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UCD Michael Smurfit Group Assignment for Keogh's Crisps
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UCD Michael Smurfit Group Assignment for Keogh's Crisps


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During the MSc. in Digital Marketing at Smurfit Business School, Dublin we undertook a module in branding. As part of our assessment we had to present a marketing plan to grow Keogh's crisps market …

During the MSc. in Digital Marketing at Smurfit Business School, Dublin we undertook a module in branding. As part of our assessment we had to present a marketing plan to grow Keogh's crisps market share. This is the presentation we presented to John Fanning and Tom Keogh and our marketing plan to expand into a younger market.

The team member were:

Emer Ni Cheidigh (
Mark Sheehan (
Paula Kelly (
Sean O' Sullivan (
Líosa Bruder (íosa-bruder/34/bb1/27b)
Diana Baglaja (

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  • 1. The Team
  • 2. Marketing Communications Strategy Objectives Increase in Sales Increase Market Share Establish patriotic sentiment Increase engagement with the brand !
  • 3. Enjoying yourself? Why not do it with Keogh’s?
  • 4. “The taste of new Ireland”
  • 5. Meet Féilim
  • 6. Féilim’s Weekend Music Scene Rugby Pub Culture
  • 7. Keogh’s Positioning
  • 8. Luxury foods Eating on the go Convenience Day to Day Living
  • 9. Radio ads High end food stores Keogh’s Position in Feilim’s Day to Day
  • 10. Implementing Traditional Media
  • 11. Implementing Traditional Media
  • 12. Implementing Traditional Media
  • 13. Implementing Digital Media
  • 14. Implementing Digital Media
  • 15. Implementing Digital Media
  • 16. Implementing Digital Media
  • 17. Implementing Digital Media
  • 18. Export
  • 19. Export
  • 20. Budget
  • 21. KPI’s Increase revenue by €960,000 Increase sales by 800,000 packets of Keogh’s crisps Increase social conversation and interaction
  • 22. “The taste of new Ireland” “Yes we'll walk with a walk that is measured and slow, And we'll go where the chalk-white arrows go, For the children, they mark, and the children, they know The place where the sidewalk ends.” Where the Sidewalk Ends by Shel Silverstein Summary
  • 23. “Take Charge of Change” President Higgins, 2012
  • 24. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 1! ! Appendix Contents' Exhibit .1 Competitor Analysis!.......................................................................................................!2! 1.1 Kettle!...........................................................................................................................................!2! 1.2 Walkers Sensations!..................................................................................................................!6! 1.3 O’Donnells Crisps!...................................................................................................................!12! 1.4 Tyrells!......................................................................................................................................!15! 1.5 Tayto!.........................................................................................................................................!19! Exhibit .2: Analysis of the Sweet and Savoury snack market in Ireland!.................................!24! Exhibit .3 Figures of Market Analysis!..........................................................................................!27! Exhibit 4: Ireland Potato Chips Market Value!............................................................................!30! Exhibit 5: Ireland Potato Chips Average Consumer Price!........................................................!31! Exhibit .6: Ireland Potato Chips Market Value by Brands!.......................................................!32! Exhibit .7:Brand Positioning Map!................................................................................................!33! Exhibit.8: Market Research – Primary!.......................................................................................!34! 8.1 Keogh’s Crisps Questionnaire!...............................................................................................!34! Exhibit .9 Keogh’s Crisps - Taste Test!.........................................................................................!38! 9.1 Customer Response/ General Feedback!.............................................................................!39! 9.2 Tasting Findings!....................................................................................................................!40! 9.3 Overall comments - General Consensus:!............................................................................!44! Exhibit.10 Keoghs – Buyers Personas!.........................................................................................!45! Exhibit .11 Case Study Analysis!....................................................................................................!48! 11.1 Jameson!.................................................................................................................................!48! 11.2 Walkers Sensations “Journey through flavor”!..................................................................!50! 11.3 Lyons tea campaign ‘bring the talk home’!.........................................................................!51! 11.4 The Vodafone campaign ‘#First time’!................................................................................!52! Exhibit .12 Brand Essence Wheel!.................................................................................................!53! Exhibit .13 Theory behind example ads in slides!.......................................................................!54! 13.1 Traditional Media:!................................................................................................................!54! 13.2 Digital Media:!.......................................................................................................................!57! References!..........................................................................................................................................!62! !
  • 25. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 2! ! Exhibit .1 Competitor Analysis 1.1 Kettle History: • 1978: Cameron Healy founded Kettle Foods in Salem, Oregon, USA with the aim of providing high quality, naturally sourced products. • 1982: KETTLE® Chips was formed. • 1988: Kettle Foods is launched in the UK. • 2010 Kettle chips is acquired by Diamond Foods from the US. Products Kettle sells their products in 6 different ways. • They have small 40g bags with regular chips in 6 different flavours. • They have sharing sized bags of 150g with 9 different flavours. • Multipacks containing 5 of the small 40g bags in 4 different flavours. • They have small bags of vegetable crisps that are 100g and are made from a combination of vegetables. • 120g bags of ridge shaped crisps in 4 different flavours. • Also sell tortilla chips in 4 different flavours. Marketing Activity to date: • Kettle Crisps Dodgem Derby 2011 • Various TV commercials. • Some offline marketing. • Changed their packaging in 2013 to show a man carefully crafting their chips, to illustrate the care and attention that goes into the making of Kettle crisps
  • 26. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 3! ! Online Activity to date: • Facebook page with 707k likes. • Twitter following of 6,665 followers. • No Instagram presence. • No Pinterest • LinkedIn- Kettle foods • YouTube- no page but various videos online. • Regular posts with offers, competitions, quotes etc. • Have an online store for the US market. Brand Values and Tag Lines: • ‘Deliciously simple crisps’ • “We pride ourselves on being a well known and growing business but with its roots firmly based in the local community. Our team includes people from all sorts of backgrounds, all working towards the one goal of making great tasting chips”. • We have found that people tend to stay with us a long time. Our working environment is unpretentious and friendly and we try to provide plenty of opportunity for people to make the best of themselves.” • “We are proud of the contribution our people have made to help charities and our local community. There are a great many worthwhile causes and our employees lead the way in determining who we help and how. Our people highlight charities and community groups, that they personally care about, through our KETTLE® Cares programme. Using this approach we have helped and continue to support many charities and community groups, in some cases establishing long term relationships.”
  • 27. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 4! ! Market share: Table 90: Ireland Potato Chips Market Value by Brands (EUR m), 2009–12 Brand 2009 2010 2011 2012 CAGR 2009–12 Tayto 21.6 22.5 23.5 24.6 4.36% Walkers 10.2 10.8 11.5 12.3 6.46% Hunky Dory 10.0 10.3 10.6 11.0 3.29% O'Donnells 5.3 5.6 5.8 6.0 4.16% Keoghs 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.3 4.90% Kettle 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.9 5.88% Private Label 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.12% Others 15.7 15.3 14.9 14.5 -2.71% Overall 74.6 76.9 79.3 82.0 3.18% NBO Company Shares of Sweet and Savoury Snacks: % Value 2009 - 2013 Kettle Foods Co Ltd 2009 - 0.9% 2010 - 0.9% 2011 - 1.0% 2012 - 1.1% 2013 - 1.1% LBN Brand Shares of Sweet and Savoury Snacks: % Value 2010 - 2013 Kettle Chips Kettle Foods Co Ltd 2010 - 0.9% 2011 - 1.0% 2012 - 1.1% 2013 - 1.1%
  • 28. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 5! ! SWOT Analysis: Strengths: • Established brand internationally with a strong following. • Good quality ingredients. • Quality product and reputation. • International business. • Wide range of products. • Quality website. • Good advertising. Weaknesses: • No gluten free option. • Higher priced than regular crisps. • Somewhat higher fat content. • Some people don’t like the thickness compared to regular crisps. • Some people think they are too salty compared to regular crisps. Opportunities: • Develop Gluten free option. • Go green. • They have an organic vegetable crisp. Set to capitalize on the turning trend back to organic. Threats: • Number of new competitors emerging into the market. • Increased awareness about obesity and healthy living leading to a reduction in junk food consumption. • 2007 – ‘anti-trade union snack’. • 2007 – ‘attacks on workers’.
  • 29. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 6! ! 1.2 Walkers Sensations ! History: • Launched in 2002 as an upper market crisp range for Walkers crisps. • 2009: Completely redesigned their packaging and changed their ingredients to include no artificial ingredients. • 2012: expanded product range. Before: After:
  • 30. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 7! ! Marketing Campaigns to date: Walkers launches Gary's Great Ingredient Hunt online game (dated: 19 August 2013) Description: Walkers will offer prizes worth up to £10,000 in an online game set to launch next month as part of the brand's promotion of its British-sourced ingredients. The What’s That Flavour campaign (dated: current) Description: Customers can purchase three new packets of crisps that each features a distinct mystery flavour. They can then visit the Walkers website or Facebook page to submit their guesses as to the ingredients of each pack and potentially win £50,000. Clues will be released on Facebook over the coming weeks ahead of the flavours being revealed on March 9th. In 2008/09, Walkers launched “Do us a Flavour”, an attention-grabbing flavour campaign inviting consumers to send ideas for a new range of crisps. Lineker’s involvement in this latest campaign marks one of the longest-running marketing partnerships of its kind, with the footballer first appearing in Walkers ads in 1995.
  • 31. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 8! ! Description of the Walkers campaigns success: ‘Do us a flavour’ idea engaged the public for almost a year and the campaign enjoyed exceptional results: • Over one million flavour suggestions were received 1,213,853 to be exact three times the Original forecast. • Over a million votes were cast by the time the winner was announced on May 6th 2009. • There were 4.3 million visits to with four-to-nine minutes spent on site. • Over 700 pieces of public relations (PR) coverage worth an estimated at £6.5 million were generated. • The company attracted 27,000 fans to Facebook as well as 820,000 video views on the website, Yahoo and other sites.Not only did the campaign change behaviour, but more importantly, brand perceptions and the business were changed: • The brand saw increases in advertising recall across all media (+7% on average), and positive image shifts, not just on flavour associations but also innovation (+14%), and popularity (+15%). Asking consumers to ‘Do us a flavour’ Walkers Creating Loyal Relationships. • The campaign drove +4.4 brand penetration, especially among younger, more upmarket buyers (so important to a brand’s future). • It also significantly increased the average number of flavours among core Walkers buyers (from 2.9 to 4.8). • Over the campaign period, the crisps and snacks category grew +8.7% in sales value year-on-year (YOY). The ‘Do us a flavour’ idea outperformed this by a considerable margin, delivering a +14.7% YOY sales value uplift. Walkers also achieved its highest value market share for three years.
  • 32. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 9! ! Online Activity to date: Instagram: 64 Posts; 464 Followers; 5 Following Youtube: 796 Subscriptions Twitter: Tweets 18.8k; Following 5,414; Followers 42.3K Facebook: 61,325 Likes Products: From launch the flavours changed in 2006 and again in 2009. Current flavours are: Thai Sweet Chilli Roasted Chicken & Thyme Roasted Tomato & Aromatic Spices (Launched 2010) Vintage Cheddar & Onion Chutney Caramelised Onion & Balsamic Vinegar Southern Style Barbecue Buffalo Mozzarella & Herbs Oriental Red Curry Smoked Monterrey Chilli with Goats Cheese Mexican Fiery Sweet Chipotle (Launched 2011) Poppadoms – Lime & Coriander Chutney Oriental Crackers – Peking Spare Ribs
  • 33. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 10! ! Brand values, brand message, tag lines: We determined that the differentiating quality of Sensations’ crisps was that it took customers on a “flavour adventure,” evoking a sexy quality that helped us define the snack brand’s positioning as an indulgent, sophisticated, and sensual treat. Market share:
  • 34. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 11! ! The Walkers Sensations brand is worth €3 million in Ireland (Source: Nielsen, Total Scantrack, MAT 22 Apr/12) SWOT Analysis: Strenghts: • Large variety of flavours • Exciting promotional campaign track record • Large variety of sizes easily available • Good brand recall on account of rich brand history Weaknesses: • Small number of chips in small packages have earned the wrath of consumers • Limited global penetration compared to some leading brands Opportunities: • The huge market for environmental friendly packaged food can be tapped • Since the product is competing more on price, more focus in trade relations enhancement and increase in shelf space might lead to sales volume increase Threats: • Traditional ingredient supply areas for Walkers have been subjected to crop failures which might affect Walkers’ operations • Aggressive threat from much healthier snacking competitive products ! !
  • 35. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 12! ! ! 1.3 O’Donnells Crisps History: • 2007: Ed O’ Donnell at Seskin farm starts to produce crisps. • O’Donnells crisps is then founded in June 2010. • Receives first contract with Musgrave’s in June 2010. • Now available nationwide • Number one best selling Irish hand cooked crisp. Products: • They are produced by Largo Foods in Co. Meath on behalf of O'Donnells Crisps. • The ingredients are locally sourced. • Contain no artificial colours or flavours • They have 5 different flavours. Marketing Activity to date: • The main message that they deliver through their marketing is very similar to Keoghs. They tell the story of the fact that the family have been farming at Seskin Farm in Co.Tipperary for over 7 generations. Their USP is the fact that they have mastered the art of cultivating the perfect potato, as well as the name to realise the finest of hand cooked crisps. • They did a lot of press advertising when they launched on 24th May 2010. They seemed to keep their press ads quite localised until October 2010. • From October 2010 they did quite a bit of traditional advertising in the National Newspapers. • There is nothing on the website showing advertising after June 2011.
  • 36. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 13! ! Design of packaging: • Very similar to Keoghs. • Logo of Seskin Farm in Tipperary on the front of the packet, with the caption "7 generations of farming". • Photo of Ed O'Donnell on the back. His signature is on the front of all of the packs. Tagline present at the top of each pack "Authentic Hand Cooked Tipperary Crisps" Online Activity to date: • Facebook - 5,285 likes - Active on Facebook, posting every 2-3 days. They vary their posts well between content on O'Donnells crisps and also the "funny" photo and memes content. • Twitter - has 1,362 followers, following 397, has done 660 tweets. Good at getting back to people on twitter, nice friendly tone to their posts. • Active on Irish Food Based Blog. • No Instagram or Pinterest account. Brand Values and Tag Line: "Over seven generations of the O’Donnell family have lived on Seskin Farm and have mastered the art of cultivating the perfect potato. Today they bring their hard won expertise as well as the name, to realise the finest of hand cooked crisps."
  • 37. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 14! ! Market Share: • Both O'Donnells and Kettle crisps are Keoghs closest rivals. • No1 selling Irish hand cooked crisp. • Premium Product - not aimed at children or teenagers due to the price. • Their target audience is the same as Keoghs (starting with young professionals)
  • 38. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 15! ! SWOT Analysis: Strengths • Made in Ireland • Irish, family brand image • Number one selling Irish hand cooked crisp • High quality product • Target market has a high disposable income • Strong online presence Weaknesses • High cost of product • Limited product range • No Gluten free option • Flavours are to powerful for some consumers Opportunities • Export market • Develop a Gluten free alternative • Going green Threats • High number of entrants to the market place since 2009 • Rise in the number of people choosing healthier snacks • Aggressive marketing by healthier snack food companies ! ! ! 1.4 Tyrells !
  • 39. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 16! ! History: • Founded in 2002 by Will Chase • Based in Herefordshire, England • Potatoes are cooked on local farm with rich red soil in small batches, and packed nearby the farm • Skin is always left on the potatoes • Has expanded into US and European markets • Has received numerous awards both at home and abroad for taste and quality • In 2008, Tyrrells had sales of over 13 million pounds of crisps • Chase had dispute with Tesco, wouldn’t stock his crisps there • 2008, Chase sold majority stake of 30 million pounds to Langholm Capital • Langholm returned to stocking in Tesco, dropped Chase as a supplier of potatoes • July 2013, the firm was sold for 100 million pounds to Dubai based luxury brands investor Investcorp Products: • Have 12 different crisp products, including: lightly sea salted, sea salt and cider vinegar, mature cheddar and chives, and sweet chilli and red peppers • 6 other main product categories besides crisps: vegetable crisps, furrows potato crisps, swanky veg (carrot and parsnip, taro, golden beetroot, purple carrot etc.) popcorn tortyrrells and nibbles( Habas fritas, spicy coated peanuts), with each category having 3-5 different flavours • Products available in 40g, 150g, 350g and 6 X 25g bags • 40g bag costs 1.15 pounds • 150g bag 3.19 pounds • 75g popcorn 2.54 pounds Marketing Activity to date:
  • 40. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 17! ! • Since 2011, main marketing campaign is to portray a very English brand personality, and to promote all things English • Focused on the packaging • Each packet has one traditionally English ‘five a day’, eg. Eating a sausage in the rain, eating a pack of traditional English crisps etc. Online Activity to date: • Facebook: page has 63,118 likes • Content consists of competitions, customer conversations, and whimsical videos, pictures etc. in keeping with their humorous tone, customer engagement and interaction is high • Twitter: 15,100 followers • 2,148 following • 5,437 tweets to date • Content consists of mainly of responses to customer tweets, as well as updates, competitions, photos and videos • YouTube channel called ‘win a tractor with Tyrrell’s’ • Their YouTube channel has 14 subscribers, with 3 videos uploaded: one about their win a tractor competition, one about the story of Tyrrells, and one called ‘Tyrrells Political Potato Chips’, presumably for the American market. The longest video is 2.52 minutes long • The rest of the videos on their site are ones that they have liked and shared • Only 3 comments on their page, low engagement Website:
  • 41. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 18! ! • Well optimized • Clear layout with dropdown menu’s, visually appealing • Content is good and learly laid out • Tone keeps with brand image.. ‘let us entertain you’ Brand Value and Taglines: • Similar to Keoghs in that it is homemade on their own farm • Champions traditional English values • Incorporates English wit and humour into their online content and it’s tone • Is a ‘seed to crisp’ brand, that’s final product is made of 100% natural potatoes • Slogan ‘hand cooked English crisps’ • Tagline of ‘let us entertain you’, which shows the whimsical nature of the brand Market Share: • Growth of 39% in 2013 • 25% of dealings are now in international market • Risen to 18th position in American market • Hold 2.1% of market share in France Target audience: • Aiming at premium market • Focusing on international market, US, Europe • Targeting upmarket customer SWOT Analysis: Strengths:
  • 42. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 19! ! • High quality product that has won numerous awards • High number of product offerings • Strong online presence • Strong established brand • Affluent target market • Have successfully exported to numerous markets Weaknesses: • Lack of marketing for export markets • High cost of product Opportunities: • Continue rising success in the US market • ‘Go Green’ with packaging to appeal to the eco friendly consumer • Expand marketing mix for foreign market Threats: • High number of competitors in the market • Have expanded into many global markets • Increase in popularity of healthier snack food alternatives ! ! ! 1.5 Tayto ! History:
  • 43. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 20! ! • Owned by Largo foods – along with Hunky Dorys, Perri & King crisps. Altogether owning almost 50% of Irish snack-food market. • Tayto Brand: Leading Player – 30% of value share in Ireland 2013 (sweet & savoury snack market). Crisps most important category in the snack market & account for €311million or 72% of all retail sales Number one player ahead of Walkers & KP (see table 6 of report) - Euromonitor International 2014 • Tayto NI dif company – Manderly Food Group Products: • Tayto crisps – original crisps known by anyone aware of the brand. Brand anchor. Flavours in the Irish market include: - cheese & onion (flavour coined by Tayto originally) - salt & vinegar - smokey bacon. Various other flavours available in different markets NI/worldwide including: - prawn cocktail - ready salted - pickled onion - beef & onion - roast chicken - spring onion - wuster sauce Pack sizes available in Ireland – 20pk, 12pk cheese&onion, 12pk variety, 6pk, sharing pack, standard pack. • Tayto Bistro – handcooked crisps -more of an upmarket product. Slightly more ‘artizan’. Similar to the market Keoghs are targeting eg. Those with more
  • 44. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 21! ! disposable income, older – possibly young professionals buying at lunch or those wishing to serve high quality snacks at dinner parties ect Flavours include cheese & onion and salt and vinegar but with a twist – eg. Crushed sea salt and aged malt vinegar • Tayto Snacks – Occasions (snacks for dinner parties: bacon fries, party mix ect), Healthier options (LFCs. Treble crunch ect), Snack crisps (monster munch, snax, chisticks ect), Popcorn (bagged & microwave), Peanuts (salted, dry roasted) Marketing Activity to date: • Sponsors of the GAA (Meath) – inherently Irish • Uses well known Irish Brand Ambassadors eg. Samantha Mumba
  • 45. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 22! ! • Mr Tayto “Looking for Love” 2008 – very successful Irish campaign. Used Irish humour • Tayto Choc Bar 2013 – Good PR for the brand. Marmite effect • Tayto Park Online Activity to date: • – (Manderly) –
  • 46. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 23! ! • Facebook: Mr Tayto (Irish) 267k page likes, Tayto (Intl) 56k page likes, Tayto Park 1.8k page likes • Twitter: MrTaytoIreland (6169 followers), Manderly Food Group MrTaytoNI (2840 followers) • LinkedIn: Tayto Group Ltd. – 597 followers. Very little info or activity on account • Youtube: TaytoIreland (1 video 1582 views), TaytoPark (handful of videos with 500-3000 likes) Not a strong presence here • Instagram: no account that I can find? Quite good interaction and engagement on facebook & twitter but could be improved. Brand Values and Tag lines: • Tayto strives for the highest standards across all its products. • Specialist blending of the finest ingredients and continuous innovation have helped maintain Tayto’s position as Ireland’s favourite crisp. • Are distinctly Irish. • “The Nations Favourite” – Tag Line SWOT Analysis: Strengths:
  • 47. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 24! ! • Biggest share of the snack food market in Ireland • Tayto park very successful • ‘Irelands favourite’ very strong brand image in Ireland • Strong connection to the GAA in Ireland • Much loved product among Irish customers • Cheaper priced product than new competitors Weaknesses: • Poorer quality product than some competitors • No healthier snack alternative • Use of artificial colours and flavours Opportunities: • Diversification with new products such as Tayto chocolate bar • Export market to Irish emigrants abroad • Tayto park as a family fun day out • Tayto in Northern Ireland Threats: • Large number of competitors entering the market • Competitors have a higher quality product • Maturing attitude of Irish consumers toward health • Increased awareness of obesity in Ireland leading to a move towards a healtier snack food alternative Exhibit .2: Analysis of the Sweet and Savoury snack market in Ireland
  • 48. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 25! ! • Current value sales of sweet and savoury snacks in Ireland grow by 1% in 2013, reaching €433 million, • Retail volume sales grow by 1%, reaching 41,600 tonnes during the year • Falling discretionary levels are not impacting the category significantly as consumers continue to purchase small personal treats • Fruit snacks is the highest growing category in 2013 with a value sales growth rate of 4% • Average unit prices stay stagnant at €11.70 per kg in 2013 • Tayto remains the leading player within the category with a value share of 30% in 2013 • Constant value sales decline by a 1% CAGR over the forecast period • In total volume terms, the growth rate of the category has fluctuated between a narrow margin of 1% and 2% since 2008-2009. • The category has performed well, especially when consideration is made for the pressures put on discretionary income levels during this period. • The general consensus is that while the populace may have cut down their expenditure levels, the sweet and savoury snacks category has been somewhat sheltered from this as people still allow themselves low-cost treats • Chips/crisps and extruded snacks are the most important categories in the sweet and savoury snacks category in Ireland. • In 2013, they are expected to account for €311 million or 72% of retail value sales overall. • Ireland’s love affair with chips/crisps shows no sign of abating and indeed, in 2012, Ireland had four chips/crisps brands listed in the top 100 fmcg brands: Tayto; Walkers; Hunky Dorys and King. • The extruded snacks category also has a strong presence in the Irish market with Pringles placed strongly in published top brand listings.
  • 49. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 26! ! • Sweet and savoury snacks continues to face strong competition from other categories, in particular confectionery. • While the sweet and savoury snacks category is well positioned due to the particular health connotations associated with nuts, seeds and fruit snacks, manufacturers must be aware that, in confectionery, sweet and savoury snacks faces competition from a very innovative multinational category, which has huge marketing muscle, something that many of the small producers of sweet and savoury snacks cannot financially compete with. • Tayto Ltd is expected to remain the outright leader in the sweet and savoury snacks category in 2013 with a value share of 30%. It registered a slight growth in 2013 thanks to a successful marketing and the innovative nature of the company. • Walkers Snack Foods Ltd is expected to remain the second largest company within sweet and savoury snacks in 2013. Walkers, a PepsiCo brand, entered Irish sweet and savoury snacks in 2000, competing with many strongly established indigenous brands. • A large initial investment in marketing and promotion enabled the launch to become a success, with the portfolio of brands, including the Walkers Sensations range and Doritos snacks, available in the vast majority of Irish retail outlets in 2013. • Domestic brands are expected to continue to lead the sweet and savoury snacks category in 2013 • Tayto Ltd, the largest company in sweet and savoury snacks operates the most successful fmcg brands in Ireland • Since Walkers Snack Foods entered the market in 2000, it has commanded a significant value share of the category. • In the fruit snacks and nuts categories, an indigenous company, Shamrock Foods, and a British company, KP Foods, lead respectively.
  • 50. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 27! ! • The extruded snacks category is dominated by international brands, with KP Foods and Kellogg, which purchased the Pringles brand from Procter & Gamble in 2012, leading overall. • There was a nod to nostalgia when Tayto Ltd distributed a limited edition six pack designed completely in Irish for a period of six weeks from the start of March 2013. • Other innovations in the chips/crisps category saw the introduction of new flavours, such as Irish Atlantic Sea Salt by Keogh’s crisps. • Walkers Snack Foods continues to target the health-conscious consumer by extending its baked crisps range through the introduction of Walkers Baked Hoops and Crosses. • King Crisps has been positioned in the premium segment of chips/crisps through the launch of its “Gold Standard” crisp range • The category is estimated to grow at a 1% total volume CAGR over the forecast period. • In the face of unfavourable economic conditions and a depressed retail environment, this can be viewed as a positive outcome. • This forecast is dependent on the category seeing continuing product innovation, new flavour variants in all categories and the development of more “natural” and healthy products containing fewer artificial additives, and lower levels of sodium and trans fats. • A continued emphasis on health and wellness by the populace at large and the spectre of obesity, especially amongst Irish children, will continue to see manufacturers grapple with the health credentials of their products. • While products in categories such as fruit snacks and nuts are perfectly positioned to increase their overall value shares, chips/crisps and extruded snacks will continue to need to come up with innovative ideas to maintain their shares of the impulse-driven sweet and savoury snacks category. Exhibit .3 Figures of Market Analysis
  • 51. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 28! ! ! !
  • 52. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 29! ! !
  • 53. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 30! ! Exhibit 4: Ireland Potato Chips Market Value (EUR m) and Growth (Y-o- Y), 2007–17 !
  • 54. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 31! ! Exhibit 5: Ireland Potato Chips Average Consumer Price (EUR) and Growth (Y-o-Y), 2007–17 !
  • 55. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 32! ! Exhibit .6 Ireland Potato Chips Market Value by Brands (EUR m), 2009– 12 ! !
  • 56. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 33! ! Exhibit .7 Brand Positioning Map Keoghs crisps provide customers with an above average quality product but at a higher price than competitors such as Walkers Sensations and Kettle crisps. Keoghs crisps are hand cooked and all of the ingredients are of the highest quality. They use no artificial colours or preservatives and try and use locally sources ingredients whenever possible. “From Crop to Crisp, grown and cooked with love in Ireland” Keoghs! Ke4le! Tyrrells! O'Donnells! Walkers!SensaAons! Tayto! Perceptual*Map*of*the*Crisp*Market*In*Ireland* High!Price! Low!Quality! High!Price! Low!Quality! High!Quality! Low!Price!
  • 57. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 34! ! Exhibit.8 Market Research – Primary In order to gain a deeper understanding of the consumer’s perception of the Keogh’s brand, we took it upon ourselves to conduct a small amount of market research. Our main goals were to discover how consumers in the Irish market felt about the Keogh’s brand, as well as the product itself. We also aimed to determine how Keogh’s compare to their biggest competitors in the market. 8.1 Keogh’s Crisps Questionnaire ! We first began with an online questionnaire with which we distributed to both male and female consumers. 138 Surveys were conducted with the first 100 responses collected for analysis. The gender split was almost equal, with 50.52% male and 49.48% female. Our aim was to survey consumers between the age brackets of 18 years to 65 years. We found that 79.8% of respondents fell into the 18-25 years age bracket. 19.19% fell into the 26-35 years bracket and 1.01% into the 46-55 years bracket. We had no respondents from the 36-45 years bracket or from the 56+ years bracket. When asked how ‘health concious’ our respondents were the results varied quite a bit. The most popular response was ‘somewhat health concious’ with 57% choosing this option. 25% of people feel they are ‘very health concious’ with 14% believing they are ‘not very health concious’ and 3% claiming they are ‘not at all health concious’. The top 5 ‘Most Preferred Brand of Crisps’ are listed below according to our respondents (not in order of preference): • Keogh’s • Hula hoops • Tayto • Kettle • King
  • 58. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 35! ! *We found it notable that Keogh’s were placed in the top 5 of preferred crisps, and that Kettle were the only of Keogh’s main competitors to place. When asked where our respondents most often buy crisps we found that the majority of them tended to buy in supermarkets over anywhere else (43%). Note 97 respondents for this question, 3 skips.
  • 59. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 36! ! We discovered that our respondents generally a single packet of crisps once a week (36%). This is followed by 22% purchasing once a month, 18% every 2 weeks and 8% every second day. 6% of our respondents claim to buy a packet of crisps every single day. When discussing Keogh’s crisps themselves we found that 57% of our audience had heard of the brand, with 43% stating that they had never heard of Keogh’s before this survey. Cheese and onion was ranked as the number one flavor with 40% of the votes, with salt and vinegar coming second with 25% of the votes. On the issue of pricing it was interesting to note that 54% of our respondents would not pay more than €1.20 for a packet of crisps. 39% of people would not pay more than €0.90, and 7% would not pay more than €1.40. Finally, when questioned on their loyalty to buying Irish products we found that more often than not people will tend to buy Irish over other products.
  • 60. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 37! !
  • 61. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 38! ! Exhibit .9 Keogh’s Crisps - Taste Test ! As a part of the primary market research a Taste Test was carried out on members of a survey panel. These consumers had taken part in our survey, and ranged from 21 years of age to 60, male and female. We also questioned each individual on how health conscious they felt they were. The taste test comprised samples of crisps from Keogh’s and their 3 main competitors; O’Donnells, Kettle and Tyrells. Salt & Vinegar flavour was used as this flavour was common across all four brands. Our findings showed both Keogh’s and O’Donnells to come joint first in taste testing, meaning customers preferred the flavour of these two over the others. Kettle came in second and Tyrells in third place. We then required a randomly selected few members of our panel to test a different flavour between Keogh’s and O’Donnells; Sweet Chilli. You can see from the findings below that Keogh’s were found to be the preferred choice. Finally, each member of the panel was asked which flavour of the Keogh’s crisps they believed tasted the best and the overwhelming response we got was the Roast Beef flavour.
  • 62. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 39! ! 9.1 Customer Response/ General Feedback ! Overall comments - General Consensus: • Chilli Flavour crisp packaging should always be red (Keoghs is pink, and O'Donnells is green) • Tyrells - too harsh, flavour not strong enough, too crunchy, very vinegary, too much vinegar. • Kettle - no flavour from them, right crunch to crisps but not enough flavour, bland • O'Donnells - Great flavour from them, good texture too • Keoghs - slights cheese taste to all of their crisps (even the salt and vinegar!), great texture to them.
  • 63. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 40! ! 9.2 Tasting Findings ! Below are the brands, and what each person rated them - 1 being the most popular, 4 being the least popular. Salt and Vinegar Flavour Keoghs O'Donnells Kettle Tyrells Tony (Male, 60, not overly health conscious) 3 1 4 2 Alan (Male, 32, not overly health conscious) 3 2 4 1 David (Male, 30, health conscious) 2 1 4 3 Lynda (Female, 35, health conscious) 2 3 4 1 Clair (Female, 30, health conscious) 1 2 4 3 Bernie (Female, 58, health conscious) 1 3 2 4 Cara (Female, 21, not overly 2 1 4 3
  • 64. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 41! ! health conscious) Ian (Male, 25, health conscious) 2 1 3 4 Conor (Male, 22, not overly health conscious) 1 2 3 4 Stephen (Male, 24, not overly health conscious) 3 2 4 1 Louisa (Female, 24, health conscious) 2 1 3 4 John (Male, 54, not overly health conscious) 2 3 4 1 Una (Female, 55, health conscious) 4 3 1 2 Sarah (Female, 25, health 1 3 2 4
  • 65. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 42! ! conscious) Elaine (Female, 25, health conscious) 1 3 2 4 Matthew (Male, 27, not overly health conscious) 2 1 4 3
  • 66. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 43! ! Sweet Chilli Keoghs O'Donnells Tony (Male, 60, not overly health conscious) 1 2 Alan (Male, 32, not overly health conscious) 1 2 David (Male, 30, health conscious) 1 2 Lynda (Female, 35, health conscious) 1 2 Clair (Female, 30, health conscious) 1 2 Bernie (Female, 58, health conscious) 1 2 Overall favourite flavour of Keoghs for everyone was the "Roast Beef" flavour.
  • 67. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 44! ! 9.3 Overall comments - General Consensus: ! ! Chilli Flavour crisp packaging should always be red (Keoghs is pink, and O'Donnells is green) ! Tyrells - too harsh, flavour not strong enough, too crunchy, very vinegary, too much vinegar. ! Kettle - no flavour from them, right crunch to crisps but not enough flavour, bland ! O'Donnells - Great flavour from them, good texture too ! Keoghs - slights cheese taste to all of their crisps (even the salt and vinegar!), great texture to them.
  • 68. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 45! ! Exhibit.10 Keoghs – Buyers Personas 3 personas: • Mum Mary • Senior Sam • Professional Pat Mum Mary Senior Sam Professional Pat Age 35 62 43 Civil Status Married with 2 kids Married with 3 grown up children Single Education Bcomm UCD MBA TCD BSc UCC Occupation Stay-at-home mum Retired Accountant Hobbies Walking, socializing with friends Golfing, reading, watching sports Rugby, GAA, watching sports Most likely to come in to contact with Keoghs Supermarket, coffee shops Petrol station, convenience stores, pub Deli, convenience store, pub
  • 69. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 46! ! Mum Mary Buyer persona #1 is 35 year old Mum Mary. Mary has a husband named Mark, and is a stay-at-home mum to 2 young children. As Mark is in work during the week, Mary likes to take the time to catch up with her friends. She tends to meet up with other mums from her kids schools, where they will go for coffee or meet for lunch. Mary will encounter Keogh’s crisps in various coffee shops in her locality, as well as when she does the food shop in her local supermarket. She will often buy a packet for herself and Mark for an evening treat after putting the kids to bed. Senior Sam Buyer persona #2 Senior Sam is a 62 year old father of 3 grown up children. He has been married to his wife Sarah for 35 years and the couple have one grandchild. Sam worked in the property industry for years but took an early retirement early this year and is now spending his days travelling with his wife, or on the golf course. He also follows rugby and is a big Leinster supporter. Sam encounters Keogh’s crisps in various petrol stations around the country on his road trips, as well as buying a packet at the pub where he goes to watch the Leinster and International rugby matches.
  • 70. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 47! ! Professional Pat Buyer person #3 is 43 year old bachelor Professional Pat. Pat is an accountant and works in one of the big 4 firms in the city centre. Pat’s busy work schedule takes up most of his time during the week, so at weekends he likes to plan fun activities with his friends. As an avid sportsman all his life, Pat still plays a lot of rugby and GAA for his local teams. In the evenings, he often likes to have friends over for drinks, or to go to his local bars and restaurants. Pat comes into contact with Keogh’s during the week in his local lunch deli. At the weekend he may grab a packet in the local kiosk after a match, or when going to watch games with friends. If Pat intends to have people for drinks and nibbles he will always ensure to have a few packets of Keogh’s ready for guests. ! !
  • 71. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 48! ! Exhibit .11 Case Study Analysis The sources used for research towards creating Keogh’s crisps advertising campaign were: 11.1 Jameson Jameson began to target a new target market as a result of their ageing customer base. They have created a buyer persona based on the research they have conducted, which have identified a gap in the market. The young professionals, who enjoy socialising, have not yet identified their preferred alcoholic beverage. For the campaign they have used a tag line “You’ve heard the stories, now meet the Legend”, which was rolled across all of the social media platforms Jameson had utilised (K. Jackson, M. Laing, S. W. Lu, N. Moshi, 2011). This case study inspired us to create Feilim’s buyer persona for the Keogh’s crisps. According to CIA statistics approximately 750 thousand people in Ireland are from 25 to 34 years of age (CIA, 2014). This part of the Irish population are young professionals with high exposable income, who like high quality and Irish produce, a perfect target market for Keogh’s crisps.
  • 72. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 49! ! ! !
  • 73. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 50! ! 11.2 Walkers Sensations “Journey through flavor” Walkers took a more creative approach to increasing their brand awareness, by incorporating an acrobatic dance into their campaign, which emphasises on the Asian inspired flavours and their taste brilliance (T. Nudd 2009). Each dance portrayed the sensation of one’s palate when enjoying Walkers crisps. This ad campaign showed the extent of possibilities in the creative matter, when promoting a product. !
  • 74. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 51! ! 11.3 Lyons tea campaign ‘bring the talk home’ Lyons had identified a particular aspect that large amount of their target market shared ‘existing relatives abroad’. Because of the recession, many family members were unable to come back to Ireland to visit their family. This created an emotional, positive brand association (K. Corbett, 2013). Lyons campaign showed us that identifying a current trend or characteristic that your target market share, will create a base for an emotional connection between a brand and their customer. If used properly this will generate a fantastic response, but also can fail if inappropriate suggestions or references are use in the ads. ! ! ! !
  • 75. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 52! ! 11.4 The Vodafone campaign ‘#First time’ Vodafone connects to the viewers on an emotional level. The Ads describe the personal journey of an individual who is achieving their dream. There are a number of distinct stories adapted to each individual depicting their dreams and detailing their success (, 2014). By enabling people with ability to change the publics’ opinion or perception on each relevant topic chosen by the person in the story, Vodafone is sending a message that they believe in and promote positive changes and individuality.
  • 76. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 53! ! Exhibit .12 Brand Essence Wheel I! Facts and Symbols ! Keoghs Core: Brand Promise 'Deliciously Fresh Irish Potatoes' -Family Values -Quality -Superior Taste Satisfying Texture Flavour Innovation Delicious Natural How I would describe the product What product does for me Crispy Filling Irish Filling in calories ! Spud Nav 200 years Launched in November 2011 Family Farm Hand Cooked Socialising Brand Personality Fun Athletic IndependentTrendy Patriotic! Happy Nonchalant How the brand makes me look Relaxed Content Connected How the brand makes me feel
  • 77. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 54! ! Exhibit .13 Theory behind example ads in slides 13.1 Traditional Media: Radio- As one of the primary traditional media channels chosen, radio will allow Keogh’s to establish and broadcast brand voice and values. According to the in 2013, 84% of adults listen to the radio daily, this presents majority of Keogh’s target market, creating great opportunity for the company to extend their reach and increase their brand awareness. Joint National Listenership Research Survey (released January 2014) has indicated that RTE Radio 1’s Moring Ireland is ‘the most-listened to show in the country’ and had actually further increased their reach by a thousand, making their listenership of 449,000 (, 2014). TX FM and Spotify were chosen as advertising channels that would be aimed at younger audience (Feilim Buyer Persona). These will insure that Keogh’s message is reaching the target market using a channel they would use on daily basis.
  • 78. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 55! ! PR- In the past public relations campaigns were the primary source of publicity for Keoghs. The ‘Spud Festival’, fairs and events attended by Keoghs team, helped to increase the brand awareness and generate business leads for distributers. Nonetheless, with today’s emphasis on digital technology and the increased use of social platforms by the general public, indicates that the line between traditional and digital media is beginning to blur. Digitally interactive PR stunts are becoming increasingly popular by big brand companies, for example the augmented reality PR demonstration that have been occurring in UK, have really pushed the limits of the imagination and created phenomenal response from the public (“National Geographic's recent AR campaign let people interact with dinosaurs”; Pepsi augmented reality bus stop; Lynx augmented reality London’s Victoria Station; and many more). These are only snapshots of the PR possibilities today, which still may be incorporated into the following chosen locations for Keogh’s crisps PR campaigns. Rugby and other sport matches, as Ireland is recognised for their rugby and boxing achievements, targeting these event locations will ensure the optimum results. Sponsoring rugby teams, selling Keogh’s crisps at the stalls, and sponsoring Irish golf players will ensure international recognition, which will prove to be beneficial for exports. Irish Electric picnic and Westport Festival of Music are but a few of the music festivals which occur in Ireland annually. These events gather people from different parts of Ireland creating a perfect conditions for Keogh’s brand to target masses through these events, while increasing sales (through selling crisps or fries and chips made out of Keogh’s potatoes), thus ensuring Keogh’s brand presents in the Irish market.
  • 79. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 56! ! Newspaper With a rapid decrease in newspaper readership in Ireland, one might think that it could pose a waste of financial resources to use it for advertising, but there is a growing popularity in digital newspaper consumption. Newspapers creating apps which display an actual replica of the newspaper for the day, as public have voice their preference of the newspaper page structure, in comparison to the list of headings and menu pages displayed on websites. Nevertheless, according to ‘National Newspapers of Ireland’ research readership in Ireland is still going strong, with approximately 5.2 million newspapers being sold on weekly basis, and 1.5 million gratis newspapers being distributed weekly (, 2014). Irish times ‘The Ticket’ Ads would be aimed at the Feilim buyer persona, as it was identified that they would hold a particular interest in this magazine because of their interest in the content (culture and entertainment news). According to Irish Times ‘The Ticket’ readership figures for 2012 show that 208,000 adults read it (Joint National Readership Survey, 2012). !
  • 80. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 57! ! 13.2 Digital Media: ! Social media platforms Nowadays social media is becoming a primary customer contact point for many businesses, if used effectively the results can be astonishing or if not monitored and cultivated the outcome may result in brands demise. Keoghs have recently begun to utilise the social media platforms by running promotions, thus driving reach and engagement to their accounts. To further increase engagement to their customers on social media platforms such as Twitter, YouTube, Facebook, and Vine, Keogh’s need to create informative and creative content, promotions and further continue with branding messages and posts. Twitter: “What is your favourite way to eat Keogh’s Crisps? Do you experiment with cooking? Check out our #recipe blog for some delicious ideas.” Create your own recipe using Keogh’s crisps as ingredients or share your favourite combination of Keogh’s crisps with other foods, will encourage customers to purchase the product for numerous purposes, thus creating more scenarios for Keogh’s crisps consumption.
  • 81. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 58! ! Twitter updates: Continues updates on Keogh’s activities keeps public in touch with the brand. This will ensure constant brand exposure, creating ongoing brand publicity. The Irish Times website ads: a whole page takeover or banner, skyscraper, or a square, will generates brand awareness for a large portion of Irish population.
  • 82. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 59! ! Display Ads Display Ads using Google AdWords will aid in increasing brand awareness and in turn drive sales. “Snack ideas for parties search results” creating content such as ideas on different ways, for countless occasions and numerous combinations of how to use Keogh’s crisps will ensure continues interest the brand. PPC ads can be tailored for each content, so when an individual searches Google for “dinner recipes”, “party snacks”, or “easy cook recipes” Keogh’s ad will come up offering them a solution involving Keogh’s crisps. These ads can be modified to be listed as PPC text search ad or a Display Ad. PPC example: Side ad • Keogh's Crisps Recipes • • Delicious & Easy To Cook • Solution For Any Occasion • Top ad • Keogh's Crisps Recipes • • Delicious & Easy To Cook Solution For Any Occasion Mobile ad Keogh's Crisps Grown With Love. In Ireland Deliciously Fresh Irish Potatoes.
  • 83. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 60! ! Display Ad example:
  • 84. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 61! ! Blog Family cook book, detailed family/farm history, general info based on the up to date events and trends. The website already has a lot of the content, allocating it to a blog and updating it with current events, news and trends will encourage customers to read and follow the brand, thus portraying a positive image for Keogh’s crisps and other products alike.
  • 85. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 62! ! References • Ireland Potato Chips Market Analysis, 2007–17. Canadean Intelligence • Sweet and Savoury Snacks in Ireland, Passport, Euro Monitor International, January 2014 • 84 per cent of all adults listen to radio on a daily basis. 2014. 84 per cent of all adults listen to radio on a daily basis. [ONLINE] Available at: on-a-daily-basis-885124-Apr2013/. [Accessed 25 April 2014]. • Acrobats star in new Walkers Sensations ad | Advertising news | Campaign. 2014. Acrobats star in new Walkers Sensations ad | Advertising news | Campaign. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 25 April 2014]. • Audience Figures | Advertise With Us| The Irish Times. 2014. Audience Figures | Advertise With Us| The Irish Times. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 25 April 2014]. • Augmented Reality Campaigns - Business Insider. 2014. Augmented Reality Campaigns - Business Insider. [ONLINE] Available at: 2?op=1#ixzz2zipotRyC. [Accessed 25 April 2014]. • BBC News - Augmented reality goes beyond gimmicks for business. 2014.BBC News - Augmented reality goes beyond gimmicks for business. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 25 April 2014]. • Brand Essence | Business Strategy. 2014. Brand Essence | Business Strategy. [ONLINE] Available at: awareness-differentiation-framework/. [Accessed 25 April 2014]. • BrandFreak: Nudd. 2014. BrandFreak: Nudd. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 25 April 2014]. • David Aaker's Blog | Aaker on Brands | Prophet. 2014. David Aaker's Blog | Aaker on Brands | Prophet. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 25 April 2014].
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  • 88. ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !! 65! ! • What is Your Writing “Essence”? | Rhetorically Urs. 2014. What is Your Writing “Essence”? | Rhetorically Urs. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 25 April 2014].