification ! Data transformation in memory ! Anti-debugging #RSAC !27
  28. 28. Before #RSAC !28
  29. 29. After #RSAC !29
  30. 30. Code obfuscation implementations ! Commercial products ! ! Arxan, Irdeto, etc. Open source ! Obfuscator-LLVM #RSAC !30
  31. 31. Long-term Secrets
  32. 32. Keyless SSL ! SSL without keys? Surely you’re joking. ! SSL without keys at the edge. That’s better. #RSAC !32
  33. 33. How Keyless SSL Works ! Split the TLS state machine geographically ! Perform private key operation at site owner’s facility (in HSM, etc) ! Perform rest of handshake at edge ! Communicate with signing server over mutually authenticated TLS #RSAC !33
  34. 34. Keyless SSL Diagram #RSAC !34
  35. 35. #RSAC !35
  36. 36. Conclusion
  37. 37. Conclusion ! Untrusted hardware requires a new approach ! Split secrets into long-term and short-term ! Design for rapid renewal — replace secrets faster than they can be broken ! Leverage short-term secrets to access long-term secrets #RSAC !37

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