090302 ngu phap_ta_thpt_208
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090302 ngu phap_ta_thpt_208 090302 ngu phap_ta_thpt_208 Document Transcript

  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Baøi 1: THÌ CUÛA ÑOÄNG TÖØI- Hieän taïi ñôn (Simple Present): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + V(s/es); S + am/is/are - Caâu phuû ñònh S + do/does + not + V; S + am/is/are + not - Caâu hoûi Do/Does + S + V?; Am/Is/Are + S? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì hieän taïi ñôn ñöôïc duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät thoùi quen, moät haønh ñoäng ñöôïc laëp ñi laëp laïi thöôøng xuyeân. Trongcaâu thöôøng coù caùc traïng töø: always, often, usually, sometimes, seldom, rarely,every day/week/month … Ex: Mary often gets up early in the morning. 2.2 Moät söï thaät luùc naøo cuõng ñuùng, moät chaân lyù. Ex: The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 2.3 Moät haønh ñoäng trong töông lai ñaõ ñöôïc ñöa vaøo chöông trình,keá hoaïch. Ex: The last train leaves at 4.45.II- Hieän taïi tieáp dieãn (Present Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + am/is/are + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + am/is/are + not + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Am/Is/Are + S + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì hieän taïi tieáp dieãn duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng ñang dieãn ra ôû hieän taïi (trong luùc noùi); sau caâu meänhleänh, ñeà nghò. Trong caâu thöôøng coù caùc traïng töø: now, right now, at the moment,at present, … Ex: What are you doing at the moment? - I’m writing a letter. Be quiet! My mother is sleeping. 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñaõ ñöôïc leân keá hoaïch thöïc hieän trong töông lai gaàn. Ex: What are you doing tonight? - I am going to the cinema with my father. 2.3 Moät haønh ñoäng nhaát thôøi khoâng keùo daøi laâu, thöôøng duøng vôùi today,this week, this month, these days, … Ex: What is your daughter doing these days?Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 1
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy - She is studying English at the foreign language center. 3) Nhöõng ñoäng töø khoâng ñöôïc duøng ôû thì HTTD: 3.1 Ñoäng töø chæ giaùc quan: hear, see, smell, taste 3.2 Ñoäng töø chæ tình caûm, caûm xuùc: love, hate, like, dislike, want, wish 3.3 Ñoäng töø chæ traïng thaùi, söï lieân heä, sôû höõu: look, seem, appear, have,own, belong to, need, … 3.4 Ñoäng töø chæ sinh hoaït trí tueä: agree, understand, remember, know, …III- Hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh (Present Perfect): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + have/has+ V3/ed - Caâu phuû ñònh S + have/has + not + V3/ed - Caâu hoûi Have/Has + S + V3/ed? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì HTHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù khoâng xaùc ñònh roõ thôøi ñieåm. Ex: Have you had breakfast? – No, I haven’t. 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù, coøn keùo daøi ñeán hieän taïi. Ex: My friend Nam has lived in HCMC since 1998. 2.3 Moät haønh ñoäng vöøa môùi xaûy ra. Ex: I have just finished my homework. 2.4 Trong caáu truùc: Be + the first/second… time + S + have/has + V3/ed Be + the ss nhaát + N + S + have/has + V3/ed Ex: This is the first time I have been to Paris. She is the most honest person I have ever met. 3) Caùc traïng töø thöôøng duøng vôùi thì HTHT: just (vöøa môùi), recently/lately (gaàn ñaây), ever (ñaõ töøng), never (chöa baogiôø), yet (chöa), already (roài), since (töø khi – moác thôøi gian), for (khoaûng), sofar/until now/up to now/up to the present (cho ñeán baây giôø)IV- Hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Present Perfect Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + have/has+ been + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + have/has + not + been + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Have/Has + S + been + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính:Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 2
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Thì HTHTTD ñöôïc duøng ñeå dieãn taû: * Haønh ñoäng baét ñaàu trong quaù khöù vaø keùo daøi LIEÂN TUÏC ñeán hieän taïi vaøcoøn tieáp dieãn ñeán töông lai, thöôøng duøng vôùi How long, since vaø for. Ex: How long have you been waiting for her? - I have been waiting for her for an hour. * HTHT: haønh ñoäng hoaøn taát HTHTTD: haønh ñoäng coøn tieáp tuïcV- Quaù khöù ñôn (Simple Past): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + V2/ed; S + was/were - Caâu phuû ñònh S + did + not + V; S + was/were + not - Caâu hoûi Did + S + V?; Was/Were + S? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKÑ duøng ñeå dieãn taû haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra vaø hoaøn taát trong quaù khöùvôùi thôøi gian ñöôïc xaùc ñònh roõ. Caùc traïng töø thöôøng ñi keøm: yesterday, ago, lastweek/month/year, in the past, in 1990, … Ex: Uncle Ho passed away in 1969.VI- Quaù khöù tieáp dieãn (Past Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + was/were + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + was/were + not + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Was/Were + S + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKTD duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra (vaø keùo daøi) vaøo moät thôøi ñieåm hoaëc moätkhoaûng thôøi gian trong quaù khöù. Ex: She was studying her lesson at 7 last night. What were you doing from 3pm to 6pm yesterday? - I was practising English at that time. 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñang xaûy ra (V-ing) ôû quaù khöù thì coù moät haønh ñoängkhaùc xen vaøo (V2/ed). Ex: He was sleeping when I came. While my mother was cooking dinner, the phone rang. 2.3 Hai haønh ñoäng dieãn ra song song cuøng luùc trong quaù khöù.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 3
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: While I was doing my homework, my younger brother was playing video games.VII- Quaù khöù hoaøn thaønh (Past Perfect): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + had + V3/ed - Caâu phuû ñònh S + had+ not + V3/ed - Caâu hoûi Had + S + V3/ed? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra vaø hoaøn taát tröôùc moät thôøi ñieåm hoaëc moät haønhñoäng khaùc trong quaù khöù (haønh ñoäng tröôùc duøng HAD + V3/ed, haønh ñoäng sauduøng V2/ed). Ex: We had had dinner before eight o’clock last night. Lucie had learned English before she came to England. 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra nhöng chöa hoaøn thaønh, tính ñeán moät thôøiñieåm naøo ñoù trong quaù khöù. Ex: By the time I left that school, I had taught there for ten years. (Tôùi luùc toâi rôøi ngoâi tröôøng aáy, toâi ñaõ daïy ñöôïc 10 naêm.) 3) Thì naøy thöôøng ñöôïc duøng vôùi caùc töø, ngöõ sau ñaây: * After, before, when, as, once Ex: When I got to the station, the train had already left. * No sooner … than (vöøa môùi … thì) Hardly/Scarely … when (vöøa môùi … thì) Ex: He had no sooner returned from abroad than he fell ill. ---> No sooner had he returned from abroad than he fell ill. (Anh aáy vöøa môùi trôû veà töø nöôùc ngoaøi thì ñaâm ra beänh.) * It was not until … that … (maõi cho tôùi … môùi …) Not until … that … (maõi cho tôùi … môùi …) Ex: It was not until I had met her that I understood the problem. ---> Not until I had met her did I understand the problem. (Maõi tôùi khi toâi gaëp coâ ta, toâi môùi hieåu ñöôïc vaán ñeà.)VIII- Quaù khöù hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Past Perfect Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + had + been + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + had + not + been + V-ingStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 4
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy - Caâu hoûi Had + S + been + not + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKHTTD duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh tính LIEÂN TUÏC cuûa haønh ñoäng choñeán khi moät haønh ñoäng khaùc xaûy ra trong quaù khöù. Ex: When she arrived, I had been waiting for three hours. IX- Töông lai ñôn (Simple Future): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + will/shall + V - Caâu phuû ñònh S + will/shall + not + V - Caâu hoûi Will/Shall + S + V? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLÑ duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ xaûy ra trong töông lai. Ex: I will call you tomorrow. 2.2 Moät quyeát ñònh ñöa ra vaøo luùc noùi. Ex: It’s cold. I’ll shut the window. 2.3 Moät quyeát taâm, lôøi höùa, ñeà nghò, yeâu caàu. Ex: I will lend you the money. Will you marry me? 2.4 Moät tieân ñoaùn, döï baùo trong töông lai. Ex: People will travel to Mars one day. 3) Moät soá traïng töø chæ thôøi gian thöôøng gaëp: tomorrow, tonight, next week/month/year, some day, in the future, … * LÖU YÙ: Caùch duøng cuûa be going to + V: + Dieãn taû yù ñònh (khoâng coù trong keá hoaïch) Ex: I have saved some money. I am going to buy a new computer. (Toâi ñaõ ñeå daønh ñöôïc moät ít tieàn. Toâi ñònh mua moät maùy vi tính môùi.) + Dieãn taû moät döï ñoaùn coù caên cöù Ex: Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain. (Haõy nhìn nhöõng ñaùm maây ñoù kìa. Trôøi saép möa.)X- Töông lai tieáp dieãn (Future Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + will/shall + be + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + will/shall + not + be + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Will/Shall + S + be + V-ing?Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 5
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLTD duøng ñeå dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng seõ ñang dieãn ra ôû moät thôøiñieåm hay moät khoaûng thôøi gian trong töông lai. Ex: This time next week I will be playing tennis. We’ll be working hard all day tomorrow.XI- Töông lai hoaøn thaønh (Future Perfect): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + will/shall + have + V3/ed - Caâu phuû ñònh S + will/shall + not + have + V3/ed - Caâu hoûi Will/Shall + S + have + V3/ed? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ hoaøn taát tröôùc moät thôøi ñieåm trong töông lai. Ex: It’s now 7pm. I will have finished teaching this class by 8.30. (Baây giôø laø 7 giôø toái. Toâi seõ daïy xong lôùp naøy luùc 8g30.) 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ hoaøn taát tröôùc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc trong töông lai. Ex: By the time you come back, I will have written this letter. (Vaøo luùc anh trôû laïi, toâi seõ vieát xong laù thö naøy.) * Thì naøy thöôøng ñöôïc baét ñaàu baèng By + time (By then, By the time, Bythe end of this week/month/year).XII- Töông lai hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Future Perfect Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + will/shall + have + been + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + will/shall + not + have + been + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Will/Shall + S + have + been + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLHTTD duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh tính LIEÂN TUÏC cuûa haønh ñoäng so vôùimoät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù hoaëc haønh ñoäng khaùc trong töông lai. Ex: By next month, he will have been working in the office for tenyears. When George gets his degree, he will have been studying at Oxfordfor four years. All things are difficult before they are easy. Vaïn söï khôûi ñaàu nan.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 6
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Baøi 2: THEÅ THUÏ ÑOÄNGI- Caùc böôùc ñoåi caâu chuû ñoäng sang caâu bò ñoäng: 1) Xaùc ñònh S, V, O trong caâu chuû ñoäng (V coù theå laø ñôn hoaëc keùp. Neáu laøV keùp thì V cuoái cuøng-V chính- ñöôïc ñoåi thaønh V3/ed.) 2) Xaùc ñònh thì cuûa ñoäng töø 3) Ñem O trong caâu chuû ñoäng laøm S trong caâu bò ñoäng, ñem S trong caâu chuûñoäng laøm O trong caâu bò ñoäng 4) Laáy V chính trong caâu chuû ñoäng ñoåi thaønh V3/ed roài theâm BE thích hôïptröôùc V3/ed 5) Ñaët BY tröôùc O trong caâu bò ñoäng Ex: (A) The cat ate the mouse. ---> (P) The mouse was eaten by the cat. Trong (A), The cat laø S, ate laø V chính, the mouse laø O. Ñem the mouselaøm S vaø the cat laøm O trong (P). Laáy V chính ñoåi thaønh V3 laø eaten. Do Vchính trong (A) ôû thì quaù khöù ñôn vaø The mouse trong (P) soá ít neân BE phaûi laøwas. Ñaët by tröôùc the cat. * Caáu truùc cô baûn cuûa caâu bò ñoäng laø BE + V3/ed. Sau khi laøm xong, caànkieåm tra laïi coù thieáu moät trong hai yeáu toá ñoù khoâng.II- Ñoäng töø trong caâu chuû ñoäng vaø bò ñoäng: Tenses Examples Simple Lan cleans the floor every morning. present --> The floor is cleaned by Lan every morning. Simple Nam broke the glasses. past --> The glasses were broken by Nam. Present The pupil is not doing some exercises. continuous --> Some exercises are not being done by the pupil. Past Mother was cooking dinner at 6 yesterday. continuous --> Dinner was being cooked by mother at 6 yesterday. Present The secretary has just finished the report. perfect --> The report has just been finished by the secretary. Past The boy had found the key before 9 yesterday. perfect --> The key had been found by the boy before 9 yesterday. Simple Mr. Brown will not teach our class. future --> Our class will not be taught by Mr. Brown.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 7
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Future The students will have written many compositions. perfect --> Many compositions will have been written by the students. a) The students must do this exercise in class. Modal --> This exercise must be done in class by the students. verbs b) We ought to overcome these difficulties. --> These difficulties ought to be overcome.III- Moät soá ñieåm caàn löu yù: 1) Caâu hoûi chuû ñoäng vaø bò ñoäng: (A) Did your father make this chair? ---> (P) Was this chair made by your father? (A) Who repaired your bicycle? ---> (P) Whom was your bicycle repaired by? (By whom was your bicycle repaired?) (A) What plays did Shakespeare write? ---> (P) What plays were written by Shakespeare? 2) Löôïc boû tuùc töø trong caâu bò ñoäng: Neáu chuû töø trong caâu chuû ñoäng KHOÂNG chæ roõ laø ngöôøi hay vaät cuï theå, roõraøng (people, someone, every one, no one, any one, I, we, you, they, s/he, it) thìkhi ñoåi sang caâu bò ñoäng (by people /someone / every one / no one / any one /me / us / you / them / her / him / it) coù theå ñöôïc boû ñi. Ex: (A) People built that bridge in 1998. ---> (P) That bridge was built in 1998. 3) Ñoäng töø coù hai tuùc töø: 3.1 Ñoäng töø caàn giôùi töø TO: give, lend, send, show, … (A) John will give me this book. (=John will give this book to me.) ---> (P1) I will be given this book by John. ---> (P2) This book will be given to me by John. 3.2 Ñoäng töø caàn giôùi töø FOR: buy, make, get, … (A) He bought her a rose. (=He bought a rose for her.) ---> (P1) She was bought a rose. ---> (P2) A rose was bought for her. 4) Moät soá daïng bò ñoäng khaùc: 4.1 Caáu truùc They/People say/think/believe… that … - (A) People say that Henry eats ten eggs a day. ---> (P1) It is said that Henry eats ten eggs a day.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 8
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy ---> (P2) Henry is said to eat ten eggs a day. - (A) They thought that Mary had gone away. ---> (P1) It was thought that Mary had gone away. ---> (P2) Mary was thought to have gone away. 4.2 Caáu truùc HAVE / GET + something + V3/ed - (A) I had him repair my car. ---> (P) I had my car repaired (by him). - (A) I get her to make some coffee. ---> (P) I get some coffee made (by her). Time is gold. Thôøi gian laø vaøng. Baøi 3: SÖÏ HOAØ HÔÏP GIÖÕA CHUÛ TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØI- Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp ñoäng töø chia daïng soá ít: Neáu chuû töø thuoäc caùc tröôøng hôïp sau thì ñoäng töø chia daïng soá ít. 1) Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá ít hoaëc danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc: - Mary lives in China. - Milk is my favorite drink. 2) Danh töø taän cuøng baèng “S” mang nghóa soá ít: news, mathematics (maths), economics, linguistics, politics, statistics,physics, phonetics, aerobics, athletics, gymnastics, measles, mumps, rickets,diabetes, the Philippines, the United States, … - The news is interesting. 3) Ñaïi töø baát ñònh: every/any/no/some + body/one/thing - Someone is kbocking at the door. 4) Meänh ñeà baét ñaàu baèng THAT/WHAT/WHERE/WHEN… hoaëc cuïm töøbaét ñaàu baèng TO V/V-ing: - That you get high marks does not surprise me. - To master English is not easy. - Growing flowers was her hobby when she was young. 5) Töø chæ thôøi gian, khoaûng caùch, tieàn baïc, ño löôøng, theå tích: - Eight hours of sleep a day is enough. - Five kilometers is not a long distance.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 9
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy - Twenty dollars is too much to pay for that stuff. 6) Töø ñònh löôïng + N mang nghóa soá ít: - Each of the children has a toy. - One of my friends is coming.II- Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp ñoäng töø chia daïng soá nhieàu: Neáu chuû töø thuoäc caùc tröôøng hôïp sau thì ñoäng töø chia daïng soá nhieàu. 1) Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá nhieàu: - Engineers are key figures in our life. 2) Caùc danh töø khaùc nhau keát hôïp baèng AND: - Scientists and engineers are very important. 3) Töø ñònh löôïng + N mang nghóa soá nhieàu: - Most of the students here work very hard. - Some books I read last week are written by a famous writer. 4) Danh töø luoân ôû daïng soá nhieàu: people, police, cattle, poultry, military, goods, clothes, scissors, glasses,… - The police have arrested the robbers. - Sun glasses are used to protect your eyes from the sunlight. * Chuù yù: A pair of scissors is helpful in this case. 5) The + Adj chæ danh töø soá nhieàu: the rich/poor, the young/old/elderly, the homeless, the handicapped, theblind/deaf/mute, the English/Chinese/Vietnamese,… - The poor have many problems. III- Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp caàn löu yù: 1) Khi caùc chuû töø ñöôïc noái vôùi nhau bôûi as well as, with, along with hoaëctogether with, ñoäng töø seõ hoaø hôïp vôùi chuû töø thöù nhaát. - The students, as well as their teacher, have not come yet. - The teacher, as well as his students, has not come yet. 2) Khi caùc chuû töø ñöôïc noái vôùi nhau bôûi either … or, neither … nor, hoaëcnot only … but also ñoäng töø seõ hoaø hôïp vôùi chuû töø gaàn nhaát. - Neither she nor her friends have arrived. - Not only the dogs but also the cat is mine. 3) A number of + N soá nhieàu – ñoäng töø soá nhieàu, The number of + N soánhieàu – ñoäng töø soá ít: - A number of applicants have been interviewed. (Nhieàu) - The number of days in a week is seven. (Soá löôïng)Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 10
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 4) Chuû töø laø danh töø taäp hôïp: family, class, crowd, group, club, association, company, team, … 4.1 Xem nhö MOÄT ÑÔN VÒ - ñoäng töø soá ít: - My family has three members. 4.2 Ñeà caäp ñeán TÖØNG CAÙ NHAÂN - ñoäng töø soá nhieàu: - My family were watching TV at 7 yesterday. Health is better than wealth. Söùc khoeû laø vaøng. Baøi 4: CAÂU NOÙI TRÖÏC TIEÁP VAØ GIAÙN TIEÁPI- Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai: Neáu ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì HIEÄN TAÏI hoaëc TÖÔNG LAI, ta chæ ñoåiNGOÂI nhö sau: 1) Ñoåi ngoâi thöù NHAÁT phuø hôïp vôùi CHUÛ TÖØ trong meänh ñeà chính 2) Ñoåi ngoâi thöù HAI phuø hôïp vôùi TUÙC TÖØ trong meänh ñeà chính 3) Ngoâi thöù BA khoâng ñoåi Ex: He says to me, “I and you will go with her father tomorrow.” ---> He tells me (that) he and I will go with her father tomorrow. * Chuù yù: say to ---> tellII- Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì quaù khöù: Neáu ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì quaù khöù, ta ñoåi ba yeáu toá laø ngoâi, thì cuûa ñoängtöø vaø traïng töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán. 1) Ngoâi: (nhö treân) 2) Thì cuûa ñoäng töø: V1 ---> V2/ed shall ---> should V2/ed ---> had + V3/ed may ---> might can ---> could must ---> had to will ---> would 3) Traïng töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán: today ---> that day next week ---> the week after tonight ---> that night tomorrow ---> the day after now ---> then this ---> that ago ---> before these ---> those yesterday ---> the day before here ---> there last week ---> the week beforeStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 11
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: She said to me, “I met your brother yesterday.” ---> She told me that she had met my brother the day before.III- Caùc daïng caâu töôøng thuaät: 1) Caâu khaúng ñònh vaø phuû ñònh: Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thöôøng laø said/told. Ex1: He said, “I have seen her today.” ---> He said (that) he had seen her that day. Ex2: The teacher said to Peter, “The prize was not given to you.” ---> The teacher told Peter (that) the prize had not been given to him. * Chuù yù: said to ---> told 2) Caâu hoûi: Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thöôøng laø asked/wondered/wanted to know(hoûi/töï hoûi/muoán bieát). 2.1 Y/N: Ex1: She asked me, “Do you like him?” ---> She asked me if I liked him. Ex2: He said, “Can you speak English, Nam?” ---> He asked Nam whether he could speak English. 2.2 WH-: Ex1: He said, “What is her name?” ---> He asked what her name was. Ex2: She said to him, “Where do you live?” ---> She asked him where he lived. * Chuù yù traät töï cuûa S vaø V: Caâu hoûi tröïc tieáp ---> Caâu hoûi giaùn tieáp - Y/N: “V + S?” if/whether + S + V - WH-: “WH- + V + S?” WH- + S + V * said to ---> asked 3) Caâu meänh leänh: Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thöôøng laø told/asked/ordered (baûo/yeâu caàu/ra leänh). 3.1 Khaúng ñònh: Ex: The teacher said, “Go to the board, John.” ---> The teacher told John to go to the board. 3.2 Phuû ñònh: Ex: Nam said to his friend, “Don’t shut the door.”Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 12
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy ---> Nam asked his friend not to shut the door. Many a little makes a mickle. Goùp gioù thaønh baõo. Baøi 5: CAÂU ÑIEÀU KIEÄN VAØ CAÂU AO ÖÔÙCI- Caâu ñieàu kieän: 1) Ba loaïi caâu ñieàu kieän: 1.1 Loaïi moät: Dieãn taû ñieàu kieän COÙ THEÅ XAÛY RA ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai. Ex: If it rains heavily, I will stay at home. 1.2 Loaïi hai: Dieãn taû ñieàu kieän KHOÂNG THEÅ XAÛY RA ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai. Ex1: I would buy a new bicycle if I had enough money. (Hieän taïi toâi khoâng coù ñuû tieàn.) Ex2: If I were a king, you would be a queen. (Toâi khoâng theå laø vua.) 1.3 Loaïi ba: Dieãn taû ñieàu kieän KHOÂNG THEÅ XAÛY RA ôû quaù khöù. Ex: If John had worked harder, he wouldn’t have failed his exam. (Söï thaät laø John ñaõ khoâng chaêm chæ vaø ñaõ thi rôùt.) 2) Toùm taét coâng thöùc: Loaïi IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE 1 V1(s/es) will/can/may… + V 2 V2/ed/WERE would/could/should… + V 3 had +V3/ed would/could/should…+ have + V3/ed 3) Nhöõng ñieåm caàn löu yù: 4.1 “If … not” coù theå ñöôïc thay baèng “UNLESS” (tröø phi): Ex: We will be late if we don’t hurry. ---> We will be late unless we hurry. Ex: If I have time, I’ll help you. ---> Unless I have time, I won’t help you. 4.2 Boû IF trong 3 loaïi caâu ñieàu kieän (phaûi coù ñaûo ngöõ vôùiSHOULD/WERE/HAD):Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 13
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: If it should be necessary, I will go. ---> Should it be necessary, I will go. Ex: If I were rich, I would buy a new car. ---> Were I rich, I would buy a new car. Ex: If you had asked me, I would have told you the answer. ---> Had you asked me, I would have told you the answer. 4.3 Moät soá töø/cuïm töø coù theå thay cho IF vôùi nghóa töông ñöông:provided that/so(as) long as (mieãn laø)/in case (trong tröôøng hôïp)/on conditionthat (vôùi ñieàu kieän) Ex: You can borrow my book provided that you bring it back.II- Caâu ao öôùc: WISH (öôùc)/IF ONLY(giaù maø) 1) Khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi: V2/ed/WERE - I wish Peter were here now. (He isn’t here now.) - If only I had more money. 2) Khoâng coù thaät ôû töông lai: WOULD + V - She wishes Tom would be here tomorrow. - If only Tom would be here tomorrow. 3) Khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù: HAD + V3/ed - We wish she had passed her exam last year. - If only you hadn’t told Peter about our plan. Where there’s a will there’s a way. Coù chí thì neân. Baøi 6: SÖÏ ÑAÛO NGÖÕMoät soá töø/cuïm töø sau khi ñaët ñaàu caâu caàn ñaûo ngöõ:1) Nhöõng traïng töø coù nghóa phuû ñònh hoaëc gaàn phuû ñònh: never, no longer, nowhere else, rarely, seldom, little, not until - He knows little about what she has done.---> Little does he know about what she has done. - She is not only beautiful, but she is also very intelligent.---> Not only is she beautiful, but she is also very intelligent.2) Caùc cuïm töø baét ñaàu baèng AT, IN, ON, UNDER: - At no time was Tom aware of what was happening. - In no circumstances would I agree such a proposal.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 14
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy3) Caâu dieàu kieän löôïc boû IF: (xem Baøi 5, I, 3.2) - If anyone asks me, please tell them I will be away for a few days. ---> Should anyone ask me, please tell them I will be away for a few days. - If I knew him better, I would give him advice. ---> Did I know him better, I would give him advice.4) SO/SUCH: - I am a student, so is she. - The day was so hot that we had to stay indoors. ---> So hot was the day that we had to stay indoors. - It is such a good book that I can’t put it down. ---> Such a good book is it that I can’t put it down.5) ONLY when/after/by/then/if … - Only after a year did I begin to see the results of my work. - Only by working harder will you pass your final exam.6) HARDLY/SCARCELY/BARELY … WHEN; NO SOONER … THAN: - Hardly had I arrived home when I had a new problem. - No sooner had she handed in her paper than she realized her carelessmistakes. Necessity is the mother of invention. Caùi khoù loù caùi khoân. Baøi 7: TÖØ ÑÒNH LÖÔÏNGVI- Töø chæ soá löôïng lôùn/nhoû: 1) A lot of, lots of, many, much: (nhieàu) - A lot of, lots of + danh töø soá nhieàu/danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc trong caâukhaúng ñònh Ex: He has a lot of / lots of friends here. We need a lot of / lots of time to learn a foreign language. - Many, much: duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh vaø nghi vaán. MANY + danh töø soá nhieàu MUCH + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc Ex: There aren’t many people living here. Does the newspaper have much information? - Many, much sau VERY, SO, TOO, AS:Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 15
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: Very many crimes go unreported. We had so many exercises to do. There is too much salt in the soup. He hasn’t got as much patience as I thought. 2) A few, a little / few, little: (moät vaøi, moät ít / (raát) ít) - A few, a little: duøng vôùi nghóa xaùc ñònh A few + danh töø soá nhieàu A little + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc Ex: We’ve got a little bacon and a few eggs. - Few, little: duøng vôùi nghóa phuû ñònh Few + danh töø soá nhieàu Little + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc Ex: Few people can say that they always tell the truth. There is little sugar in my coffee. 3) A large number of, a great deal of/a large amount of: (soá löôïng lôùn) - A large numer of + danh töø soá nhieàu Ex: He has a large number of English books. * A number of + Ns + ñoäng töø soá nhieàu The number of + Ns + ñoäng töø soá ít (xem ví duï Baøi 3, III,3) - A great deal of + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc Ex: A dishwasher uses a great deal of electricity.VII- Töø chæ soá löôïng toaøn theå/boä phaän: 1) All, most, some, any, no: - Vôùi danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá nhieàu vaø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc: Ex: All rabbits love green food. My brother likes all music. Most students love football. Most pollution can be avoided. I’ve just bought some books. Would you like some beer? She didn’t have any friends. Have you got any wood? We have no Sundays free. I have no time to talk to you. * SOME duøng trong caâu khaúng ñònh vaø caâu hoûi. ANY duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh vaø caâu hoûi. - Vôùi caáu truùc OF + the/these/those/my/her/our… + N (ít/nhieàu) Ex: Most of my students like English. Some of the food is delicious. - Vôùi caáu truùc OF + ñaïi töø taân ngöõ (us/you/them/it) Ex: Some of you have made careless mistakes in your tests.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 16
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy * Khoâng duøng caáu truùc NO OF + … 2) Every, each, both, either, neither: - Every, each + N ñeám ñöôïc soá ít (haøm yù taát caû hoaëc moãi moät ngöôøi/vaättrong nhoùm) Ex: Every/Each room has a number. I go for walk every day. (moãi ngaøy) Each day seems to pass very slowly. (töøng ngaøy) - Each of + the/these/those/my/her/our… + N soá nhieàu Ex: Each of the students has a personal computer. - Each of + ñaïi töø taân ngöõ (us/you/them) Ex: Each of us has our own desk. - Each ñöùng moät mình hoaëc ñi sau ñaïi töø Ex: They gave us each an English book. Each has an English book. - Both, either, neither + N (ñi vôùi hai ngöôøi hoaëc hai vaät) Ex: Both his parents are from Europe. You can read either book. (one of 2 books) Neither car is very economical to run. (2 cars) - Both, either, neither + OF + the/these/those/my/her/our… + N soá nhieàu Ex: Both of his parents are from Europe. You can read either of the books. Neither of the cars is/are very economical to run. - Both, either, neither + OF + ñaïi töø taân ngöõ (us/you/them) Ex: Both of us were tired. Beauty is but skin-deep. Caùi neát ñaùnh cheát caùi ñeïp. Baøi 8: MEÄNH ÑEÀ TÍNH TÖØ VAØ MEÄNH ÑEÀ TRAÏNG TÖØVI- Meänh ñeà tính töø: Meänh ñeà tính töø hay meänh ñeà quan heä ñöôïc ñaët sau danh töø noù phuï nghóa,ñöôïc noái baèng caùc töø quan heä: WHO, WHOM, WHICH, THAT, WHOSE,WHERE, WHY, WHEN.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 17
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy DANH TÖØ CHUÛ TÖØ TUÙC TÖØ SÔÛ HÖÕUNgöôøi WHO/THAT WHO(M)/THAT WHOSEVaät/Ñ.vaät WHICH/THAT WHICH/THAT WHOSE/OF WHICHNôi choán WHERELyù do WHYThôøi gian WHENEx: - The woman who/that is standing over there is my sister. - I know the boy who(m)/that I spoke to. - She works for a company which/that makes cars. - The girl whose photo was in the paper lives in our street. - John found a cat whose leg/the leg of which was broken. - The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean. - Tell me the reason why you are so sad. - Do you remember the day when we first met? 1) Meänh ñeà quan heä haïn ñònh: Duøng ñeå boå nghóa cho danh töø ñöùng tröôùc. Neáu boû ñi meänh ñeà chính seõkhoâng roõ nghóa. Ex: I saw the girl. She helped us last week. ---> I saw the girl who/that helped us last week. 2) Meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng haïn ñònh: Duøng ñeå boå nghóa cho danh töø ñöùng tröôùc, laø phaàn giaûi thích theâm. Neáu boûñi meänh ñeà chính vaãn roõ nghóa. Meänh ñeà naøy thöôøng ñöôïc taùch khoûi meänh ñeàchính baèng daáu phaåy “,”. Ta duøng meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng haïn ñònh khi: - Tröôùc danh töø quan heä coù: this/that/these/those/my/her/his/… - Töø quan heä laø teân rieâng hoaëc danh töø rieâng. Ex: My father is a doctor. He is fifty years old. ---> My father, who is fifty years old, is a doctor. Mr Brown is a very nice teacher. We studied English with him. ---> Mr Brown, who(m) we studied English with, is a very nice teacher. * LÖU YÙ: KHOÂNG duøng THAT trong meänh ñeà naøy. Mr Brown, that we studied English with, is a very nice teacher. 3) Giôùi töø ñaët tröôùc meänh ñeà tính töø: (WHOM/WHICH) Ex: The man speaks English very fast. I talked to him last night. ---> The man to whom I last night speaks English very fast.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 18
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy The house is for sale. I was born in it. ---> The house in which I was born is for sale. * LÖU YÙ: KHOÂNG duøng THAT, WHO sau giôùi töø. The house in that I was born is for sale. 4) Ñaïi töø quan heä THAT: 1.1 Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp thöôøng duøng THAT: - Sau cuïm töø quan heä vöøa chæ ngöôøi vaø vaät: Ex: He told me the places and people that he had seen in London. - Sau ñaïi töø baát ñònh: Ex: I’ll tell you something that is very interesting. - Sau caùc tính töø so saùnh nhaát, ALL, EVERY, VERY, ONLY: Ex: This is the most beautiful dress that I have. All that is mine is yours. You are the only person that can help us. - Trong caáu truùc It + be + … + that … (chính laø …) Ex: It is my friend that wrote this sentence. (Chính laø baïn toâi ñaõ vieát caâu naøy.) 1.2 Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp khoâng duøng THAT: - Trong meänh ñeà tính töø khoâng haïn ñònh (xem LÖU YÙ muïc 2)) - Sau giôùi töø (xem LÖU YÙ muïc 3)) 5) OF WHICH / OF WHOM: Ex: Daisy has three brothers. All of them are teachers. ---> Daisy has three brothers, all of whom are teachers. He asked me a lot of questions. I couldn’t answer most of them. ---> He asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn’t answer. 6) Ruùt goïn meänh ñeà tính töø thaønh cuïm tính töø: 1.1 Duøng V-ing hoaëc boû BE: Khi ñoäng töø chính trong meänh ñeà tính töø ôû theå CHUÛ ÑOÄNG hoaëc laø BE. Ex: Those people who are taking photos over there come from Sweden. ---> Those people taking photos over there come from Sweden. Fans who want to buy tickets started queuing early. ---> Fans wanting to buy tickets started queuing early. The books which are on that shelf are mine. ---> The books on that shelf are mine. 1.2 Duøng V3/ed:Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 19
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Khi ñoäng töø chính trong meänh ñeà tính töø ôû theå BÒ ÑOÄNG. Ex: The books which were written by To Hoai are interesting. ---> The books written by To Hoai are interesting. Most students who were punished last week are lazy. ---> Most students punished last week are lazy. 1.3 Duøng (FOR + O) TO V: Ex: This is the hotel where we can stay. ---> This is the hotel (for us) to stay.VII- Meänh ñeà traïng töø: 1) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ nôi choán: where (nôi, choã) hoaëc wherever (baát cöù nôi naøo) Ex: He told me where he had seen the money. I will go wherever you go. 2) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ theå caùch: as (nhö), as if/as though (nhö theå) Ex: We should do as our teacher tells us. She looks as if she’s going to cry. * Söï vieäc khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi as if/as though + S + WERE/V2/ed Ex: He looked at me as if I were mad. * Söï vieäc khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù as if/as though + S + had + V3/ed Ex: He ran as if he had seen a ghost. 3) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ nguyeân nhaân / lyù do: because, since, as (bôûi vì) Ex: She sold the car because she needed some money. * So saùnh because vaø because of: BECAUSE + S + V BECAUSE OF + V-ing/N/N phrase Ex: I’m late because I’m sick. I’m late because of being sick. I’m late because of my sickness. 4) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ muïc ñích: so that/in order that (ñeå) + S + (can/could) + V Ex: She wants to stay here so that she can perfect her English. 5) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ thôøi gian:Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 20
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy when (khi), as (khi/trong khi), while (trong khi), after (sau khi), before(tröôùc khi), until/till (cho tôùi khi), since (töø khi), as soon as (ngay khi),whenever (baát cöù khi naøo), no sooner … than/ hardly … when (vöøa môùi … thì) Ex: When it rains, I usually go to school by bus. We should do a good deed whenever we can. * Ñaûo ngöõ vôùi no sooner … than/ hardly … when (xem Baøi 1, III, 3) * KHOÂNG duøng thì TÖÔNG LAI trong meänh traïng töø chæ thôøi gian. I’ll tell you the news when I will come. * Thì cuûa ñoäng töø trong MÑ chính vaø MÑ traïng töø chæ thôøi gian: Meänh ñeà chính Meänh traïng töø chæ thôøi gian - Present - Present - Past - Past - Future - Present 6) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ keát quaû: - so + adj/adv + that … (quaù … ñeán noãi …) Ex: The coffee is so hot that I can’t drink it. - such (+ a(n)) + adj + Noun + that … (quaù … ñeán noãi …) Ex: It was such a hot day that we stopped playing. They are such interesting books that I want to buy them all. - so + many/much/few/little + Noun + that … (quaù nhieàu/ít…ñeán noãi…) Ex: There are so many people in the room that I feel tired. 7) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ söï nhöôïng boä: though/although/even though (maëc duø) + S + V Ex: Though he looks ill, he is really strong. * LÖU YÙ: - in spite of/despite (maëc duø) + V-ing/N/N phrase Ex: In spite of having little money, they always enloy themselves. (Although they have little money, they always enloy themselves.) - in spite of/despite + the fact that (maëc duø) + S + V Ex: Despite the fact that they have little money, they’re always happy. - no matter where = wherever (duø baát cöù ñaâu) Ex: No matter where you go, you need to have friends. Diligence is the mother of success. Coù coâng maøi saét coù ngaøy neân kimStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 21
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Baøi 9: DANH ÑOÄNG TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU COÙ “TO”I- DANH ÑOÄNG TÖØ: (Gerund) Ex: She enjoys listening to music. V + V-ing (Gerund) Moät soá töø/ñoäng töø sau ñaây caàn coù V-ing theo sau: * enjoy (thích, thöôûng thöùc), finish (hoaøn thaønh), postpone (trì hoaõn),avoid (traùnh), keep (vaãn coøn), practise (thöïc haønh), miss (boû lôõ), be/get used to(quen vôùi), spend (tieâu xaøi, traûi qua), allow/permit (cho pheùp), advise (khuyeân),recommend (ñeà nghò, khuyeân baûo), give up (töø boû, ñaàu haøng), suggest (ñeà nghò),deny (töø choái), consider (xem xeùt), quit (rôøi boû), dislike (khoâng thích), like(thích), can’t help (khoâng theå khoâng), … * it’s no use/good (khoâng lôïi ích gì), would you mind (baïn coù phieàn) * worth (ñaùng, ñaùng ñöôïc), busy (baän roän)II- ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU COÙ “TO”: Ex: I want to learn English well. V + TO V Moät soá ñoäng töø sau ñaây caàn coù to V theo sau: want (muoán), expect (mong chôø, kyø voïng), refuse (töø choái), hope (hyvoïng), decide (quyeát ñònh), agree (ñoàng yù), plan (döï ñònh), would like (muoán),like (muoán), fail (thaát baïi, hoûng), learn (hoïc), afford (coù ñuû khaû naêng/ñieàu kieän),manage (xoay sôû), choose (choïn löïa), demand (ñoøi hoûi, yeâu caàu), prepare(chuaån bò), pretend (giaû boä), promise (höùa), seek (tìm kieám), threaten (ñe doaï),train (ñaøo taïo, huaán luyeän), wish (ao öôùc), …III- TO INFINITIVE OR GERUND? 1) Moät soá ñoäng töø coù V-ing hoaëc TO V theo sau khoâng laøm thay ñoåi nghóa: begin/start (baét ñaàu), continue (tieáp tuïc), hate (gheùt), can’t bear (khoângchòu ñöôïc), intend (döï ñònh), love (yeâu thöông), prefer (thích…hôn), hesitate (dodöï), … 2) Moät soá ñoäng töø coù V-ing hoaëc TO V theo sau laøm thay ñoåi nghóa: - stop + to V: döøng laïi ñeå laøm Ex: I stop to eat lunch. (Toâi döøng laïi ñeå aên tröa.) - stop + V-ing: döøng haønh ñoäng ñang laøm Ex: You should stop smoking. (Baïn neân boû huùt thuoác.)Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 22
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy - try + to V: coá gaéng Ex: He tries to get ten marks. (Anh ta coá gaéng ñaït möôøi ñieåm.) - try + V-ing: thöû Ex: She tried writing with her left hand. (Coâ ta thöû vieát baèng tay traùi.) - need + to V: caàn (nghóa chuû ñoäng) Ex: They need to work harder. (Hoï caàn laøm vieäc chaêm chæ hôn.) - need + V-ing: caàn ñöôïc (nghóa bò ñoäng) Ex: This room needs cleaning. (Caên phoøng naøy caàn lau chuøi.) - remember/forget + to V: nhôù/queân laøm ñieàu gì (chöa xaûy ra) Ex: Remember to post the letter when you get to the post office. (Nhôù gôûi laù thö khi baïn ñeán böu ñieän.) - remember/forget + V-ing: nhôù/queân ñaõ laøm ñieàu gì (ñaõ xaûy ra) Ex: I will never forget seeing you here last year. (Toâi seõ khoâng bao giôø queân gaëp baïn taïi ñaây vaøo naêm roài.) - regret + to V: tieác phaûi laøm ñieàu gì (haønh ñoäng saép xaûy ra) Ex: I regret to tell you that you failed the exam. (Toâi laáy laøm tieác baùo cho anh hay anh ñaõ thi hoûng.) - regret + V-ing: tieác ñaõ laøm ñieàu gì (haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra) Ex: She regretted going to New York for holiday. (Coâ aáy tieác ñaõ ñi nghæ ôû New York.) * LÖU YÙ: Caáu truùc S + V + O + TO V vaø S + LET/MAKE + O + V Ex: I permit you to go out tonight. They let me visit my parents. Make haste slowly Duïc toác baát ñaït Baøi 10: TÖØ LOAÏII- Danh töø: 1) Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc: 1.1 Hình thöùc soá ít: a/an + N - “a” ñöùng tröôùc danh töø soá ít baét ñaàu baèng moät phuï aâm.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 23
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: a book, a pen, … - “an” ñöùng tröôùc danh töø soá ít baét ñaàu baèng moät nguyeân aâm. Ex: an apple, an orange, an egg, an umbrella, an island, … 1.2 Hình thöùc soá nhieàu: 1.2.1 Hôïp quy taéc: Ns/es Ex: books, pens, boxes 1.2.2 Baát quy taéc: Soá ít Soá nhieàu Soá ít Soá nhieàu a man men a foot feet a woman women a tooth teeth a child children a bacterium bacteria a person people a curriculum curricula a mouse mice a datum data a louse lice a criterion criteria a goose geese a phenomenon phenomena 1.2.3 Danh töø luoân coù hình thöùc vaø mang nghóa soá nhieàu: clothes, scissors, spectacles, shorts, pants, jeans, trousers, pyjamas,binoculars, belongings, … 1.2.4 Danh töø soá ít vaø soá nhieàu coù hình thöùc gioáng nhau: sheep, deer, aircraft, craft, fish, … 1.2.5 Danh töø luoân mang nghóa soá nhieàu: (xem Baøi 3, II, 4) police, cattle, people, … 1.2.6 Danh töø coù hình thöùc soá nhieàu nhöng mang nghóa soá ít: news, mathematics, the United States, … (xem Baøi 3, I, 2) 2) Danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc: Laø nhöõng thöù ta khoâng theå ñeám ñöôïc tröïc tieáp (moät, hai, ba, …) nhö milk,water, rice, sugar, butter, salt, bread, news, information, advice, luggage, health,knowledge, equipment, iron, paper, glass, … (one milk, two milk) * Chuù yù: - Khoâng coù hình thöùc soá nhieàu (s/es) - Khoâng duøng vôùi a/an/one/two… - Coù theå ñi vôùi töø chæ dôn vò ñònh löôïng + of: a bottle of milk, two litters of water, a loaf of bread, three sheets of paper,four pieces of chalk, a bar of chocolate, a gallon of petrol, … 3) Danh töø vöøa ñeám ñöôïc vöøa khoâng ñeám ñöôïc:Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 24
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Moät soá danh töø trong tröôøng hôïp naøy laø ñeám ñöôïc nhöng trong tröôøng hôïpkhaùc laïi khoâng ñeám ñöôïc. Ñeám ñöôïc Khoâng ñeám ñöôïc a glass (moät caùi li) glass (thuûy tinh) two papers (hai tôø baùo) paper (giaáy) three coffees (ba taùch caø pheâ) coffee (caø pheâ) two sugars (hai muoãng ñöông) sugar (ñöôøng)II- Tính töø: 2) Vò trí cuûa tính töø: 6.1 Tröôùc danh töø: Ex: She is a beautiful girl. 6.2 Sau danh töø: g) Chæ söï ño löôøng, tuoåi taùc: Ex: This table is two meters long. He’s twenty years old. h) Tính töø coù tieáp ñaàu ngöõ “a”: asleep (ñang nguû), ablaze (buøng chaùy), alight (böøng saùng), awake(thöùc), alive (coøn soáng), alike (gioáng nhau), afloat (noåi), … Ex: I saw my son asleep on the floor. i) Tính töø boå ngöõ cho tuùc töø: Ex: We should keep our room clean. 6.3 Sau Linking verbs: be, become, feel, look, taste, sound, smell, seem, get, turn, appear Ex: It becomes hot today. 6.4 Sau ñaïi töø baát ñònh: something, someone/body, anything, anyone/body, everything,everyone/body, nothing, no one, nobody Ex: Do you have anything important to tell me? 6.5 Sau traïng töø: Ex: Your story is very interesting. 3) Traät töï cuûa caùc tính töø tröôùc danh töø:Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 25
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy TÍNH TÖØ YÙ KIEÁN SÖÏ THAÄTnice, Kích Tuoåi Hình Maøu saéc Quoác Chaátgood, bad, thöôùc daïng tòch/nôi lieäuugly, choánbeautiful big, old, fat, thin, white, Vietnamese, wooden, small, young round black English, golden tall French Ex: A beautiful tall thin Vietnamese girl is standing over there. 4) Tính töø duøng nhö danh töø: (xem theâm Baøi 3, II, 5) THE + ADJ ---> NOUN the poor, the rich, the blind, the deaf, the old, the handicapped, the sick, thestrong, the weak, the hungry, the disadvantaged, the unemployed, the disabled,the living, the dead, the young, the middle-aged Ex: The rich should help the poor. 5) Phaân töø duøng nhö tính töø: Tính töø taän cuøng baèng –ING –ED –ING –ED amazing amazed exciting excited amusing amused frightening frightened boring bored interesting interested confusing confused pleasing pleased depressing depressed relaxing relaxed deserving deserved satisfying satisfied disappointing disappointed shocking shocked distinguishing distinguished surprising surprised encouraging encouraged tiring tired 1.1 Hình thöùc hieän taïi phaân töø (-ING): Dieãn taû nhaän thöùc cuûa ngöôøi noùi veà ngöôøi/vieäc gì ñoù. Ex: That film is interesting. (Boä phim ñoù hay.) (Ngöôøi xem nhaän thaáy boä phim hay.) He is boring. He always talks about the same things. (Haén ta chaùn thaät. Haén luoân baøn veà nhöõng thöù gioáng nhau.) (Ngöôøi nghe nhaän thaáy haén ta chaùn.) 1.2 Hình thöùc quaù khöù phaân töø (-ED):Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 26
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Dieãn taû caûm giaùc cuûa ngöôøi noùi do ngöôøi/vieäc gì ñoù ñem laïi. Ex: I am confused about the question. (Toâi bò boái roái veà caâu hoûi.) (Caâu hoûi laøm toâi boái roái.)III- Traïng töø: 1) Phaân loaïi traïng töø: 4.1 Traïng töø chæ theå caùch: - Cho ta bieát moät haønh ñoäng ñöôïc thöïc hieän nhö theá naøo ñeå traû lôøi cho caâuhoûi HOW? - Caùch thaønh laäp: ADJ + LY (moät caùch …)angrily giaän giöõ peacefully hoaø bìnhanxiously lo laéng politely lòch söï, leã pheùpbadly dôû, teä quickly nhanh nheïnbeautifully (haùt/muùa) hay quietly yeân tónhbrightly töôi saùng rapidly nhanh choùngcarefully caån thaän safely an toaøncleverly kheùo leùo, khoân sensibly hôïp lyùcolorfully saëc sôõ seriously nghieâm tuùccontinuously lieân tieáp silently im laëngeasily deã daøng skillfully kheùo tayfluently troâi chaûy slowly chaäm chaïphappily haïnh phuùc specially ñaëc bieätheavily naëng neà stupidly ngu ngoácloudly aàm æ, inh oûi successfully thaønh coângnervously hoài hoäp warmly aám aùp * LÖU YÙ: - fast (nhanh), early (sôùm), late (treã), hard (chaêm chæ) vöøa laø tính töø vöøa laøtraïng töø. Tính töø Traïng töø Jack is a very fast runner. Jack can run very fast. Ann is hard worker. Ann works hard. (hardly) The train was late. I got up late this morning. - Phaân bieät:Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 27
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy late (treã) lately (gaàn ñaây) (= recently) You come home late today. He hasn’t been to the cinema lately. (Hoâm nay con veà treã.) (Gaàn ñaây anh ta khoâng ñi xem phim.) hard (chaêm chæ) hardly (haàu nhö khoâng) I’ve worked very hard. She’s hardly got any money left. (Toâi laøm vieäc raát chaêm.) (Coâ aáy haàu nhö khoâng coøn tieàn.) - Moät soá tính töø taän cuøng –LY: friendly (thaân thieän), lovely (deã thöông), lively (soáng ñoäng), ugly (xaáu xí),silly (ngôù ngaån). Nhöõng töø naøy khoâng phaûi laø traïng töø, neân ta duøng “in a……way/manner” thay cho traïng töø. Ex: She spoke to me in a friendly way/manner. (Coâ ta noùi chuyeän vôùi toâi moät caùch thaân thieän.) 4.2 Traïng töø chæ thôøi gian: Cho bieát söï vieäc xaûy ra luùc naøo ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu hoûi WHEN? now, today, yesterday, tomorrow, last year, then, still, no longer, already,immediately, just, soon, finally, recently, lately, at once, 2 months later/after, … Ex: I’m leaving for Hanoi tomorrow. 4.3 Traïng töø chæ nôi choán: Cho bieát söï vieäc xaûy ra ôû ñaâu ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu hoûi WHERE? here, there, somewhere, outside, inside, upstairs, downstairs, everywhere,in Paris, at the supermarket, … Ex: Tom is standing there. 4.4 Traïng töø chæ söï thöôøng xuyeân: Cho bieát haønh ñoäng xaûy ra thöôøng xuyeân nhö theá naøo ñeå traû lôøi cho caâuhoûi HOW OFTEN? never, rarely, seldom, sometimes, usually, frequently, occasionally, often,always, once/twice a week, every day, daily, weekly, monthly, … Ex: I often get up at 5 in the morning. 4.5 Traïng töø chæ möùc ñoä: Cho bieát haønh ñoäng, tính chaát cuûa söï vieäc dieãn ra ñeán möùc naøo. very, too, so, quite, rather, extremely, absolutely, terribly, completely,really, pretty, fairly, entirely, hardly, scarcely, somewhat, enough,… Ex: I come here quite often.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 28
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 2) Vò trí cuûa traïng töø: 2.1 Ñaàu caâu: Ex: Where are you going? 2.2 Giöõa caâu: 2.2.1 Tröôùc ñoäng töø thöôøng: Ex: They often play football after class. 2.2.2 Sau ñoäng töø TO BE, trôï ñoäng töø hoaëc ñoäng töø khieám khuyeát: Ex: Our teacher is still sick. She doesn’t often go with him. He can seldom find time for reading. 2.3 Cuoái caâu: Ex: You sang that song well. 3) Traät töï cuûa caùc traïng töø: Traät töï cuûa caùc traïng töø trong caâu thöôøng nhö sau: Thöôøng Nôi choán Möùc ñoä Theå caùch Thôøi gian xuyeân He walked to the church very slowly twice last Sunday. * Chuù yù: Traät töï treân coù theå thay ñoåi tuyø vaøo muïc ñích nhaán maïnh cuûa ngöôøi noùi/vieát. 4) Chöùc naêng cô baûn cuûa traïng töø: Boå nghóa cho Ví duï* 1) Ñoäng töø They danced beautifully. 2) Tính töø She is very lovely. 3) Traïng töø khaùc He studied extremely hard. 4) Caû caâu Fortunately, he was not injured in that accident. * Phaàn in ñaäm, gaïch döôùi boå nghóa cho phaàn in nghieâng.IV- Giôùi töø: 1) Phaân loaïi giôùi töø: 1.1 Giôùi töø chæ nôi choán: IN, ON, AT a) IN (trong): ñöôïc duøng - Chæ moät ngöôøi hoaëc vaät ôû trong moät nôi naøo ñoù. in a box / room / building / park / garden / bag / pocket / kitchen / cinema /restaurant / book / lesson / newspaper / picture / pool / sea / river/ water / sky /world / queue / row / line …Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 29
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: My mother is cooking in the kitchen. - Vôùi phöông tieän xe hôi, taxi hoaëc ñöôøng phoá. in a car / taxi, in/on the street Ex: Peter arrived at the party in a taxi. They live in Hung Vuong Street. - Vôùi danh töø khoâng coù maïo töø ñeå dieãn taû moät ngöôøi ñang ôû taïi ñoù. in bed / hospital / prison Ex: Tom hasn’t got up yet. He’s still in bed. - Tröôùc caùc ñaát nöôùc, thaønh phoá, phöông höôùng. in Vietnam / England / France / Hanoi / London / Paris / the east / west /south / north Ex: Ho Chi Minh City is in the south of Vietnam. - Ñeå taïo thaønh cuïm töø chæ nôi choán. in the front/back of (a car/room/theater …), in the middle of (the room …) Ex: I was in the back of the car when the accident happened. There’s a computer in the middle of the room. b) ON (treân): ñöôïc duøng - Chæ vò trí beân treân vaø tieáp xuùc vôùi beà maët cuûa moät vaät gì ñoù. on the door / floor / wall / ceiling / river / beach / coast … on/in the street, on a page Ex: I sat on the beach. They live on Wall Street. The picture you’re looking for is on page 7. - Vôùi phöông tieän ñi laïi coâng coäng hoaëc caù nhaân (xe ñaïp, honda). on a bus/train/ship/plane/bycicle/motorbike/horse Ex: There were too many people on the bus. Mary passed me on her bycicle. - Ñeå taïo thaønh cuïm töø chæ nôi choán. on the right / left, on horseback, on the way to (school …) on the back/front of (the envelope/paper …) on top of (the wardrobe …) on/at the corner of a street Ex: In Britain people drive on the left. Write your name on the front of the envelope.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 30
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy c) AT (ôû): ñöôïc duøng - Ñeå dieãn taû moät vò trí ñöôïc xaùc ñònh trong khoâng gian hoaëc soá nhaø. at the door / bus stop / traffic lights / party / meeting / desk … at 69 Tran Hung Dao Street Ex: Someone is standing at the door. She lives at 69 Tran Hung Dao Street. - Ñeå taïo thaønh cuïm töø chæ nôi choán. at home / school / college / university / work … at the top/bottom of (the page …) at the end of (the street …) at the front/back of (the line …) at/on the corner of the street Ex: Peter’s house is at the end of the street. The garden is at the back of the building. 1.2 Giôùi töø chæ thôøi gian: IN, ON, AT a) IN: ñöôïc duøng - Ñeå chæ buoåi trong ngaøy noùi chung, thaùng, naêm, muøa, thaäp nieân, theá kyû,thieân nieân kyû. in the morning / afternoon / evening in February, in 1999 in (the) spring / summer / autumn / winter in the 1990s, in the 21st century, in the 3rd millennium - Trong moät soá cuïm töø ñeå chæ moät khoaûng thôøi gian trong töông lai. in a few minutes, in an hour, in a day / week / month … Ex: Daisy has gone away. She’ll be back in a week. (Daisy ñaõ ñi khoûi. Coâ aáy seõ trôû veà trong moät tuaàn.) - Trong cuïm töø in the end vôùi nghóa cuoái cuøng (finally, at last), in time vôùinghóa kòp luùc. Ex: Peter got very angry. In the end, he walked out of the room. (Peter raát giaän. Cuoái cuøng, noù ra khoûi phoøng.) Will you be home in time for dinner? (Baïn seõ veà nhaø kòp giôø aên toái?) * Chuù yù: on time (ñuùng giôø) b) ON: ñöôïc duøng - Ñeå chæ thöù trong tuaàn, ngaøy trong thaùng.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 31
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy on Monday, on 5th March, on this/that day Ex: I was born on 27th June, 1983. - Ñeå chæ buoåi trong ngaøy cuï theå hoaëc moät ngaøy cuï theå. on Friday morning / Christmas Day / New Year’s Day / my birthday Ex: See you on Friday morning. c) AT: ñöôïc duøng - Ñeå chæ thôøi gian, caùc böõa aên trong ngaøy. at 5 a.m., at sunrise / sunset / dawn / noon / twilight / night / midnight at breakfast / lunch / dinner / supper Ex: I get up at 5 o’clock every morning. - Ñeå chæ moät dòp leã hoäi, moät thôøi khaéc naøo ñoù. at/on the weekend, at Christmas / Easter at present / the moment / the same time / this (that) time Ex: Mr. Brown is busy at the moment. - Ñeå taïo thaønh caùc cuïm giôùi töø. at the end/beginning of, at the age of, at first/last Ex: He came to live in London at the age of 25. * LÖU YÙ: KHOÂNG duøng IN, ON, AT tröôùc all, every, this month/year, next, last,tomorrow, yesterday, today. Ex: He has worked hard all morning. (in all morning) I hope to see you next Friday. (on next Friday) * Caùc giôùi töø chæ thôøi gian khaùc: FROM … TO/UNTIL/TILL (töø … ñeán) (= BETWEEN … AND) Ex: Every morning he plays tennis from 6 to 7. (Every morning he plays tennis between 6 and 7.) SINCE (töø khi - moác thôøi gian) Ex: I’ve been waiting for her since 5pm. FOR (khoaûng) Ex: He has lived in Paris for three months. DURING (trong suoát) Ex: You have to be quiet during the performance. UNTIL/TILL (cho tôùi khi) Ex: She’ll be here until Thursday. BY (vaøo khoaûng - tröôùc hoaëc ñeán moät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù)Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 32
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: You must be home by 9. BEFORE (tröôùc luùc) / AFTER (sau khi) Ex: Come and see me before / after lunch. 2) Giôùi töø theo sau tính töø: 1.1 Adj + TOacceptable: coù theå chaáp nhaän loyal: trung thaønhaccustomed: quen lucky: may maénagreeable: coù theå ñoàng yù married: keát hoânapplicable: coù theå öùng duïng open: môûappropriate: thích hôïp pleasant: vuicontrary: traùi vôùi pleasing: laøm vui loøngdedicated: hieán daâng polite: lòch söïessential: caàn thieát preferable: thích hônfriendly (to/with): thaân thieän related: lieân quangenerous: haøo phoùng rude: thoâ loãharmful: coù haïi similar: gioángimportant: quan troïng strange: xa laïkind: töû teá subject: deã bò, khoù traùnhknown: ñöôïc bieát ñeán true: trung thaønhlikely: coù khaû naêng/coù theå thích hôïp 1.2 Adj + OFafraid: sôï full: ñaàyaware: yù thöùc glad: vui möøngboastful: khoe khoang innocent: voâ toäicapable: coù khaû naêng jealous: ghen tòcareful(of/with/about): caån thaän proud: töï haøocareless: baát caån sure(of/about): chaéc chaéncertain: chaéc chaén thoughtful: chu ñaùo, aân caànconfident: tin Sthoughtless: khoâng chu ñaùo, aân caàndesirous: khao khaùt tolerant: khoan dungfond: thích worthy: xöùng ñaùngforgetful: queân 1.3 Adj + FORanxious(for/about): lo aâu available: coù theå duøng ñöôïcappropriate: thích hôïp difficult: khoùStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 33
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duyeager: haùo höùc, haêm hôû perfect: hoaøn haûoenough: ñuû responsible: coù traùch nhieämfamous: noåi tieáng sorry: laáy laøm thöông haïigood (for health/so.): toát sufficent: ñaày ñuûgrateful (for s.th.): bieát ôn suitable(for/to): thích hôïplate: treã useful: coù lôïi íchnecessary: caàn thieát 1.4 Adj + ATamazed(at/by): ngaïc nhieân good (at s.th.): gioûiangry (at/with s.o./to s.th.): giaän giöõ hopeless: voâ voïngannoyed(at/by): böïc mình present: coù maëtastonished(at/by): ngaïc nhieân quick: nhanhbad(at s.th.): dôû skilful: coù naêng khieáuclever: thoâng minhexcellent: xuaát saéc 1.5 Adj + WITHacquainted: quen disappointed: thaát voïngannoyed: giaän pleased: haøi loøngbored / fed up: chaùn popular: noåi tieángcovered: bao phuû satisfied: thoaû maõncrowded: ñoâng 1.6 Adj + INhonest: löông thieän rich: giaøuinterested: thích thuù successful: thaønh coângproficient (at/in): thaønh thaïo weak: yeáu keùm 1.7 Adj + FROMabsent: vaéng free: ñöôïc mieãndifferent: khaùc safe: an toaøndistinct: khaùc bieät separate: rieâng leû 1.8 Adj + ABOUTconfused: boái roái happy: vui veûcurious: toø moø, hieáu kyø sad: buoànenthusiastic: nhieät tình serious: ñöùng ñaén, nghieâm tuùcexcited: höùng thuù worried: boàn choàn, lo laéng 2 ) Giôùi töø theo sau ñoäng töø:Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 34
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duyaccuse … of: buoäc toäi live on: soáng nhôø vaøoapologise to … for: xin loãi look after: chaêm soùcapologize for: xin loãi veà look around: nhìn quanhapply for: noäp ñôn xin vieäc look at: nhìnarrive in/at: ñeán (nôi) look back on: nhìn veà quaù khöùask … for: hoûi … cho look down on: khinh reûbelieve in: tin töôûng vaøo look for: tìmbelong to: thuoäc veà look forward to: mong ñôïiblame … for: ñoå loãi look into: ñieàu traborrow … from: möôïn object to: phaûn ñoáicare about: quan taâm veà participate in: tham gia vaøocare for: chaêm soùc/thích/yeâu caàu pay for: traû tieàn chocharge … with: phaït point / aim at: chæ … vaøocome across: tình côø gaëp prefer … to: thích … hôncomplain to … about: than phieàn prepare for: chuaån bòconcentrate on: taäp trung provide … with: cung caápcongratulate … on: chuùc möøng regard … as: coi … nhöconsist of: bao goàm rely … on: döïa vaøocrash into: va chaïm vaøo remind … of: nhaéc nhôûdeal with: giaûi quyeát result from: do bôûidecide on: quyeát ñònh veà result in: gaây radepend on: thuoäc vaøo run into: tình côø gaëpdie of: cheát vì search for: tìm kieámdivide into: chia (ra) send for: cho môøi (ai) ñeándream of / about: mô veà shout at: la, heùtescape from: thoaùt khoûi speak/talk to: noùi vôùiexplain … to: giaûi thích spend … on: chi tieâu … chofeel like: caûm thaáy nhö succeed in: thaønh coâng veàhappen to: xaûy ñeán suffer from: ñau, chòu ñöïnghear about/from/of: nghe veà take after: gioánghope for: hi voïng veà think about / of: nghó veàinsist on: khaêng khaêng throw … at: neùm … vaøoinvite … to: môøi translate … from … into:dòch…töø…sanglaugh/smile at: cöôøi vaøo wait for: chôøleave … for: rôøi … ñeå ñeán warn … about: caûnh baùo … veàlisten to: nghe write to: vieát thö choStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 35
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy * LÖU YÙ: Ñoäng töø hai chöõ ñi vôùi GOgo after: ñuoåi theo, theo sau go down: (giaù caû) giaûm (# go up)go ahead: tieán haønh, thaúng tieán go off: chaùy, noågo along: tieán trieån go on: xaûy ra, dieãn ra, tieáp tuïcgo away: ñi khoûi go out: taét, bò daëp taétgo back: trôû veà go over: xem xeùt, kieåm tra kyõgo by: (thôøi gian) troâi qua go with: hôïp vôùi 4) V + N + Giôùi töø:catch sight of: thoaùng thaáy make use of: söû duïng, taän duïnggive place to: daønh choã cho pay attention to: chuù yù ñeángive way to: nhöôïng boä put a stop to: chaám döùtkeep pace with: theo kòp put an end to: chaám döùtlose sight of: maát huùt set fire to: laøm chaùy, ñoátlose touch with: maát lieân laïc vôùi take account of: tính ñeánlose track of: queân maát take advantage of: lôïi duïng,taän duïngmake allowance for: chieáu coá ñeán take care of: chaêm soùcmake fun of: choïc gheïo, cheá nhaïo take note of: ghi chuù, ghi nhaänmake a fuss over/about: laøm loän xoän take notice of: löu yù, ñeå yùmake room for: nhöôøng choã cho Better than never. Thaø muoän coøn hôn khoâng Baøi 11: SO SAÙNH TÍNH TÖØ VAØ TRAÏNG TÖØI- So saùnh baèng: 1) Caâu khaúng ñònh: as + adj/adv + as (baèng/nhö) Ex: I’m as tall as Tom. (Toâi cao baèng Tom.) John works as hard as his father. (John laøm vieäc chaêm chæ nhö cha cuûa anh aáy.) 2) Caâu phuû ñònh: not as/so + adj/adv + as (khoâng baèng/nhö) Ex: This watch is not as/so expensive as mine. (= my watch) (Ñoàng hoà naøy khoâng ñaét nhö cuûa toâi.) She doesn’t sing as/so well as her sister. (Coâ aáy haùt khoâng hay baèng chò coâ aáy.)Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 36
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy * LÖU YÙ: - Khi so saùnh danh töø vôùi nghóa gioáng/baèng hay khoâng gioáng/khoâng baèng, tacoù theå duøng caáu truùc: (not) + the same + (noun) + as Ex: He is the same age as I am. (Anh ta baèng tuoåi toâi.) Ann’s salary isn’t the same as Jane’s. (Löông cuøa Ann khoâng baèng löông cuûa Jane.) - Coù theå duøng less + adj/adv + than (keùm … hôn) thay cho not as/so +adj/adv + as Ex: This watch is less expensive than mine. She sings less well than her sister. - Khi noùi gaáp bao nhieâu laàn, ta duøng caáu truùc … times as + adj/adv + as. Ex: Their house is three times as big as ours. (Nhaø cuûa hoï lôùn gaáp ba laàn nhaø chuùng ta.)II- So saùnh hôn: 1) Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén: adj/adv + ER + than Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén laø töø coù moät vaàn hay hai vaàn taän cuøng baèng “y”. fast ---> faster cold ---> colder thick ---> thicker lucky ---> luckier happy ---> happier dry ---> drier … Ex: John is stronger than his brother. (John khoeû hôn anh cuûa caäu aáy.) This athlete runs faster than that one. 2) Tính töø/traïng töø daøi: more + adj/adv + than Tính töø/traïng töø daøi laø töø coù hai vaàn trôû leân. modern, patient, difficult, fluently, beautifully, … Ex: This problem is more difficult than we thought. (Vaán ñeà naøy khoù hôn chuùng ta nghó.) He speaks English more fluently than his friend. (Anh ta noùi tieáng Anh troâi chaûy hôn baïn cuûa anh ta.)III- So saùnh nhaát: 1) Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén: the + adj/adv + EST cold ---> the coldest thick ---> the thickest fast ---> fastest lucky ---> the luckiest happy ---> the happiest ….. Ex: Yesterday was the hottest day of the year.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 37
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy (Hoâm qua laø ngaøy noùng nhaát trong naêm.) 2) Tính töø/traïng töø daøi: the + MOST + adj/adv Ex: She is the most beautiful girl in the class. (Coâ aáy laø coâ gaùi ñeïp nhaát trong lôùp.) * LÖU YÙ: - Ta coù theå duøng the least ñeå chæ möùc ñoä keùm … nhaát. Ex: This story is the least interesting of all. (Ñaây laø caâu chuyeän keùm thuù vò nhaát trong caùc caâu chuyeän.) - Tính töø/traïng töø baát qui taéc Tính töø/traïng töø So saùnh hôn So saùnh nhaát good/well (toát) better the best bad/badly (xaáu, dôû) worse the worst far (xa) farther/further the farthest/furthest little (ít) less the least many/much (nhieàu) more the mostIV- Caùc daïng so saùnh khaùc: 1) Caøng ngaøy caøng … - Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén: adj/adv + ER and adj/adv + ER Ex: Betty is younger and younger. (Betty caøng ngaøy caøng treû.) He runs faster and faster. (Anh ta chaïy caøng ngaøy caøng nhanh.) - Tính töø/traïng töø daøi: more and more + adj/adv Ex: My wife is more and more beautiful. (Vôï cuûa toâi caøng ngaøy caøng ñeïp.) They work more and more carefully. (Hoï laøm vieäc caøng ngaøy caøng caån thaän.) 2) Caøng … caøng … - The more + S + V, the more + S + V Ex: The more I know him, the more I like him. (Caøng bieát anh aáy, toâi caøng thích anh aáy.) - The + SS hôn + S + V, the + SS hôn + S + V Ex: The older he gets, the weaker he is. (OÂng ta caøng giaø caøng yeáu.) The more beautiful she is, the more miserable her parents are.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 38
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy (Coâ ta caøng ñeïp thì cha meï coâ ta caøng khoå.) - The more + S + V, the adj + ER + S + V Ex: The more he works, the richer he is. (OÂng ta caøng laøm caøng giaøu.) - The adj + ER + S + V, the more + S + V Ex: The hotter it is, the more tired I feel. (Trôøi caøng noùng toâi caøng thaáy meät.)V- Qui taéc theâm ER vaø EST ñoái vôùi tính töø/traïng töø ngaén: 1) Töø taän cuøng baèng “e” hay phuï aâm + “y” Ex: large lager largest easy easier easiest 2) Gaáp ñoâi phuï aâm: Ex: hot hotter hottest Misfortune has its uses. Trong caùi ruûi coù caùi may. Baøi 12: CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP TÖØ Moät töø coù theå ñöôïc thaønh laäp baèng caùch theâm vaøo tieáp ñaàu ngöõ hoaëc tieápvó ngöõ.I- DANH TÖØ: 1) Tieàn toá: super-/under-/sur-/sub-/over- + N ---> N DANH TÖØ NGHÓA DANH TÖØ NGHÓAoverdose söû duïng quaù lieàu surface beà maëtoverexpenditure chi tieâu quaù möùc supermarket sieâu thòoverproduction saûn xuaát vöôït möùc underachievement ñaït döôùi möùcsubcontinent tieåu luïc ñòa undercurrent doøng nöôùc ngaàmsubway taøu ñieän ngaàm undergrowth buïi raämsuperman sieâu nhaân underpass ñöôøng chui 2) Haäu toá: a) V + -ion/-tion/-ation/-ition/-sion ---> N Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóaadd addition söï theâm vaøo permit permission söï cho pheùpcombine combination söï keát hôïp pollute pollution söï oâ nhieãmStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 39
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duyconserve conservation söï baûo toàn preserve preservation söï baûo quaûncorrect correction söï söûa chöõa prevent prevention ngaên ngöøadecide decision quyeát ñònh produce production saûn xuaátdiscuss discussion thaûo luaän provide provision söï cung caápinform information thoâng tin repeat repetition söï laëp laïiinvite invitation lôøi môøi rotate rotation luaân phieân b) V + -ment/-ance/-ence/-age/-ery/-ing/-al ---> N Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa söï laømaccept acceptance chaáp nhaän enrich enrichment giaøuachieve achievement thaønh töïu exist existence söï toàn taïiarrange arrangement söï saép ñaët feel feeling caûm xuùc söï caûiarrive arrival söï ñeán improve improvement thieän söï diattend attendance söï coù maët move movement chuyeån söï traûbuild building toaø nhaø pay payment tieàn maøn trìnhdepend dependence söï leä thuoäc perform performance dieãn laøm söï phaùtdevelop development poison poisoning nhieãm trieån ñoäc söï khaùc vieäc taùidiffer difference recycle recycling nhau söû duïngdisappoint disappointment thaát voïng refuse refusal töø choáidiscover discovery khaùm phaù rob robbery vuï cöôùp söï thaùodrain drainage teach teaching daïy hoïc nöôùc caùchemploy employment vieäc laøm use usage duøng c) V + -er/-or/-ar/-ant/-ent/-ee/ ---> N Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa ngöôøi laømaccount accountant keá toaùn employ employee coângStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 40
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy dieãn vieânact actor fertilize fertilizer phaân boùn namapply applicant ngöôøi xin vieäc inhabit inhabitant cö daân ngöôøiassist assistant ngöôøi phuï taù instruct instructor höôùng daãn ngöôøi tham ngöôøi ñöôïcattend attendant interview interviewee döï phoûng vaánbeg beggar ngöôøi aên xin own owner ngöôøi chuû ngöôøi ñöôïcbuild builder thôï xaây pay payee traû tieàn ngöôøi giuùpcalculate calculator maùy tính serve servant vieäccontest contestant ngöôøi döï thi sing singer ca sócook cooker beáp naáu aên teach teacher giaùo vieân ngöôøi gôûi ngöôøi ñöôïcdeposit depositor train trainee tieàn ñaøo taïodrive driver taøi xeá walk walker ngöôøi ñi boäedit editor bieân taäp vieân work worker coâng nhaân d) N + -ist/-an/-ian/-ess ---> N Danh töø Danh töø Nghóa Danh töø Danh töø Nghóaact actress nöõ dieãn vieân music musician nhaïc sóAmerica American ngöôøi Myõ physics physicist nhaø vaät lyùhistory historian nhaø söû hoïc prince princess coâng chuùahost hostess baø chuû nhaø science scientist nhaø khoa hoïcjournal journalist nhaø baùo tiger tigeress coïp caùilibrary librarian thuû thö tour tourist khaùch du lòchlion lioness sö töû caùi wait waitress nöõ haàu baøn e) N + -ism/-ship ---> N Danh töø Danh töø Nghóa Danh töø Danh töø Nghóa CN anhcapital capitalism CN tö baûn hero heroism huøng chöùc voâchampion championship scholar scholarship hoïc toång ñòch tinh thaànfriend friendship tình baïn sportsman sportsmanship theå thaoStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 41
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy f) Adj + -y/-ity/-ty/-cy/-ness/-ism/-dom ---> N Tính töø Danh töø Nghóa Tính töø Danh töø Nghóaable ability khaû naêng dark darkness boùng toái söï chaéc söï phoåcertain certainty popular popularity chaén bieán söï caånclear clarity söï roõ raøng careful carefulness thaän söï giaøudifficult difficulty khoù khaên rich richness coù söï troâi söï baátfluent fluency careless carelessness chaûy caån söï buoànnational nationality quoác tòch sad sadness baõpossible possibility söï coù theå ill/sick illness/sickness söï ñau yeáureal reality söï thaät cold coldness söï laïnh leõo traùch söï haïnhresponsible responsibility happy happiness nhieäm phuùc söï ñaànstupid stupidity free freedom söï töï do ñoän g) Adj taän cuøng “ent” ---> “ence” Tính töø Danh töø Nghóa Tính töø Danh töø Nghóa söï vaéng söï thoângabsent absence intelligent intelligence maët minh söï kieânconfident confidence söï töï tin patient patience nhaãn söï sieâng söï yeândiligent diligence silent silence naêng laëng söï baïoindependent independence söï ñoäc laäp violent violence löïcII- ÑOÄNG TÖØ: 1) Tieàn toá: a) dis-/mis-/re-/over-/under-/out- + V ---> V Ñoäng töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Nghóa khoâng nhieàu/disagree outnumber rewrite vieát laïi ñoàng yù ñoâng hônStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 42
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy chaïy tính giaùdisappear bieán maát outrun undercharge nhanh hôn quaù thaáp khoâng naáu chöadislike outweigh naëng hôn undercook thích chín laøm cöôøngmisbehave cö xöû sai overact underdo khoâng ñieäu troïn veïn ñaùnh vaàn naáu quaù ñaùnh giaùmisspell overcook underestimate nhaàm chín thaáp cho aênmisunderstand hieåu nhaàm overstay ôû quaù laâu underfeed khoâng ñuû laøm vieäc söû duïng ñaët ôûmisuse overwork quaù laâu, underlay sai döôùi quaù söùc lôùn/phaùt baùn reûoutgrow redo laøm laïi undersell trieån hôn hôn soáng laâu keát hoânoutlive remarry undersign kyù ôû döôùi hôn laàn nöõa b) en- + N/V/Adj ---> VÑoäng töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Nghóa laøm cho coù theåenable enclose gôûi keøm enlarge môû roäng (laøm gì)enact ban haønh (luaät) endanger gaây nguy hieåm enrich laøm giaøu 2) Haäu toá: Adj/N + -ize/-en/-ate/-fy ---> V Adj/N Ñoäng töø Nghóa Adj/N Ñoäng töø Nghóabeauty beautify laøm ñeïp origin originate baét nguoànbright brighten laøm raïng rôõ real realize nhaän ra laøm choindustrial industrialize CN hoaù sharp sharpen saéc, nhoïn hôïp phaùp laøm ngaénlegal legalize short shorten hoaù laïiless lessen giaûm bôùt tight tighten sieát chaëtlight lighten laøm nheï ñi weak weaken laøm yeáu ñiloose loosen laøm loûng ra white whiten laøm traéngStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 43
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy hieän ñaïimodren modernize wide widen laøm roäng ra hoaùIII- TÍNH TÖØ: 1) Tieàn toá: a) un-/in-/im-/ir-/il-/dis- + Adj ---> Adj Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa khoâng khoâng ñaày thaátdishonest incomplete unemployed trung thöïc ñuû nghieäp baát hôïp khoângillegal inconvenient baát tieän unequal phaùp bình ñaúng khoâng hôïp khoângillogical independent ñoäc laäp unhappy lyù haïnh phuùc chöa chín khoâng theå khoângimmature indivisible unlucky chaén chia ñöôïc may khoâng khoângimpatient inexact unreal khoâng thaät kieân nhaãn chính xaùc khoâng haøiimpossible khoâng theå irregular baát qui taéc unsatisfactory loøng khoâng voâ traùch khoângimpractical irresponsible untrue thöïc teá nhieäm ñuùng b) inter-/super-/under-/over-/sub- + Adj/N ---> Adj Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóainternational quoác teá overnight quaù ñeâm supernatural sieâu nhieânoveranxious quaù lo aâu overseas haûi ngoaïi supersonic sieâu aâmoverconfident quaù töï tin oversized quaù côõ undercover kín,bí maät quaù caân, keùm phaùtovercrowded quaù ñoâng overweight underdeveloped beùo phì trieån tieàm traû thaápoverelaborate quaù tæ mæ subconscious underpaid thöùc quaù döôùi bình nheï caân,overjealous quaù ghen subnormal underweight thöôøng thieáu caân sieâuoverjoyed quaù vui superhuman phaøm 2) Haäu toá: a) N + -ly/-like/-less/-ish/-y/-ful/-al/-ic/ ---> AdjStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 44
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa manly coù tính caùch ñaøn oâng dusty coù buïi brotherly thuoäc veà anh em snowy coù tuyeát worldly thuoäc veà theá giôùi rainy coù möa hourly haèng giôø sandy coù caùt yearly haèng naêm dirty baån daily haèng ngaøy healthy khoeû maïnh childlike nhö con nít magical tuyeät vôøi godlike nhö thaàn thaùnh agricultural noâng nghieäp statesmanlike nhö nhaø chöùc traùch industrial coâng nghieäp lifelike gioáng nhö thaät natural thieân nhieân speechless khoâng lôøi national thuoäc quoác gia carelesss khoâng caån thaän harmful coù haïi harmless khoâng ñoäc haïi useful coù ích childless khoâng coù con delightful vui veû treeless khoâng coù caây successful thaønh coâng odourless khoâng muøi vò hopeful hi voïng foolish ñieân daïi helpful hay giuùp ñôõ selfish ích kyû peaceful hoaø bình childish coù tính caùch treû con scientific khoa hoïc b) V/N + -ive/-able/-ible ---> Adj Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa acceptable coù theå chaáp nhaän defensible coù theå baûo veä ñöôïc achievable coù theå ñaït ñöôïc eatable coù theå aên ñöôïc active naêng ñoäng effective hieäu quaû agreeable taùn thaønh excusable coù theå tha thöù attractive haáp daãn informative coù nhieàu thoâng tin comprehensible coù theå hieåu manageable coù theå quaûn lyù countable coù theå ñeám washable coù theå giaët ñöôïcIV- TRAÏNG TÖØ: Phaàn lôùn: Adj + -ly ---> Adv (xem Baøi 10, III, 1.1) Never quit certainty for hope. Thaû moài baét boùng.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 45
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Baøi 13: CHUYEÅN ÑOÅI CAÂUCaùc daïng bieán ñoåi caâu thöôøng gaëp 1) Chuû ñoäng – bò ñoäng: (xem laïi Baøi 2) 2) Tröïc tieáp – giaùn tieáp: (xem laïi Baøi 4) 3) Ñaûo ngöõ: (xem laïi Baøi 6) 4) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ lyù do, söï nhöôïng boä:(xem laïi Baøi 8, II, 3&7) though/although/even though + S + V ---> despite/in spite of + V-ing/N/N phrase * LÖU YÙ: BUT ---> ALTHOUGH Ex: Cars cause pollution but people still want them. ---> Although cars cause pollution, people still want them. 5) So saùnh: (xem theâm Baøi 11, so saùnh baèng/nhaát/hôn) Ex: Mary is not as tall as Alice. ---> Mary is not so tall as Alice. ---> Mary is less tall than Alice. ---> Alice is taller than Mary. 6) Ñieàu kieän: (xem laïi Baøi 5, caâu ÑK loaïi 2 vaø 3) 1.1 Khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi: Ex: I’m busy. I don’t go to the concert. ---> If I were not busy, I would go to the concert. ---> Unless I were busy, I would go to the concert. 1.2 Khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù: Ex: Peter missed the train because he woke up too late. ---> If Peter hadn’t woken up too late, he wouldn’t have missed the train. ---> Unless Peter had woken up too late, he wouldn’t have missed the train. 7) Ao öôùc: (xem laïi Baøi 5, caâu ao öôùc) 7.1 Khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi: Ex: Tom is not happy because his girlfriend is not here. ---> Tom wishes his girlfriend were here. 1.1 Khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù: Ex: I am sorry I missed your wedding party. ---> I wish I hadn’t missed your wedding party. 1.2 Khoâng coù thaät ôû töông lai: Ex: They will not attend my birthday party next week. ---> I wish they would attend my birthday party next week.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 46
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 8) Thueâ/nhôø ai laøm vieäc gì: (xem theâm Baøi 2, 4.2) S + V + O ---> S + have + O + V ---> S + have + O + V3/ed ---> S + get + O + to V ---> S + get + O + V3/ed Ex: The machanic repairs my car every month. ---> I have the machanic repair my car every month. ---> I get the machanic to repair my car every month. ---> I have/get my car repaired by the mechanic every month. 9) Ñeà nghò, lôøi khuyeân: Let’s + V S + advise/suggest + V-ing How/What about + V-ing? S + advise + O + to V Would you mind + V-ing? S + suggest (that) + S (+ should) + V Why don’t we/you + V? Ex: Let’s go for a ride! ---> What about going for a ride? Please don’t play the music so loudly. ---> Would you mind not playing the music so loudly? 10) Nguyeân nhaân – keát quaû: so + adj/adv + that clause such (a/an) + adj + N + that clause too + adj/adv (+ for O) + to + V not + adj + enough (+ for O) + to + V Ex: The water was so cold that the children couldn’t swim in it. ---> It was such cold water that the children couldn’t swim in it. ---> The water was too cold for the children to swim in. ---> The water is not warm enough for the children to swim in. * LÖU YÙ: - Trong caáu truùc so/such … that, ta giöõ laïi töø “it”. - Trong caáu truùc too … to vaø not … enough … to, ta boû töø “it”. 11) Muïc ñích/nguyeân nhaân: S + V + to/in order to/so as to + V S + V + so that/in order that + S + can/could + V S + V + because + S + V Ex: They started early to go to school on time. ---> They started early so that they could go to school on time. ---> They started early because they wanted to go to school on time.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 47
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 12) Laàn thöù … (laøm chuyeän gì): S + have/had + never + V3/ed S + have/had + not + V3/ed + before ---> It/This is/was the first time (that) + S + have/had + V3/ed Ex: I have not eaten this kind of food before. ---> This is the first time that I have eaten this kind of food. 13) YÙ kieán/ñaùnh giaù moät söï vieäc: It + be + adj (for O) + to V ---> To V/V-ing + be + adj (for O) Ex: It is not easy for me to master English. ---> To master/Mastering English is not easy for me. It is more dangerous to drive a motorbike than to drive a car. ---> To drive a motorbike is more dangerous than to drive a car. ---> Driving a motorbike is more dangerous than driving a car. 14) Maát … (thôøi gian) laøm vieäc gì: S + spend + time + V-ing hoaëc S + last + time ---> It + takes/took + O + time + to V Ex: He spent 15 minutes finishing this exercise. ---> It took him 15 minutes to finish this exercise. The flight to Hong Kong lasts about 8 hours. ---> It takes about 8 hours to fly to Hong Kong. 15) Thoùi quen hieän taïi vaø trong quaù khöù: S + often/usually + V S + find + it + adj + to V ---> S + be used to + V-ing Ex: They usually drink beer. ---> They are used to drinking beer. I don’t find it difficult to get up early. ---> I am used to getting up early. S + used to + V ---> S + no longer + V = S + not … any more/any longer Ex: He used to smoke cigarettes. ---> He no longer smokes cigarettes. ---> He doesn’t smoke cigarettes any more / any longer. * LÖU YÙ: be used to + V/ be used for + V-ing: coâng duïng moät vaätStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 48
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: What is money used for? ---> It is used to buy or sell goods. ---> It is used for buying or selling goods. You are never too old to learn. Hoïc khoâng bao giôø muoän.PHUÏ LUÏC 1: ÑOÄNG TÖØ BAÁT QUY TAÉC THÖÔØNG GAËP Hieän taïi Quaù khöù QK PT Nghóa am/is/are was/were been thì, laø, ôû arise Arose arisen xuaát hieän bear Bore borne sinh ra beat Beat beaten ñaùnh, ñaäp become Became become trôû neân begin Began begun baét ñaàu bend Bent bent cuùi, gaäp bet Bet bet ñaùnh cuoäc bite Bit bitten caén bleed Bled bled chaûy maùu blow Blew blown thoåi break Broke broken laøm vôõ breed Bred bred nuoâi bring Brought brought mang build Built built xaây döïng burn* Burnt burnt ñoát chaùy burst Burst burst böøng chaùy buy bought bought mua catch Caught caught baét ñöôïc choose Chose chosen choïn löïa come Came come ñeán cost Cost cost trò giaù creep Crept crept boø cut Cut cut caét dig Dug dug ñaøo do Did done laømStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 49
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy draw Drew drawn veõ dream* Dreamt dreamt mô drink Drank drunk uoáng drive Drove driven laùi xe eat ate eaten aên fall Fell fallen teù xuoáng feed Fed fed cho aên feel Felt felt caûm thaáy fight fought fought ñaùnh nhau find Found found tìm thaáy fit Fit fit vöøa vaën fly Flew flown bay forecast Forecast forecast döï baùo forget Forgot forgot(ten) queân forgive Forgave forgiven tha thöù freeze Froze frozen ñoâng laïnh get Got got(ten) ñaït ñöôïc give Gave given cho go Went gone ñi grind Ground ground nghieàn grow Grew grown moïc hang Hung hung treo have Had had coù; duøng hear Heard heard nghe hide Hid hidden che giaáu hit Hit hit ñuïng hold Held held caàm,naém,toå chöùc hurt hurt hurt laøm ñau keep Kept kept giöõ know Knew known bieát lay Laid laid ñaët, ñeå lead Led led daãn daét learn* Learnt learnt hoïc leave left left rôøi khoûi lend Lent lent cho möôïn let Let let ñeå cho lose Lost lost ñaùnh maátStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 50
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy make Made made laøm mean Meant meant nghóa laø meet Met met gaëp overcome overcame overcome vöôït qua pay Paid paid traû tieàn put Put put ñaët, ñeå quit Quit quit thoaùt ra read Read read ñoïc ride Rode ridden cöôõi, ñaïp xe ring Rang rung reo, rung rise Rose risen nhoâ,moäc leân run Ran run chaïy say Said said noùi seek Sought sought tìm kieám sell Sold sold baùn send Sent sent göûi ñi set Set set xeáp ñaët shake Shook shaken laéc shoot Shot shot baén shut Shut shut ñoùng laïi sing Sang sung haùt sink Sank sunk chìm, ñaém sit Sat sat ngoài sleep Slept slept nguû slide Slid slid tröôït ñi smell* Smelt smelt ngöûi speak Spoke spoken noùi speed Sped sped taêng toác spell Spelt spelt ñaùnh vaàn spend Spent spent tieâu xaøi spill Spilt spilt traøn ra spread Spread spread lan truyeàn stand Stood stood ñöùng sting Stung stung chích, ñoát strike Struck struck ñaùnh swear Swore sworn theà sweep Swept swept queùtStudy, study more, study forever!!! Trang 51
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy swim Swam swum bôi, loäi swing Swung swung ñaùnh ñu take Took taken caàm, naém teach Taught taught daïy tear Tore torn xeù raùch tell told told baûo, keå think Thought thought suy nghó throw Threw thrown neùm thrust Thrust thrust aán maïnh understand understood understood hieåu wake Woke woken ñaùnh thöùc wear Wore worn maëc, ñoäi weave Wove woven deät weep Wept wept khoùc wet Wet wet laøm öôùt win Won won thaéng write Wrote written vieát * Coù theå theâm “ed” ñeå thaønh laäp V2/3. ☺ Chuùc caùc em thaønh coâng!!! Haõy vaøo http://vihocsinhthanyeu.tk ñeå tham khaûo theâm taøi lieäu hoïc taäp tieáng Anh.Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 52
  • Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy MUÏC LUÏC TrangBAØI 1: THÌ CUÛA ÑOÄNG TÖØ ............................................................................ 1BAØI 2: THEÅ THUÏ ÑOÄNG.................................................................................. 7BAØI 3: SÖÏ HOAØ HÔÏP GIÖÕA CHUÛ TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ.................................... 9BAØI 4: CAÂU NOÙI TRÖÏC TIEÁP VAØ GIAÙN TIEÁP ........................................... 11BAØI 5: CAÂU ÑIEÀU KIEÄN VAØ CAÂU AO ÖÔÙC .............................................. 13BAØI 6: SÖÏ ÑAÛO NGÖÕ ..................................................................................... 14BAØI 7: TÖØ ÑÒNH LÖÔÏNG .............................................................................. 15BAØI 8: MEÄNH ÑEÀ TÍNH TÖØ VAØ MEÄNH ÑEÀ TRAÏNG TÖØ ......................... 17BAØI 9: DANH ÑOÄNG TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU COÙ “TO” ........ 22BAØI 10: TÖØ LOAÏI ........................................................................................... 23BAØI 11: SO SAÙNH TÍNH TÖØ VAØ TRAÏNG TÖØ .............................................. 36BAØI 12: CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP TÖØ .................................................................. 39BAØI 13: CHUYEÅN ÑOÅI CAÂU ........................................................................ 46PHUÏ LUÏC: ÑOÄNG TÖØ BAÁT QUY TAÉC THÖÔØNG GAËP ............................. 49 TAØI LIEÄU THAM KHAÛO1. John Eastwood, OXFORD GUIDE TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR, Oxford University Press, 19942. Raymond Murphy, ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE, Cambridge University Press, 20003. Haø Vaên Böûu, NHÖÕNG MAÃU CAÂU TIEÁNG ANH, NXB TP. HCM, 19984. Mai Lan Höông – Nguyeãn Thanh Loan, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH, NXB Treû, 20035. Thaùi Hoaøng Nguyeân – Ñoã Vaên Thaûo, BAØI TAÄP NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH NAÂNG CAO, NXB Giaùo duïc, 20036. Nguyeãn Vaên Thoï – Huyønh Kim Tuaán, BAØI TAÄP LUYEÄN TIEÁNG ANH THPT: NGÖÕ PHAÙP, NXB Giaùo duïc, 20057. Leâ Duõng, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH CAÊN BAÛN, NXB Giaùo duïc, 20068. Leâ Duõng, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH NAÂNG CAO, NXB Giaùo duïc, 20009. Vónh Khueâ – Traàn Vaên Nhaân, CHUYEÂN ÑEÀ BOÀI DÖÔÕNG ENGLISH 12, NXB Ñoàng Nai, 199710. Song Phuùc – Leâ Nguyeãn Minh Thoï, BÍ QUYEÁT LAØM BAØI TAÄP CHUYEÅN ÑOÅI CAÁU TRUÙC CAÂU TRONG TIEÁNH ANH, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2004Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 53