Once we’ve gone over the objectives we should let them know that the session will be a mix or demonstration and hands-on practice. If people are sitting at the machines, say they’re welcome to follow the demonstration themselves on the PC but that we won’t be able to troubleshoot during the presentation, only during the hands-on.
They should have covered question formulation in the morning session, so they should all be familiar with the concept. As a result we shouldn’t need to say much about this, apart from the fact that it’s a useful tool for structuring the search strategy.
Allow the participants to read the scenario – but you might also want to talk through it a bit. You’re a community midwife running and antenatal group. Following the recent furore on television and newspapers about celebrities smoking during pregnancy one of the women asks for advice on using nicotine patches to help her give up smoking for the rest of the pregnancy. This might be an opportunity to get some interaction – ask the group to identify the PICO components before we go onto the new slide.
Confirm if the participants have correctly identified the PICO elements and suggest this as a possible question to answer. At this point we might want to introduce people to the idea that different authors use different words for the same concept. Another opportunity for interaction, ask for suggestions for different terms for the 3 identified concepts: Smoking Acupuncture Cessation
Explain that they will have 10 minutes to do a quick search – to find an answer to a clinical question. They should have scenarios in their workshop pack – they can use those or their own questions. Help will be at hand if they need it.
Or = would bring everything up that falls in either of the 2 circles
And – will only bring up material in the overlap between the 2 circles
The participants might have come up with different terms but suggest these as a start off point. Explain about role of truncation * Explain that once you have lots of keywords you need to combine in different ways – OR=Broad, AND=narrow – move to next 2 slides for further illustration
Bring them back to the demonstration, explaining that if they want to do more detailed or extensive searching then they need to learn other searching techniques on Pubmed and or using other databases, we’ll also show them Cochrane Library in this context. PubMed demonstration; Do the search one concept at a time – using the History to combine at the end. Use the following examples: #1 Smoker* or smoking or tobacco #2 acupuncture or acupressure #3 cessation or stop* or quit* #4 #1 and #2 and #3 Do a more specific search by restricting to title or title and abstract: use the following example: #1 Acupuncture [ti] #2 smoking [tiab] or smoker* [tiab] or tobacco [tiab] Subject searching – introduce the concept of MeSH, use the following examples: Click through to MeSH Search for Smoking – explain it searches for terms associated with smoking, pick the most appropriate term. Select Smoking Cessation and add to search box Search for Acupuncture – explain importance of checking description, illustrate with difference between acupuncture (discipline) and acupuncture therapy (treatment). Click on acupuncture therapy and show narrower terms – add to search box with and Search for Smoking cessation and acupuncture therapy Other things to demonstrate – limits, get rid of non-English publications - Related articles link - Help pages
Explain that rest of session is for them to search PubMed and Cochrane a bit more – ask for help if needed
Searching session - CEBM Oxford - Spring 2012
How to practice EBM:Finding the EvidenceOwen Coxall, Tatjana Petrinic & Nia Wyn RobertsBodleian Health Care Libraries
Session objectives Formulate a focused question Turn a focused question into a search Search TRIP & PubMed
Formulate a focusedquestionPatient / Problem / PopulationInterventionComparisonOutcome
Focused questionP: Pregnant smokersI: nicotine replacementC: N/AO: cessationIs nicotine replacement therapy aneffective and safe smokingcessation treatment in pregnantwomen?
Hands-on Formulate a focused question ◦ Use your own question or one of the examples in your pack ◦ Record the search terms you’re using Run a quick search on TRIP www.tripdatabase.com Run a quick search on PubMed Clinical Queries www.pubmed.gov
Run a full search strategyWhy bother? Too few results Too many results Irrelevant results Submitting a funding proposal Writing a guideline Conducting a systematic review
Combine terms withORSmoking OR tobacco – either term can bepresent smoking tobacco
Combine terms withANDSmoking AND cessation – both terms mustbe present smoking cessation
Quick tips Take a common word stem and look for spelling variations e.g. ◦ smok* - will retrieve papers smoking, smoker, smokers… but also smoked salmon Phrase searching ◦ Use double quote marks if you want words to appear next to each other e.g. “smoking cessation”
Develop a search strategy1. pregnan*2. smoking or smoker*3. nicotine replacement OR nicotine patch*4. cessation OR stop* OR quit*5. 1 AND 2 AND 3 AND 4