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Sexual education campaigns critical review Sexual education campaigns critical review Document Transcript

  • 2010 Nehal Hesham SEXUAL EDUCATION CAMPAIGNS: CRITICAL REVIEW In order to come up with the essence of the developmental campaign about awaring parents in Egypt about Proper Sexual Education we had to critically analyze other relevant campaigns. The analysis is based on the Campaigns Goals, Research Methodology & the strategy.
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 Introduction The improper information people have about sex, creates the need and the want of awareness about sexual lives and sexual transmitted disease. During the past 10 years a lot of campaigns have been promoting for sexual education and are urging the government to create accessible information about sexual health. While our media and our government didn’t take a positive role yet we aim to conduct a campaign to aware the government about the importance of sexual education. This review is analyzing the components of three important campaigns discussing the issue of sexual health. These campaigns have been chosen in relevance to the campaign we want to develop. Campaign Goals 15 and Counting: the goal of this campaign state that the government must provide better access to sexual and reproductive health services and information for all young people to increase wellbeing. (15&Counting, 2009)Think: Sexual Health: to address pressing sexual health issues facing young people in the U.S, by leading the way in using new media strategies to reach young people with critical health information. (Think:SexualHealth, 2009)Sex worth Talking About: promote more and open discussions sexual relationships and contraptions among teenagers and their parents. . (SexWorthTalkingAbout, 2009) If these three goals were combined together that will come up with one solid goal, that will definitely suit our Egyptian culture. These goals include government awareness, promoting more open discussions and using new media strategies to reach young people. If we will state the goal of our campaign we will say “Provide awareness among the government to promote more proper sexual discussions about sexual health, by using new media strategies” Page 2 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 Key Messages 15 and counting (1): sexuality and relationships are important issues in the lives of young people, they need and want accurate and accessible information to make decisions about their wellbeing. 15 and Counting (2): urges the government to take an action by 2015, to provide better access to sexual and reproductive health services among young people. (Promote ICPD goals) (15andCounting, 2009) Think: Sexual Health: sexually active adolescents and young adults have a high risk for acquiring STD’s (Think:SexualHealth, 2009) Sex worth Talking About (1): increase young people awareness of the different type of contraceptives, and remind them that they won’t be protected form STD’s unless they use a condom. Sex worth Talking About (2): provide people with more information about the worst STD which is Chlamydia. (SexWorthTalkingAbout, 2009) These key messages are what each campaign wishes to deliver to their audience, in order to send this messages without flaws, we have to carefully examine the target audience and the media that will be used to send such messages. As much as this campaigns fit their target audience, they wont be the exact messages we wish to deliver in a campaign that will be launched in a country like Egypt. The key messages of the campaign needs to be tailored to suite our country and our highly religious restrictions. In the sex worth talking about campaign, they only mentioned the Chlamydia disease stating that it is the most vital disease. Concentrating at one type of disease is not effective enough, but yet it will make the audience wonder “Why Chlamydia” and they might get tested out of curiosity. Urging the government to take an action is a step that needs high preparation and high credibility and it needs, acceptance of the religious leaders, that is why we think that young people wont urge the government to provide youth with accessible sexual health information. Page 3 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 Target Audience 15 and Counting: sexual Think: Sexual Health: Sex worth and non-sexually active sexually active youth Talking About: women and young from ages 13-24 youth form ages people living in 16-24, and their developing countries. parents. From our view we believe that these campaigns should target sexually and non-sexually active youth from ages 13-24 and their parent. The 15 and counting campaign stated that they have to be women and young men in developing countries, generalizing the message to all development countries is not something that will benefit them it will just distract the audience. Due to the fact that they didn’t tailor their message, upon the nature of their audience. What they did right is targeting sexually and non-sexually active stating that they will need sexual information at any point of their time. What we would like to add to this point is that sexual health is not only about sexual relationships, and that fact must be clear to all the target audience, particularly the ones who doesn’t know that they are the target audience. Due to the fact that our campaign aims to raise awareness among the Egyptian government, we will make the above mentioned point clear, which is that: (Sexual Education is not only about Intimate Relations). The question is who is our target among the government? We believe they should be the ministry of health, education, culture and any religious institute. Our choices were based on the following facts; in 2001 Minister of Culture Farouk Hosni stood before Parliament's Culture Committee and flatly stated that sex education should be a part of the Egyptian school curriculum. (Farag f, 2001). The Minister of Education, Dr Hussein Kamel Bahaaeddin, Page 4 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 informed the public in 2001 that "the curriculum of education includes information about the family, the reproductive organs, the ovaries and insemination. The curriculum is serious, educational and suited to our society." (Farag F. , 2001). Theses statements are supporting our calim of teaching sexual education, and we believe that if we target these misntries, they will support our claim. We believe that the most important target are te religious institutes, as they are opposing greately the fact of sexual education, thinking its about extramarital activties. Grand Imam of Al Azhar, Sheikh Mohamed Sayed Tantawi issued a fatwa in 2005 ruling that same sex provisions are meaningless in Islam, because Islam forbids extramarital sex. In the same year, Al Azhar’s research academy ruled against sex education in schools or education institutions in Islamic countries. Grand Mufti Ali Gomaa has also rejected the idea that children be taught safe sex or how to avoid pregnancy and STDs. (Ibrahim, 2010). Al-Azhar students already learn about sex "in a way that doesn't stir instincts, or offend public morality," said Tantawi, who was responding to nongovernmental organizations that had questioned whether sex education is allowed, according to Maher al-Haddad, general director of Al-Azhar's research center. Tantawi said Islam recognizes only one way of making a family, through marriage between man and woman - a way that avoids concerns about premarital sex, contraception, and abortion. The sheik contrasted this negatively to other teachings, including the "equality between man and woman through gender culture." (Prevention, 2005). These statement makes it clear that the Azhar students are learning about sexual education in a way that follows the religious restrictions, and that they are totally against extramarital activties. So, we will make it clear that we are against extramarital activities and that the campaign’s main goal is to embed the marriage life into the mind of our audience. Page 5 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 Campaign Strategy 15 and Counting campaign is based on urging the people to aware the government about their goals and that is by using animated figures with bright colors in order to get into the mind of young people. This campaign is creating a petition that should be signed by all the youth in each country so that they will convince the government to take an action towards the access of full information about sexual and reproductive health. They believe that government must promote, protect and fulfill their promise to provide a full and proper access to sexual and reproductive health services, to increase wellbeing and improve lives. Through that they are asking them to sign the “count me in” Petition to the Secretary-General of the UN. From what we believe, this action is one of the most vital action s concerning this campaign; it forces the government to take an action towards change, which will eventually work. Due to the intervention of the UN which is highly respected from all the societies specially the Arab ones, this petition will be credible and it will come into action. . Out of all the three campaigns the 15and counting campaign resembles the campaign we aim to create the most, due to the fact that they are urging the government, yet we have several comments about the strategy they are using to tackle the government, and the fact that they failed to enforce religious policy to support their campaign. We found out that the government will support sexual education; we just have to make our message clear. Page 6 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 The sex worth talking about strategy depends on 4 main aspects to be implemented. 1. Sex and relationship education, which include in and out of school settings. 2. Careers and parents that support open discussions about sex and relationships with the children. 3. Increased investment in high quality contraceptive services and easy access to sexual health services. 4. Finally, supporting and providing a national information campaign to young people. (SexWorthTalkingAbout, 2009) . Unlike the 15 and counting campaign, the Sex worth talking about campaign has a clear strategy they will implement. The main goal of this strategy is to minimize prevalence of all types of STI’s. All 4 of these things are very important to the campaign and are the foundation of working towards the goals. The overall vision of this campaign is to turn the prevailing culture, which is filled with stigma, shame, and embarrassment, and to turn it into a newer culture that is open positive, supportive and respectful, and that is one of the main things we wish to tackle in the campaign that will take place in Egypt. At the heart of the campaign is the belief that talking plays a integral role in driving safer sexual attitudes and behaviors. The more communication there is the more safer sex and better relationships. Page 7 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 Think Sexual Health is the best among all three, this campaign uses a variety of appeals and communication styles - from upbeat and life-affirming to more edgy and hard-hitting - in an effort to raise awareness about the risk STD’s and to reduce their spread by encouraging more informed decision making, communication, protection, and testing among sexually active youth. They are using a mixture of informative and yet emotional appeal, with a mixture of animations and bright hard colors. The animation reflects the friendliness and the active youth element, while the bright hard color reflects the jeopardy of the situation. This campaign was different then other campaigns we saw, it didn’t only depend on animation, they used actual people who might face STD’s and shoot real life stories that will alert the audience. Page 8 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 Campaign Components The activities they are aiming to do are mainly PR events to promote the “count me in” petition to keep people aware of PR Activities signing this petition in order to gain the proper sexual information. Website They also formulated and interactive website and Facebook group Print Ads to support the campaign. The campaign also didn’t fail to remember to create printed materials to attract their audience. The PR activities of the 15 and counting campaign, are the most effective action, and according to Paul Bell, one of the developers of the campaign he stated that most of the signatures they got in the petition were from the PR *15 & Counting Figure 1.1 activities they launched. The best thing they do is the fact that they launch their events during international dates, like the international health day, and these dates surely will attract a mass audience. The fact that they use animation and bright fancy colors, lessen their credibility. In figure 1.2 they used the bright pink color and animated figure, as well as a talking bubble. The bright pink color will attract the eyes of the target audience, but it will give the audience the impression that it is a game or a competition about *15 & Counting Figure 1.2 anything other then sexual education. Page 9 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 In figure 1.3 they used a green color that doesn’t provoke the eyes and doesn’t create the desired urgency. The issue of sexual education is vital and needs something more serious in order to provoke the audience to take an action. The rest of their printed materials, has the same concept, a use of bright fancy colors and animated figure. We *15 & Counting Figure 1.3 believe that if anyone saw these ads will smile but they will not take an action. In figure 1.3 there is a snapshot from their website, this website is in 3 languages, Arabic, French and English. We believe that the website is very beneficial and it is well organized and it states the importance of urging the government to take an action, yet we still have concerns about the affectivity of the chosen colors. If we will create a website, as part of the components in the campaign we wish to launch, we will include a section in the website dealing with the importance of sexual education, and stating all the problems that by the improper information, according to Dr. Heba Kottb “80% divorces in the Arab world are due to sexual problems brought on by ignorance and societal pressure. (Abou El-Magd, 2006). We believe that all these issues should be mentioned in the website, to create the urgency and the seriousity of the issue. Page 10 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 The Components they used to deliver the message, were Public Service Ads. Websites, TV series, promotions and text PSA’s messages. From what we believe, this campaign has the strongest Websites components due t o the fact that they are always up to date by TV Series launching new ads every year. They also studied their target which is Promotions Text Messages youth and teens and they tailored their program based on the need of their target and kept the information they might need in their hands. Each year, the Kaiser Family Foundation and MTV jointly produce new PSAs to reach MTV viewers. These messages seek to raise awareness about the risk of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, and reduce their spread by encouraging more informed decision making, communication, protection, and testing *Think: Sexual Health Figure 2.1 among those who are sexually active. Figure 2.1 shows a snapshot of the last PSA’s they produced in 2009, which encourages people to get tested (GYT=Get Yourself Tested), this PSA is asking people what do you thing GYT means? Their PSA’s reflect a day in life of teenager, which triggers the target to take in action. They use their language and their outfits which make the ad a part of the target life. The campaign, which has been recognized with an Emmy for best National PSA in 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2007 uses a variety of appeals and styles from upbeat and life-affirming to edgy and hard-hitting. The ads are tagged with the campaign's toll-free hotline and website for viewers seeking additional information. That is a very smart move, creating different PSA’s each year never keep the campaign out of date, it will always be updated based on new facts and new environmental changes. Another smart move that was done, is inserting their hotline number and website, it made their information and their availability always on the top of the target mind. It’s also a very successful method to encourage young people to anonymously submit their concerns and have their questions answered by well informed professionals. Page 11 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 MTV and the Kaiser Family Foundation have teamed up to produce full-length specials that examine a range of issues facing young people today. Among them, the Peabody Award-winning The Social History of HIV, which chronicles more than two decades of the epidemic in the U.S., Think HIV: This Is Me a documentary created entirely from video filmed by young people affected and infected by HIV, and numerous other popular programs including special episodes of the network’s long-running True Life documentary series, as well as dozens of MTV news segments. Figure 2.2 shows a snapshot Think: sexual Health Figure 2.2 from a program called 16 & Pregnant which reflects the life of a young teenager who has been suffering from having a baby at that age they reflect the reality their audience might face and how the consequences might make them suffer. This campaign educated the targets about the social history of HIV and aired the "sex quiz" program which was meant to test the Think: Sexual Health Figure 2.3 viewer's knowledge about sexual health issues. If we will conduct a campaign in Egypt we will not launch something such as the” sex quiz” due to cultural and religious restrictions. They also aired the documentary series "True life" which provided access to care and living with HIV. There were also relevant news segments on MTV music channel. I perceived this method to be a rather positive step because TV is the most popular and widely viewed media tool. On top of that, parents have the option of using parental control. The choice of MTV to aire such programs and TV Series is relveant to the life style of the target audaince. MTV is the most watched TV Channel by youth in the states, so that is why MTV is a smart choice. Page 12 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 We believe that they studied their audaince and the culture of theier country, and they knew how can they get highly effected from TV or form media in genral. We would like to mention the incident that happened On October 28, 1938 many Americans believed they were being invaded by Martians. This was the result of a Halloween stunt orchestrated by Orson Wells in which he adapted. It is estimated that of the 6 million people who heard the broadcast, fully 1.7 million thought it was the news, not a play, while a further 1.2 million were frightened. A few even bought train tickets or drove off in the opposite direction to New York, the supposed epicenter of the alien invasion. (PSY, 2002). This incident shows that the Americans are highly affected by media. As part of an ongoing commitment to connecting young people to important information about their sexual health, It's Your (Sex) Life has continued to develop new and innovative ways to reach the ever growing and changing MTV audience. MTV uses all of its platforms and resources to promote It’s Your (Sex) Life and incentivize young people to play an active role in their sex life. This contests and promotions is what makes this campaign even more special. The fact that the campaign developers interact with their target and provide them with promotional programs and contests interests the target and can make them contribute in the campaign and actually take an action. To grab the target attention more they chose artists like Ludracris, to engage audiences more personally in sexual health issues. As extra incentive to get young people to play an active role in their sexual health, It’s Your (Sex) Life hosts sweepstakes. To encourage people to get tested, MTV offered a trip for two to the 2009 MTV Music Awards hosted by Andy Samberg in Los Angeles. We believe that they are not only creating awareness they are creating a life style, that encourages their target to have safe sex and avoid the STD’s. Such an activity can’t be done in Egypt due to cultural and religious restrictions, contests about an issue that is considered to be a taboo, can’t be reveled in a form of contests that the audience enrolls in. Page 13 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 The campaign is looking for maximum reach and that’s why they didn’t leave any medium possible. They reached their audience by text messaging their ZIP Code to the short code "GYT09" on the dial pad; cell phone users receive a text message back with information about the HIV testing center nearest to them. They are trying all the devices that teenagers use, so all the information they are looking for will be close to their hands. When the text message service was tested in Egypt in 2006, which was in relation with “Hala Show” activity to promote sexual education, it faced a lot of oppositions. They were accused of breaking rules of the constitution, and invading the privacy of the audience stating that the Mobile phone is a personal property. They were also sued and faced a lot of legal consequences. (El-Sebie, 2009) Moreover, there is a special website designed to provide additional information about HIV, how to prevent it and deal with it. The interactive website also offers information about facilities, testing, communication tips, and action plans on how to avoid and fight HIV. In addition to that, they created the interactive community where viewers had access to HIV documentaries and were able to share personal experiences through videos, photos and blogs about HIV. On top of that, the campaign came up with a smart strategy to Think Sexual Helath: Figure 2.4 attract more viewers to their website. They created a national vlogging (video blogging) competition targeting United States citizens from the ages of 13 to 25. The competition required them to submit essays of no more than 250 words explaining why they should be elected as the exclusive HIV vloggers. Each state has one winner who gets to share their personal perspective on HIV through Vlogging. This strategy was exceptionally effective because it encourages the Page 14 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 targets to learn more about HIV in order to win the competition. It also makes it more likely for them to view the documentaries. This method was proven to be successful after the documentary had a whooping number of more than 100 million viewers. However, the age limitation could be very discouraging. Moreover, people who contributed and lost may lose interest. If this campaign is launched in Egypt, we believe that the website idea is essential, due to the fact that nowadays the internet is the highly effective medium and it has the highest usage rate among all other media. 12,568,900 Internet users as of June/09, 15.9% of the population, (ITU, 2009) Unlike the 15 & counting campaign, Think: Sexual Health created fully informative website that sums up all the information needed about sexual education, as well as new ads launched and all the activities they might get engaged in, as well as the proper needed information about sexual health. As shown in figure 2.4 the website is hip an active so it can suite the youth but yet informative and serious. Even thou it used bright solid colors; it didn’t loose its credibility. Page 15 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 . This campaign is divided into two phases; “Contraception Worth TV Talking About” and “Chlamydia Worth Talking About”. These campaigns Radio used talking bubbles to tackle their target. The first phase of the campaign Print Ads “Contraception Worth Talking About, was launched on Monday 30th of November. This phase aims to help young people make healthier choices about contraception, look after their sexual health and avoid unwanted pregnancies. They did this by showing that discussions about contraception between health care professionals and the targeted audience should be easy and normal. They also provide new and more effective methods for prevention that the subjects are unaware of. Figure 3.1 shows of the print ads that was created for the first phase for the campaign. This ad is supposedly showing a girl that is asking her mother what is the best contraception to use. We believe that in order to create an open culture about sexual health between people we need to actually show people. it’s true that they used a real life scene and didn’t only depend on animation like the 15 & counting campaign, but yet Sex worth Talking About figure 3.1 they didn’t show the lives and the consequences teens might face if they didn’t use contraptions. The fact of discussing contraception in a culture like ours is forbidden, especially when it is portrayed as a discussion between a mother and a daughter, it we ill give the feeling of promoting for extramarital activities and that is against the message we wish to convey in our desired campaign. Page 16 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 The second phase of the campaign is “Chlamydia Worth Talking About”, was launched on the 8th of January, 2010. This phase focuses on Chlamydia as it is usually asymptomatic making it very difficult to diagnose. Through this segment they make Chlamydia screening easily accessible as well as comfortable and painless. Females suffering from Chlamydia may experience pelvic pains, infertility and ecoptic pregnancies. Males on the other hand, may suffer serious conditions such as epididymitis and urethritis. One of the problems they faced during this campaign is the reluctance of health care professionals to engage in conversations about Chlamydia with young people fearing that they may seem to be judgmental which may discourage the subjects to carry on with the tests. On the bright side, studies showed that young people Sex worth talking about figure 3.2 want to be tested. Face-to-face approaches given the right environment and circumstances were proven to be most effective. Figure 3.2 portrays one of their ads that is talking about Chlamydia, as we mentioned in the above ad they don’t use people in their ads, but according to their press release, they stated that all audiences enjoyed the boldness of the words in everyday situations that they could identify with, which allowed them to step into the scenario and feel more comfortable thinking that this can be anyone. (SexWorthTalkingAbout, 2009) Although many of the targeted audience felt comfortable and enjoyed the advertisements, we believe that the campaign is contradicting themselves. They want people to be open and free to discuss sexual health and relationships comfortably, yet they themselves are hiding behind bubbles instead of using actual figures to demonstrate that it is appropriate to speak about this publicly. Page 17 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 Outcomes 15 and Counting campaign has a very huge problem which is, the outcome can not be measured at the moment and that is because the desired accomplishment will be in 2015. What is obvious so far 181,818 people have signed the petition. Think Sexual Health chosen communication strategies were proven to be successful when "Think: Sexual Health" campaign won the Emmy and Peaboy awards in June 2006. With more than 450,000 distributed informational guides, 1.2 million calls to the toll-free telephone hotlines and more than 100 million viewers to its documentaries. It is safe to say that the campaign was rather successful. Studies showed that two out of three campaign viewers are more likely to use condoms, talk to their partners about safer sex and get tested for HIV. Even though the success was quite apparent, there is no proof that it isn't in fact temporary as there is not follow up plan and people will eventually forget about it. Moreover, I do not agree with only targeting the young sexually active because the ones that are not yet sexually involved are still susceptible to sexual exposure that could put them in a similar risk. In addition, the campaign needs to focus on other equally spread and dangerous STD's like gonorrhea, cephalous, and virus C. Sex worth talking about campaign has succeeded in decreasing the under 18 contraception rate of 10.7 % (1998-2007) with some areas showing declines over 25%, which is almost half of the targeted goal for 2010. They believe that this reverses the previous upward trend demonstrating the strategy is working. Although its working I fear that the declines are happening now but many may lose interest after a while. Chlamydia screenings are also increasing with 15.9% of 15-24 year olds screened outside of GUM clinics (Genito-Urinary Medicine Clinics). Page 18 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 Conclusion In conclusion we believe that each of these campaigns has a strong point, and if we joined parts of them together, by avoiding issues that is against our culture and religion, we will create something that is very valuable to our country. We have learned that in order to get the desired effect from a campaign, we need to carefully examine our target audience and our culture, and tailor our message based on that. . Like what happened in the Think: Sexual health campaign, they examined their audience and they knew how to tackle them in the right way. We believe that examining the audience and getting into their minds will help us in tackling them in the right way, which means creating the right message, using the right strategy and the right media. Like what happened in the Think: Sexual health campaign, they examined their audience and they knew how to tackle them in the right way. Page 19 of 20
  • Sexual education campaigns: Critical Review Spring 2010 Bibliography Counting, 1. a. (2009). http://www.15andcounting.org/supprortingmaterials. Retrieved from http://www.15andcounting.org: http://www.15andcounting.org/docs/1- WhatIsThe15AndCountingCampaign.pdf El-Magd, N. A. (2006). Arab TV watchers get frank advice on sex from a conservative Muslim woman. Daily News Egypt , 1-2. El-Sebie, A. (2009). http://www.ikhwanonline.com/Article.asp?ArtID=20234&SecID=304. Retrieved from http://www.ikhwanonline.com. Farag, F. (2001). Every Thing You Ever Wanted to Know . Al-Ahram Weekly , 1-4. Farag, F. (2001). Every Think You Ever Wanted to know. Al-Ahram Weekly , 1-4. Ibrahim, B. (2010, Janurary 24). http://bikyamasr.com/?p=7837. Retrieved from http://bikyamasr.com. ITU. (2009). http://www.internetworldstats.com/af/eg.htm. Retrieved from http://www.internetworldstats.com. Prevention, U. C. (2005, April 8). http://www.thebody.com/content/art25758.html. Retrieved from http://www.thebody.com. PSY. (2002). Retrieved from http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/10/invasion-from-mars-anatomy-of- panic.php. SexWorthTalkingAbout. (2009). http://www.nhs.uk/sexualhealthprofessional/Pages/campaign- resources.aspx. Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk: http://www.nhs.uk/sexualhealthprofessional/Documents/FullCampaignPresentations.pdf Think:SexualHealth. (2009). http://www.comminit.com/en/node/133060/347. Retrieved from http://www.comminit.com/. Page 20 of 20