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  • 1. Green House Gas Emissions from Households in Western Australia Prepared by SMECFormerly titled: The DPI Living Smart Report DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011
  • 2. Document / Report Control FormProject Name: DPI Living Smart ReportProject number: 3006127PREPARATION, REVIEW AND AUTHORISATION Revision # Date Prepared by Reviewed by Approved for Issue by 01 - Draft 9/01/08 Kate van Namen 02 - Draft 21/01/08 Kate van Namen & Peter Olden Peter Olden Anle Tieu 03 - Draft 01/02/08 Kate van Namen & Anle Tieu 04 - Final 07/02/08 Kate van Namen & Peter Olden Peter Olden Anle Tieu 05 - Final 13/02/08 Kate van Namen Peter Olden Peter OldenISSUE REGISTER Distribution List Date Issued Number of Copies Department for Planning and Infrastructure 1 electronic copy Perth Office Library: 1 electronic copy 1 hard copy Proposal File: 1 electronic copy 1 hard copySMEC Australia LtdLevel 6, 12 St Georges Terrace,Perth WA 6000Tel: +618 9323 5900Fax: +618 9323 5901Email: peter.olden@smec.com.auWeb Address: www.smec.com.auThe information within this document is and shall remain the property of SMEC Australia Pty Ltd.The document and its contents may only be used for the purpose of assessing and engagementof our services. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 2
  • 3. Table of Contents1 Executive Summary .................................................................................2 TABLE OF CONTENTS2 Glossary ...............................................................................................3 2.1 List of Acronyms ........................................................................................................3 2.2 Description of Terms..................................................................................................33 Introduction ..............................................................................................4 3.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................4 3.2 The Living Smart Program.........................................................................................44 Data Collection and Analysis ..................................................................5 4.1 Data Collection ..........................................................................................................5 4.2 Outputs ......................................................................................................................5 4.3 Limitations, Exclusions and Assumptions..................................................................65 The Matrix ...............................................................................................76 The Table ...............................................................................................87 References .............................................................................................11 7.1 The Matrix................................................................................................................11 7.2 The Table.................................................................................................................12APPENDIX 1 : Calculations ........................................................................15 A1.1.2 Total tonnes CO2e per household per annum for a and b above..........................18 A1.1.3 Total tonnes CO2e per Perth Metropolitan household per annum for a and b above .................................................................................................................................25 A1.1.4 Emissions factors for Perth Metro electricity (per kWh), gas (per KWh, per m3 and BTU), water supply (per kL) and water disposal (per KL with estimate of % consumption that is disposed) .................................................................................32 A1.2.1 Energy Saving Measures: ......................................................................................33 A1.2.2 Water Saving Measures: ........................................................................................40 A1.2.3 Travel Saving Measures:........................................................................................42 A1.2.4 Waste Saving Measures:........................................................................................43 DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 1
  • 4. 1 Executive Summary EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SMEC Australia Pty Ltd (SMEC) was commissioned by the Department for Planning and Infrastructure (DPI) to provide a reference document for the Living Smart program. This report aims to provide detailed information relating to household water use, energy use, transport, waste and related greenhouse gas emissions. Potential savings to households will be quantified for various changes to household consumption and behaviour. A Matrix of national and Perth greenhouse gas emissions in t-CO2e per household per annum for a) energy, travel, waste and water only and b) energy, travel, waste and water plus other consumer decisions including air travel, food/groceries and embodied energy were calculated. National emissions are summarised in a table below: The proportion of national household emissions to total national emissions including household energy, waste and travel (car) is 13.9%. With water included in the household emissions the proportion increases to 14.5%. Adding other consumer decisions including food/groceries, imported food, embodied energy and air travel (holidays) increases the household proportion to 26.8% of the total national emissions. The results of implementing a range of household actions for various changes to household consumption and behaviour were calculated for consumer decisions such as energy use, water use, food choices and travel. These were separated into four Tables of energy, water, waste and travel savings measures. The amount of energy, water, food or travel use was estimated prior to the introduction of the savings measure and following the introduction of the savings measure. The energy, water, food or travel savings was calculated as a result of implementing the action along with the associated emissions savings, cost savings and percentage of savings in comparison to the original amount of use. Whilst a few actions resulted in relatively small savings (less than 10% emissions saved), most actions led to substantial savings (30 to 100% emissions saved). All care was taken to obtain adequate and suitable information and data in order to accurately assess the results for the Matrix and the Table. However there is a lack of substantial Australian studies, particularly with respect to emissions from domestic and imported food production, packaging and transportation, hence these calculations may only be within 40% accuracy. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 2
  • 5. 2 Glossary GLOSSARY2.1 List of Acronyms Acronym Description ABS Australian Bureau of Statistics AGO Australian Greenhouse Office ANZSIC Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification CO2e Carbon Dioxide Equivalent DPI Department for Planning and Infrastructure GHG Greenhouse Gas GWh Giga Watt hours kg kilogrammes kL Kilo Litres kWh kilo Watt hours ML Mega Litres SMEC SMEC Australia Pty Ltd SWIS South West Interconnected Systems t-CO2e Tonnes of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent WA Western Australia2.2 Description of Terms Term Description Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) - all constituents of the atmosphere that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation are collectively termed as greenhouse gases (GHG). Emissions of GHG are expressed in tonnes of CO2-equivalent (CO2e) based on the global warming potential of each substance. For example, methane is 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas. Total energy related GHG emissions are calculated by adding together the GHG emissions associated with each energy source. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 3
  • 6. 3 Introduction INTRODUCTION3.1 Overview This report aims to provide detailed information relating to household water use, energy use, transport, waste and related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the DPI to use as a reference for the Living Smart program. The preceding section provides a glossary of acronyms used throughout the report and description of terms. This section gives an introduction to the project including an overview of the report layout and a brief description of the Living Smart program. Section 4 provides a background of the data collection and analysis techniques used to determine the GHG emissions based on a desktop study of available data. That section also includes a description of the output requirements for the Matrix and the Table. The limitations, exclusions and assumptions made in order to achieve the results are discussed throughout the section. The detailed calculations for the Matrix and the Table are provided in Appendix 1. The results of the analysis and calculations are presented in sections: • Section 5 – The Matrix • Section 6 – The Table3.2 The Living Smart Program Living Smart is a free information and advice service on how Perth households can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and help to tackle Climate Change. It is part of the Act Now campaign that is being supported by Councils, Government and energy and water providers. Living Smart is the brand of The Meeting Place Community Centre, Murdoch University, Southern Metropolitan Regional Council and City of Fremantle. The Living Smart brand has been licensed to the Department for Planning and Infrastructure for application to a large-scale sustainability service being offered to households The scope of the program includes the reduction of demand for: • Water • Energy • Travel (by car) • Waste disposal (including waste generation) DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 4
  • 7. 4 Data Collection and Analysis DATA COLLECTION AND ANAYLSIS4.1 Data Collection This report has been developed within the constraints of a short project (two working weeks) and was conducted solely as a desktop study based on publicly available data. Wherever possible government publications were referenced, however not all required information was available from governmental sources and private publications were referenced. The author considers all information obtained from private publications to be unverified, however they should give a reasonable indication of current data. The amount of GHG emissions estimated in this report is expressed in tonnes of CO2-equivalent (CO2e) based mainly on the emissions factors from AGO’s Factors and Methods Workbook - December 2006 edition (AGO, 2007). Where emissions factors are not available from the Workbook then the most suitable source is used to determine the emissions factor. The results of the data collection and analysis are provided in the following sections of this report, along with a brief discussion.4.2 Outputs The outputs required for this report include a Matrix of GHG emissions and a Table of actions and costs for WA (Perth metro) households. The Matrix will include the following data: 1. Proportion of national CO2e that results from household activities: a. direct consumption of energy in the home, water, waste disposal, and private car use. b. addition of other consumer decisions such as: imported food, meat, embodied energy in new building/ renovation products, holiday (not work) flights etc. 2. Total tonnes CO2e per household per annum for a and b above 3. Total tonnes CO2e per Perth Metro households per annum for a and b above Detailed calculations are provided in Appendix 1. Refer to section 5 for the Matrix of results. A summary of emissions factors for Perth Metropolitan electricity (per kWh), gas (per kWh, per m3 and BTU), water supply (per kL) and water disposal (per kL with estimate of % consumption that is disposed) and waste disposal are provided below. Refer to Appendix 1 for detailed calculations. Description Emission Factor Electricity 0.936 kgCO2e/kWh Gas 0.2185 kgCO2e/kWh 2.519 kgCO2e/m3 0.000064 kgCO2e/BTU Water Supply 1.16 kgCO2e/kL Water Disposal 0.76 kgCO2e/kL Waste Disposal 1,140 kgCO2e/tonne waste Petroleum 2600 kgCO2e/kL Typical financial cost for the consumption patterns in 1a, 1b, 2 and 3 above have not been calculated due to lack of available information. The Table will include the following data: 1. Description of action 2. CO2e saving (per annum) 3. Water saving (litres per annum) 4. Energy saving (kWh per annum) 5. Cost saving ($ per annum) DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 5
  • 8. 6. Percentage saving 7. Assumptions Detailed calculations are provided in Appendix 1. Refer to section 6 for the Table of results for Energy, Water, Travel and Waste savings.4.3 Limitations, Exclusions and Assumptions Whilst all care was taken to obtain adequate information to conduct a detailed emissions analysis for each sector of the Matrix, a number of exclusions and assumptions were required to be administered so that a reasonable inventory could be established. The data and information available was minimal due to lack of previous studies conducted for governmental departments and the short time frame of the project. Hence the calculations are not considered as accurate as they could be. The input data for the CO2e calculations was mainly acquired through: • AGO Australia’s National Greenhouse Accounts Online • AGO’s Factors and Methods Workbook - December 2006 edition • Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Census Database No governmental publications were available to reference part b of the Matrix, hence private publications were utilised including publications supplied by the DPI. The estimates, references, assumptions and methodology used in establishing the Table are described in detail in the calculations section in Appendix 1. The baseline scenarios used by SMEC may be different to other similar publications due to the structure of the reporting requirements. Hence comparison with other publications may not be like-for-like. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 6
  • 9. 5 The Matrix THE MATRIX The Matrix for the National and WA emissions as described in section 4 is shown below. Please note that the matrix has been split up into part a) and parts b) for easier reading. Part a) includes emissions from energy, travel, waste and water. Part b) includes emissions from energy, travel, waste and water plus emissions from air travel, food/groceries and embodied energy. National Em is s ions Pe r th Em is s ions Em is s ions Sour ce Cons um ption Pr opor tion hous e hold Conve r s ion Factor Pr opor tion hous e hold Conve r s ion Factor Units % t CO2-e k g CO2-e /unit % t CO2-e k g CO2-e /unitEne r gy (Stationar y) 44.4% 6.42 36.5% 4.36 Electricity (Purchased) kWh 0.936 0.936 Natural Gas (non-transport) GJ 60.7 60.7Car Trave l (Tr ans por t Ene r gy) 41.7% 6.02 51.1% 6.11 Petrol kL 2600 2600 A utomotive Diesel kL 3000 3000 LPG (transport) kL 1800 1800Was te t 9.1% 1.31 1140 8.6% 1.03 1140Wate r kL 4.8% 0.70 3.8% 0.45Water supply kL 1.24 1.24Wastw ater treatment kL 0.76 0.7Totals 100.0% 14.45 100.0% 11.95 Figure 1. The Matrix – Part a) Energy, Car Travel, Waste and Water National Em is s ions Pe r th Em is s ions Em is s ions Sour ce Cons um ption Pr opor tion hous e hold Conve r s ion Factor Pr opor tion hous e hold Conve r s ion Factor Units % t CO2-e k g CO2-e /unit % t CO2-e k g CO2-e /unitEne r gy (Stationar y) 20.6% 6.42 15.5% 4.36 Electricity (Purchased) kWh 0.936 0.936 Natural Gas (non-transport) GJ 60.7 60.7Car Tr ave l (Tr ans por t Ene r gy) 19.3% 6.02 21.7% 6.11 Petrol kL 2600 2600 A utomotive Diesel kL 3000 3000 LPG (transport) kL 1800 1800Was te t 4.2% 1.31 1140 3.7% 1.03 1140Wate r kL 2.2% 0.70 1.6% 0.45Water supply kL 1.24 1.24Wastw ater treatment kL 0.7 0.7Food/gr oce r ie s (dom e s tic) 1,233 kg 20.0% 6.24 5.06 22.2% 6.24 5.06Red Meat 31 kg 1.3% 0.40 12.8 1.4% 0.40 12.8Im por te d Food 137 kg 4.7% 1.46 7.1795 5.2% 1.46 7.1795Em bodie d Ene r gy 12.5% 3.89 13.8% 3.89Housing (Brick and Tile) 174 sq.m 5.1% 1.58 9.1 5.6% 1.58 9.1Possessions (average) 14,600 MJ 7.4% 2.31 0.158 8.2% 2.31 0.158Holiday (air tr ave l) 17,200 km 16.5% 5.16 0.3 16.4% 4.62 0.3Gr os s Em is s ions 100% 31.20 100% 28.17 Figure 2. The Matrix – Part b) Energy, Car Travel, Waste and Water plus other Consumer Decisions DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 7
  • 10. 6 The Table THE TABLE The Table for the target actions has been separated into the four categories of energy, water, travel and waste saving measures. Energy Saving Measures: Curre nt Ne w Em issions Ene rgy Ene rgy Ene rgy Sa vings*1 Cost ProportionEne rgy Sa ving Me a sure s: Use Use Sa vings (kg Sa vings*2 of Sa vingsAction (kW h/ye a r) (kW h/ye a r) (kW h/ye a r) CO2e /ye a r) ($/ye a r) pe r ye a rSwitching off standby power 760.0 74.3 685.8 641.9 95.6 90.2%Adjusting water heater from 80deg C to 60 deg C for: Electric storage 3,000.0 2,580.0 420.0 393.1 58.5 14.0% gas storage *3 5,100.0 4,386.0 714.0 156.0 129.8 14.0% electric instant 1,500.0 1,290.0 210.0 196.6 29.3 14.0% gas instant *3 4,800.0 4,128.0 672.0 146.8 122.2 14.0%Turning off second fridge (barfridge) 296.0 0.0 296.0 277.1 41.3 100.0%Adjusting fridge/freezer for each 1deg C 543.0 515.9 27.2 25.4 3.8 5.0%Adjusting airconditioner for each 1deg C 465.0 430.1 34.9 32.6 4.9 7.5%Adjusting heater thermostat foreach 1 deg C 240.0 222.0 18.0 16.8 2.5 7.5%Using fan to cool house instead ofairconditioner 465.0 58.5 406.5 380.5 56.7 87.4%Using cold water in washingmachine instead of hot 230.0 93.0 137.0 128.2 19.1 59.6%Installing 10 no. compactfluorescent globes in place of GLS 1,095.0 292.0 803.0 751.6 111.9 73.3%Switching 5no. 50W 240Vdownlights to alternatives to compact fluorescents 365.0 80.3 284.7 266.5 39.7 78.0% to LEDs 365.0 109.5 255.5 239.1 35.6 70.0% to low energy 20W 365.0 146.0 219.0 205.0 30.5 60.0%Switching 5no. 50W 12Vdownlights to LED to compact fluorescents 438.0 80.3 357.7 334.8 49.9 81.7% to LEDs 438.0 51.1 386.9 362.1 53.9 88.3% to low energy 20W 438.0 146.0 292.0 273.3 40.7 66.7%Running a pool pump for 2 hoursless per day 4,380.0 3,285.0 1,095.0 1,024.9 152.6 25.0%Installing a solar hot water system 3,000.0 375.0 2,625.0 2,457.0 365.9 87.5%Shading East W est windows tocounter summer heat (per m2) 93.0 27.9 65.1 60.9 9.1 70.0%Installing roof insulation 705.0 435.8 269.3 252.0 37.5 38.2% Energy savings for cooling 465.0 255.8 209.3 195.9 29.2 45.0% Energy savings for heating 240.0 180.0 60.0 56.2 8.4 25.0%Reducing showers from 8 to 4minutes (2pp@1 shower/day/pp) 3,000.0 2,250.0 750.0 702.0 104.6 25.0%Switching to low flow shower head(2 no. 4 minute showers) 2,250.0 1,968.8 281.3 263.3 39.2 12.5%Adding a pool blanket with a gaspool heater 3,457.4 1,485.1 1,972.4 431.0 358.6 57.0% Figure 3. The Table – 1.0 Energy Saving Measures DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 8
  • 11. *1 Electricity conversion factor = (0.84 + 0.096) 0.936 kgCO2e/kW h*2 A1 Electricity Tariff = $0.139 /kW h*3 Natural gas conversion factor = 0.2185 kgCO2e/kW h*4 Gas Tariff = $0.051 /GJNote that the capital costs to install new equipment is not included in the cost savings, as the costs may vary. Water Saving Measures: Em issions Curre nt Ne w W a te r W a te r Sa vings*1 Cost ProportionW a te r Sa ving Me a sure s: W a te r Use Use Sa vings (kg Sa vings*2 of Sa vingsAction (kL/ye a r) (kL/ye a r) (kL/ye a r) CO2e /ye a r) ($/ye a r) pe r ye a rReducing showers from 8 to 4minutes (2pp@1 shower/day/pp) 70.08 35.04 35.04 40.65 27.47 50.0%Switching to low flow shower head(2 no. 4 minute showers) 35.04 26.28 8.76 10.16 6.87 25.0%Installing a low pressure regulatorin the water system 125.16 62.58 62.58 72.59 49.06 50.0%Switching to low flush toilet 26.28 6.57 19.71 22.87 15.45 75.0%Fixing a leaking tap (leaking at 1drip/ 5 sec) 2.40 0.00 2.40 2.78 1.88 100.0%Installing a rain water tank (1,000L& 10,000L) 1,000L 298.00 247.00 51.00 59.16 39.98 17.1% 10,000L 298.00 211.00 87.00 100.92 68.21 29.2%Installing a grey water system (3bed house, 100sq.m garden) 298.00 190.76 107.24 124.39 84.07 36.0%Reducing lawn area by 50sq.mand replace with waterwisegarden/mulch 150.00 50.00 100.00 116.00 78.40 66.7%Adding a pool blanket 86.95 19.48 67.47 78.27 52.90 77.6%Replacing a 50sq.m lawn with apool (with blanket) 150.00 19.48 130.52 151.41 102.33 87.0% Figure 4. The Table – 2.0 Water Saving Measures*1 Conversion Factor = 1.16 kgCO2e/kL*2 Residential W ater rates are tiered. W A households typically use 298kL per annum, hence for thesecalculations we will assume a summer time price for water usage of 151kL-350kL = $0.784 /kL Travel Saving Measures: Em issions Curre nt Ne w Fue l Fue l Sa vings*1 Cost ProportionTra ve l Sa ving Me a sure s: Fue l Use Use Sa vings (kg Sa vings*2 of Sa vingsAction (kL/ye a r) (kL/ye a r) (kL/ye a r) CO2e /ye a r) ($/ye a r) pe r ye a rUsing an alternative for 1 car tripper week 2k m journey 0.010 0.000 0.010 27.04 13.02 100.0% 10 k m journey 0.052 0.000 0.052 135.20 65.12 100.0% 20 k m journey 0.104 0.000 0.104 270.40 130.24 100.0%Servicing the car / inflating tyres 1.480 1.332 0.148 384.80 185.34 10.0%Driving smoothly 1.480 1.036 0.444 1,154.40 556.02 30.0% Figure 5. The Table – 3.0 Travel Saving Measures DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 9
  • 12. *1 Conversion Factor (assuming for petrol) = 2600 kgCO2e/kL*2 Assuming average petrol price for 2007 in the Perth Metro region = $1,252.30 /kL (fuelwatch) Waste Saving Measures: Em issions Curre nt Sa vings*1,2,3 Cost Proportion ,4W a ste Sa ving Me a sure s: Use Ne w Use Sa vings (kg Sa vings*5,6 of Sa vingsAction (kg/ye a r) (kg/ye a r) (kg/ye a r) CO2e /ye a r) ($/ye a r) pe r ye a rReducing green waste by 20% 465.97 372.78 93.19 106.24 1.65 20.0%Growing 50% of vegetables athome 304.46 152.23 152.23 91.34 310.65 50.0%Buying only W A vegetables and50% W A produced groceries 102.78 26.02 76.76 440.00 N/A 7.1% Figure 6. The Table – 4.0 Waste Saving Measures*1 Conversion fac tor for waste = 1140 kgCO2e/t*2 Conversion fac tor for fruit/vegetables and fresh/m inim ally proc essed foods= 0.6 kgCO2e / kg of food*3 Em issions for general food basket = 6,241 kgCO2e / household / year*4 Em issions for loc ally produc ed foods = 5,801 kgCO2e / household / year*5 Cost of dry matter = $17.70 /tonne (Environment Australia, 2003)*6 Cost of vegetables = $621.30 per year per household DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 10
  • 13. 7 References REFERENCES7.1 The Matrix Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) 2007a, Global Warming Cool It – A home guide to reducing energy costs and greenhouse gases. Available online at: http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/gwci/households.html Rose, B.J , 2005a. Overview of GHG-Energy Calc. Rose, B.J , 2006a. GHG-Calc and Energy-Calc – Tools for Self-audit of Domestic Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Consumption. Rose, B.J , 2006b. How to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Save Money and Maintain Quality of Life. DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) Review of the Imported Food Control Act 1992. http://www.daff.gov.au/aqis/quarantine/legislation/imp-food-control/exec-summ Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2004. Australian Social Trends 2004. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/1020492cfcd63696ca2568a1002477b5/20f7d7e0d3a80ae5ca256e 9e00293bd5!OpenDocument Carbonneutral, 2007. Comprehensive Calculator (GHG-energy calc) Background Information. http://www.carbonneutral.com.au/comp_calc_backg._info_proposal_format.pdf Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2005. Year Book Australia 2005. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/1301.02005?OpenDocument Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2005b. Western Australia Statistical Indicators. http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/B4C4470CEF63DB26CA256FE800778120/$File/13 675_mar%202005.pdf Tourism Research Australia (TRA) 2004. Annual Results of the International and National Visitor Surveys travel in Australia 2003. http://www.tra.australia.com/content/documents/IVS/travel%20in%20australia%20results%20of%20the%20int ernational%20and%20national%20visitor%20survey%202003.pdf Queensland Health, 2000. The Healthy Food Access Basket Survey 2000 Contents. Queensland Government. Available online at: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/ph/documents/hpu/9134.pdf Gaballa,S. and Abraham, A.B. 2007. Food Miles in Australia: A preliminary study of Melbourne, Victoria. CERES. Victoria. AGO National Greenhouse Accounts Online, AGEIS, 2007. Available online at: http://www.ageis.greenhouse.gov.au/GGIDMUserFunc/QueryModel/Ext_QueryModelResults.asp (accessed 20 December 2007). Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2006a. Census QuickStats: Australia – Dwelling Characteristics - Occupied private dwellings. Available online at: http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Census+data Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2005. Water Account, Australia, 2004-05. Available online at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2006b. Census QuickStats: Western Australia – Dwelling Characteristics - Occupied private dwellings. Available online at: http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Census+data Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2006c. Census QuickStats: Perth – Dwelling Characteristics - Occupied private dwellings. Available online at: http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Census+data Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) Factors and Methods Workbook - December 2006 edition (AGO, 2007b) Source: ABARE (2007) Fuel codes, Fuel and Electricity Survey 2007. Available online at: www.abareconomics.com/interactive/fuelsurveys/word/FES_Fuelcodes.doc Harrington,L. and Holt, S. 2003. Australia’s contribution on Standby Power. Paper 1,011. http://www.energyrating.gov.au/library/pubs/eceee2003-1011.pdf DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 11
  • 14. 7.2 The Table Energy saving measures: Sustainable Energy Development Office (SEDO) 2008, Energy Smart Homes. Available online at: http://www.sedo.energy.wa.gov.au/pages/energy_smart_homes.asp Cool Communities, Home Greenhouse Audit Manual Energy Rating, 2001. Available online at: http://www.energyrating.gov.au/library/pubs/tech-ewhmisc2001.pdf Synergy 2008, Energy Management, Hot Water. Available online at: www.synergyenergy.com.au/business_segmant/Energy_Management/Hot_Water.html Energy rating, 2008a, Power rating for refrigerators. Available online at: http://www.energyrating.gov.au/rfuse.html Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) fs44, Your Home, Practical Tips for Heating and Cooling. Available online at: http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/yourhome/technical/fs44.htm Energy rating, 2008b, Power rating and sizing information for air-conditioners. Available online at: http://www.energyrating.gov.au/acmenu.html Sustainable Energy Development Office (SEDO) fs90, Air-Conditioners factsheet no. 90. Available online at: http://www.sedo.energy.wa.gov.au/uploads/air-conditioners_90.pdf Clipsal Airflow catalogue, Power rating for circulating ceiling fans. Available online at: http://www.clipsal.com.au/trade/__data/page/81/A19.pdf Energy rating, 2008c, Power rating for washing machines. Available online at: http://www.energyrating.gov.au/cwmenu.html. Sustainable Energy Development Office (SEDO) fs91, Clothes Washers and Dryers factsheet no. 91, Available online at: http://www.sedo.energy.wa.gov.au/uploads/clothes%20washers%20and%20dryers_91.pdf. Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) fs45, Your Home, Energy Use, Lighting. Available online at: http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/yourhome/technical/fs45.htm Sustainable Energy Development Office (SEDO) fs91, Lighting factsheet no. 91. Available online at: http://www.sedo.energy.wa.gov.au/uploads/lighting_4pg_45.pdf NECO product website (NECOa), http://www.neco.com.au/product.asp?pID=238&cID=46 TODAE product website (TODAEa) http://www.todae.com.au/comersus2/store/comersus_viewItem.asp?idProduct=1633 NECO product website (NECOb), http://www.neco.com.au/product.asp?pID=136 TODAE product website (TODAEb) http://www.todae.com.au/comersus2/store/comersus_viewItem.asp?idProduct=616 TODAE product website (TODAEc) http://www.todae.com.au/comersus2/store/comersus_viewItem.asp?idProduct=1693 TODAE product website (TODAEd) http://www.todae.com.au/comersus2/store/comersus_viewItem.asp?idProduct=582 TODAE product website (TODAEe) http://www.todae.com.au/comersus2/store/comersus_viewItem.asp?idProduct=621 Sustainable Energy Development Office (SEDO) fs77, Choose a solar hot water system factsheet no. 77. Available online at: http://www.sedo.energy.wa.gov.au/uploads/choose_solar_hot_water_77.pdf Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) fs19, Your Home, Technical Manual, Passive Design, Shading. Available online at: http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/yourhome/technical/fs19.htm DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 12
  • 15. Sustainable Energy Authority Victoria (SEAV) 2008a, Sustainable Energy Info –Window Protection. Availableonline at: http://www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/resources/documents/Window_protection.pdfSustainable Energy Authority Victoria (SEAV) 2008b, Sustainable Energy Info – Insulation Benefits. Availableonline at: http://www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/resources/documents/Insulation_benefits.pdfEnergy Australia. Ways to save, Energy saving at home, Swimming pools, Save energy and money. Availableonline at: http://www.energy.com.au/energy/ea.nsf/Content/Ways+Swimming+Pools+Save+EnergyDaisy Pool Covers. The Facts About Pool Blankets Factsheet 2. Heating Capabilities. Available online at:http://www.daisypoolcovers.com.au/pdf/FactSheet_2_Heating.pdfMark Ellis & Associates, 2001. Proposed MEPS for Water Heaters: Domestic & Commercial. Available onlineat: http://www.energyrating.com.au/library/pubs/tech-ewhmisc2001.pdfAustralian Greenhouse Office (AGO) fs42, Your Home, Hot Water Service. Available online at:http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/yourhome/technical/fs42.htmWater saving measures:Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO), 2005. Australias guide to environmentally sustainable homes: WaterUse. Available online at: http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/yourhome/technical/fs20.htmEnHealth Council, 2004. Guidance on Use of Rainwater Tanks. Available online at:http://enhealth.nphp.gov.au/council/pubs/pdf/rainwater_tanks.pdfCummings, D. 2002. How Much Water Do I need? Department of Primary Industries. The State of Victoria.Available online at: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nreninf.nsf/childdocs/-2BAF4D73531CD1544A2568B3000505AF-A2E45147EB545DE8CA256BC80004E802-9C46BDB25068C5224A256DEA00295214-DC7ED245FD5879E0CA256BCF000AD4EB?openDaisy Pool Covers. The Facts About Pool Blankets Factsheet 1. Evaporation. Available online at:http://www.Daisypoolcovers.com.au/pdf/FactSheet_1_Evaporation.pdfWater Corporation 2006a, High Efficiency Showerheads. Water Corporation. Available online at:http://www.watercorporation.com.au/W/waterwise_showerheads.cfm?uid=4374-2760-0703-2500Water Corporation 2006b, Waterwiseways. Water Corporation. Perth. Available online at:http://www.watercorporation.co.au/_files/PublicationsRegister/11/wwways.pdfWater Corporation 2007, 2007/2008 Rates and Charges-Metropolitan Residential. Available online at:http://www.watercorporation .com.au/A/accounts_rates_metro_res.cfm.Loh, M. and Coghlan, P. 2003. Domestic Water Use Study: In Perth, Western Australia 1998-2001, WaterCorporation, Perth. Available online at:http://www.watercorporation.com.au/_files/publicationsregister/12/Domestic_water_use_study.pdf.Rumbalara Field Studies Centre. Environmental Fax Sheet, Number 13. Available online at:http://www.rumbalara.eec.education.nsw.gov.au/resources/faxsheets/waterwise.pdfTravel saving measures:Department of Planning and Infrastructure. Smarter Use of your Car. Department of Planning and Infrastructure. Perth.Available online at: http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/mediaFiles/tsmart_smarteruseofcar.pdfAustralian Greenhouse Office (AGO), Fuel consumption guide database. Available online at:http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/cgi-bin/transport/fuelguide/fuelguide.pl?querytype=vehicle&vehicleid=9429Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2002. Measuring Australia’s Progress. Catalogue no. 1370. AustralianBureau of Statistics. Available online at:http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/D9D4462358114E82CA256B90007CFCF3/$File/1370-0_2002.pdfAustralian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2006c. Australia’s Environment: Issues and Trends 2006. Availableonline at: DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 13
  • 16. Waste saving measures:Environment Australia, 2003. On-farm Composting of Municipal and Commercial Organics as anEnvironmentally and Socially Sustainable Resource Recovery Scheme for Rural Communities. Department ofthe Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available online at:http://www.environment.gov.au/settlements/publications/waste/composting/use.htmlQueensland Health, 2000. The Healthy Food Access Basket Survey 2000 Contents. QueenslandGovernment. Available online at: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/ph/documents/hpu/9134.pdfGaballa,S. and Abraham, A.B. 2007. Food Miles in Australia: A preliminary study of Melbourne, Victoria.CERES. Victoria. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 14
  • 17. APPENDIX 1 : Calculations APPENDIX 1: CALCULATIONSA1.1 The MatrixThe calculations used to estimate data for each part of The Matrix are detailed below.A1.1.1 Proportion of national CO2e that results from household activities:a) direct consumption of energy in the home, water, waste disposal, and private car use.Energy, waste and private car useThe Household Greenhouse Gas Emissions pie chart from the Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) in Figure1 below was used to establish the direct consumption values from household activities. Figure 7. Household Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Source: AGO, 2007a, accessed 20 December 2007)The pie chart draws on data from a number of sources including the Australian Governments NationalGreenhouse Gas Inventory (www.climatechange.gov.au/inventory/index.html), and a range of data from theAustralian Bureau of Statistics.The data from the pie chart were categorised into energy, waste disposal and travel as follows: • Energy - including clothes washing & drying and dishwashing (2%); cooking (3%); lights (5%); water heating (16%); home heating and cooling (11%); fridge/freezer (9%); electronic and other appliances (15%) = 61%. • Waste disposal - including waste = 5%. • Travel (i.e. transport) - including travel to work (11%) plus travel for shopping, personal business and recreation (23%) = 34%The above pie chart is from circa 1999/2000 and does not include municipal waste water treatment or waterconsumption values, hence more detailed calculations were conducted to determine the latest GHGemissions values and hence the latest national proportions. Section A1.1.2 details the latest GHG emissionsvalues obtained from the AGO National Greenhouse Accounts Online (AGEIS) and include municipal wastewater treatment.Water consumption values (i.e. GHG emissions from the supply of household water) are not included in thehousehold GHG emissions values obtained from AGEIS and hence were obtained from other sources, seebelow.Water ConsumptionThe GHG emissions in CO2e were calculated for water consumption for Australian Households (see sectionA1.1.2) and added to the total values excluding water so that an overall percentage could be estimated. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 15
  • 18. Energy, water, waste and private car use The values determined in section A1.1.2 including values from the AGEIS and water consumption were: • Water consumption emissions = 5,309,731 t-CO2e = 0.70 t-CO2e/household • Wastes and municipal waste water treatment (Non transport) = 9,950,510 t-CO2e = 1.31 t- CO2e/household • Car travel (Transport) = 45,758,590 t-CO2e = 6.02 t-CO2e/household • Energy (Indirect) = 48,739,800 t-CO2e = 6.42 t-CO2e/household The above values are used to determine the latest national proportion for each category of energy, travel, waste and water. Refer to the table below (figure 8). National Na tiona l AGO % AGO Totals Inc lusive % AGEIS % AGEIS Totals Inclusive % Ene rgy 61.0% 63,713 ,823 58 .0% 46 .7 % 48,73 9,800 4 4.4%Travel 34.0% 35,512 ,623 32 .4% 43 .8 % 45,758,590 4 1.7%Was te 5.0% 5,222 ,445 4 .8% 9 .5 % 9,95 0,510 9.1%s ub total 100.0% 1 04,448 ,890 95 .2% 100 .0 % 1 04,44 8,900 9 5.2%Water (ABS) 4 .8% 4.8%total 100 .0% 10 0.0%total (exclu ding w a te r) 104,44 8,890 104,44 8,890total (in clud in g w ate r) 109,76 4,840 109,76 4,840p er ho us eh old (ex w ater) 13.75 13.75p er ho us eh old (inc w ate r) 14.45 14.45n o. h ous e holds 7,59 6,183 7,59 6,183w ater total 5,30 9,731 5,30 9,731 Figure 8. Table of Proportion of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Totals in tonnes CO2e The AGO values in the table refer to the values obtained by using the pie chart proportions. The AGEIS values refer to the values obtained using the AGEIS values. Using the latest data from the AGEIS the proportion for each category has been determined as follows: • Energy accounts for 44.4% • Water accounts for 4.8% • Travel accounts for 41.7% • Waste disposal accounts for 9.1% b) addition of other consumer decisions such as: imported food, meat, embodied energy in new building/renovation products, holiday (not work) flights etc. No governmental publications were available to reference part b of the Matrix, hence private publications were utilised. The GHG emissions in CO2e were calculated for other consumer decisions for Australian Households (see section A1.1.2) and added to the AGEIS values for part a) so that an overall percentage could be estimated. The values determined in section A1.1.2 for other household consumer decisions were: • Food/groceries (domestic food) = 47,406,271 t-CO2e = 6.24 t-CO2e/household • Imported Food = 11,090,427 t-CO2e = 1.46 t-CO2e/household • Embodied Energy = 29,549,152 t-CO2e = 3.89 t-CO2e/household • Air travel (holidays) = 39,196,304 t-CO2e = 5.16 t-CO2e/household DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 16
  • 19. The emissions for Australian households including energy use, waste, travel and water are: Household 109,764,840 t-CO2eThe total emissions for Australian households including energy use, waste, travel and water, food/groceries,imported food, embodied energy, and air travel (holidays) are: Total Household 237,000,785 t-CO2eThe above values are used to determine the latest national proportion for each category of energy, travel,waste, water consumption and other household decisions. Refer to the table below (figure 9). National Exclusive % Totals Inclusive % Energy 44.4% 48,739,800 20.6% Travel 41.7% 45,758,590 19.3% Was te 9.1% 9,950,510 4.2% Water (ABS) 4.8% 5,309,731 2.2% s ub total 100.0% 109,758,631 46.3% Food/groceries 47,406,271 20.0% Im ported food 11,090,427 4.7% Em bodied energy 29,549,152 12.5% Air travel (holidays ) 39,196,304 16.5% s ub total 127,242,154 53.7% Total 237,000,785 100.0% Figure 9. Table of Proportion of National GHG Emissions and Totals in tonnes CO2e including additional consumer behavioursFollowing calculations to determine the proportion of each category SMEC has ascertained the following: • Energy accounts for 20.6% • Water accounts for 2.2% • Travel accounts for 19.3% • Waste disposal accounts for 4.2% • Food/groceries (domestic food) accounts for 20% • Imported Food accounts for 4.7% • Embodied Energy accounts for 12.5% • Air travel (holidays) accounts for 16.5%Proportion of National Household Emissions Compared to National Total EmissionsThe total national emissions for 2005 for all economic sectors was determined from AGEIS and is753,344,700 t-CO2e (refer to section A1.1.2).The emissions for Australian households including energy use, waste, travel and water are: Household 109,764,840 t-CO2e or 14.45 t-CO2e/ householdThe total emissions for Australian households including energy use, waste, travel and water, food/groceries,imported food, embodied energy, and air travel (holidays) are: Total Household 237,000,785 t-CO2e or 31.20 t-CO2e/ householdThe proportion of household emissions compared to the total National emissions (for 2005) are given in thetable below (figure 10): DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 17
  • 20. Na tiona l AGEIS Tota ls Incl. W a te r Incl. Othe rs Household Emissions 104,448,900 109,764,840 237,000,785 Total Emissions 753,344,700 758,654,431 885,896,585 House hold Proportion 13.9% 14.5% 26.8% Figure 10. Table of Proportion of National Household and Total GHG Emissions in tonnes CO2e Notes : 1. "AGEIS totals " includes total direct and indirect em is s ions for 2005, from the AGEIS webs ite. 2. "Incl. Water" includes direct and indirect em is s ions plus hous eholds water em is s ions . 3. "Incl. Others " includes all direct, indirect, hous ehold water and other hous ehold em is s ions which include food/groceries , im ported foods , em bodied energy and air travel (holidays ).The household proportion of total national emissions including household energy, waste and travel (car) is13.9%.The household proportion of total national emissions including household energy, waste, travel (car) andwater is 14.5%.The household proportion of total national emissions including household energy, waste, travel (car), water,food/groceries, imported food, embodied energy and air travel (holidays) and is 26.8%.A1.1.2 Total tonnes CO2e per household per annum for a and b abovea) direct consumption of energy in the home, water, waste disposal, and private car use.Energy, waste and private car useThe total emissions figures for residential Australia were sourced from the AGO National GreenhouseAccounts Online and included the direct emissions and indirect (scope 2) emissions as follows: Figure 11. Residential Direct Emissions – Australia DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 18
  • 21. Figure 12. Residential Indirect Emissions – Australia Australia – Residential, Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Emissions, 2005, Kyoto – Economic Sector Accounting, Total of all Economic (ANZSIC) Sectors, 2005 (AGEIS, 2007). Residential Non transport (i.e. wastes and municipal waste water treatment) 9,950,510 t-CO2e Transport (i.e. car travel but not air travel) 45,758,590 t-CO2e Direct Emissions Sub total 55,709,090 t-CO2eAustralia – Indirect Emissions from the Generation of Purchased Electricity (Scope 2 Emissions), Total of allEconomic (ANZSIC) Sectors, 2005 (AGEIS, 2007). Residential Indirect (i.e. energy) 48,739,800 t-CO2e Indirect Emissions Sub total 48,739,800 t-CO2eThe number of households for Australia for 2006 (ABS, 2006a): Occupied private dwellings 7,596,183 householdsNote that the latest AGO data publicly available is for 2005 and the ABS data is for 2006. In order to providea reasonable estimate of the total tonnes CO2e per household for 2005, we assumed the number of dwellingsin 2005 is as reported for 2006.The total tonnes CO2e per household for 2005 was derived by dividing the total emissions from the residentialsector in Australia in 2005 by the number of occupied private dwellings in Australia in 2006 as follows: Residential Direct Emissions Sub total 55,709,090 t-CO2e Indirect Emissions Sub total 48,739,800 t-CO2e Total Residential Emissions 104,448,890 t-CO2e Occupied private dwellings 7,596,183 Emissions per Household 104,448,890 / 7,596,183 = 13.75 t-CO2e/householdAn average Australian household generated approximately 13.75 tonnes of greenhouse gas per year in 2005(excluding water consumption). DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 19
  • 22. Water ConsumptionThe national water consumption values for households was obtained from the Australian Bureau of StatisticsWater Account (ABS 2005). The values for distributed water sources only was used, i.e. water consumptionfrom self-extracted sources (i.e. rainwater tanks and direct extraction from surface or groundwater) and re-used water was not included. Water used by households is defined as “any water that is used for humanconsumption (such as for drinking and cooking) as well as water used by Households for cleaning or outdoors(such as water for gardens and swimming pools)”. Total Household Consumption 1,874,050 ML (or 1,874,050,000 kL) Occupied private dwellings 7,596,183 Consumption per Household 1,874,050,000 / 7,596,183 = 246 kL/householdThe energy used to supply water for an average household is called the operational energy (used to pump thewater). The emissions factor used for determining the emissions for operating energy of household watersupply for Australia was sourced from Rose, 2005b. Operating energy, domestic reticulated water = 7.8MJ/kL Total operating energy for Australian households = 7.8MJ/kL x 1,874,050,000 kL = 14,617,590 GJThe fixed embodied energy of the household’s water system infrastructure and pipes accounts forapproximately 1/3 of the total energy and is approximately 687 MJ (or 0.687 GJ) per year per household(Rose, 2005b). Fixed embodied energy of the water system 687 MJ per year per household Total fixed embodied energy for Australian households 687 MJ x 7,596,183 households = 5,218,577 GJ Total energy = Operating + Fixed = 14,617,590 GJ + 5,218,577 GJ = 19,836,167 GJ Operating energy per household 14,617,590 GJ / 7,596,183 = 1.92 GJ Fixed embodied energy per household 0.687 GJ Total energy per household 1.92 GJ + 0.687 GJ = 2.6GJThe average full fuel cycle emissions factor for electricity generated in Australia was used to convert operatingenergy to emissions, i.e. 0.308 kgCO2e/MJ (Rose, 2005b).The emissions factor for embodied manufactured goods was used to convert embodied energy to emissions,i.e. 0.158 kgCO2e/MJ (Rose, 2005b). Emissions per Household 0.308x1,920 + 0.158x687 = 591+108 kg/household = 699 kg/household = 0.699 t-CO2e/ household Total Emissions 0.699 x 7,596,183 households = 5,309,731 t-CO2eThe total emissions per household including energy use, waste, travel and water is therefore: 13.75 t-CO2e/household + 0.699 t-CO2e/ household = 14.45 t-CO2e/ householdEnergy, water, waste and private car useThe values determined for Australian households are: • Water consumption emissions = 5,309,731 t-CO2e = 0.70 t-CO2e/household • Wastes and municipal waste water treatment (Non transport) = 9,950,510 t-CO2e = 1.31 t- CO2e/household DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 20
  • 23. • Car travel (Transport) = 45,758,590 t-CO2e = 6.02 t-CO2e/household • Energy (Indirect) = 48,739,800 t-CO2e = 6.42 t-CO2e/householdThe total emissions for Australian households including energy use, waste, travel and water are therefore: 14.45 x 7,596,183 = 109,764,840 t-CO2eThese vales are extrapolated back to section A1.1.1 to determine the national proportion for each category ofenergy, travel, waste and water.b) addition of other consumer decisions such as: imported food, meat, embodied energyin new building/renovation products, holiday (not work) flights etc.No governmental publications were available to reference part b of the Matrix, hence private publications wereutilised.Food/groceriesAssumptions: 1. The typical food basket total for a 3 person household is 118.59 kg per month and the fruit and vegetable component is 58.55kg (page 22, Queensland Health, 2000). 2. A typical Australian household is 2.6 persons, hence calculations will be converted from a 3 person household to a 2.6 person household. 3. Transport accounts for 20% of total energy of a food production: ("In some cases transport is only 20% of the total energy budget of a foods production," says Associate Professor Hugh Campbell, a New Zealand researcher from the University of Otago in Dunedin”) (Salleh, 2007). 4. Emissions allow for food production, packaging and transportation.Assuming food for one person emits 2.4 tonnes* CO2e per year (p19, Rose 2006) thus for a 2.6 personhousehold 6.24 tonnes CO2e is emitted per year, which is equivalent to 0.52 tonnes CO2e per month. Thefood basket for a 2.6 person household is 118.59 kg / 3 x 2.6 = 102.78 kg per month. *NB. Discrepancies for emissions from food were found in the Rose 2006 study as a range of figures for food emissions per person ranged from 7.7 tonnes CO2e/ year/ household of 3 people (Fig 1.2 page 3) to 35 kg/week for a 3 person Australian family (Fig 2, page 5) to 2.4 tonnes CO2e per year per person (p19). In addition, another study on food miles in Australia which to the best of understanding only calculated distance traveled, the average emissions was found to be 4.646 tonnes CO2e per tonne of food transported by road. This equates to 6.6 tonnes CO2e per household of 3 per year (calculation: 118.59 kg per household/month x 12 months x 4.646 tonnes CO2e) which is 2.2 tonnes CO2e per person. However this figure of 2.2 tonnes of CO2e per year per person only accounts for distance food has traveled and given that transport accounts for 20% of food emissions (Salleh, 2007) it would therefore be equivalent to 2.2 / 20% = 11 tonnes CO2e per person per year for all food emissions. This number is substantially higher then the figures represented by the Rose 2006 study. Further studies are therefore required for accurate emissions from food production in an Australian context.The emissions conversion unit (CU) in tonnes CO2e per kg of food for Australian food is calculated as 0.52tonnes CO2e per household per month/102.78 kg per month for a 2.6 person household = 5.06 kg CO2e perkg of food.The total emissions for Australian food for a 2.6 person household for a year is therefore: 102.78 kg per month x 12 months x 5.06 kg CO2e per kg of food = 6.24 t-CO2e per yearThe total number of occupied private dwellings in Australia is 7,596,183. Therefore the total emissions fordomestic food for Australia for a year is: 6.24 t-CO2e x 7,596,183 households = 47,406,271 t-CO2ePlease note that these figures are for a healthy food basket with only an average amount of meat, frozenfoods and processed foods, which typically have a higher emissions value then fresh foods. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 21
  • 24. MeatRed meat emits 12.8 kg CO2e per kg (Table 2, Rose, 2005). Chicken and tinned meat emits 3.5 kg CO2eper kg (Table 2, Rose, 2005). Based on a typical food basket, a 3 person household consumes 3 kg of redmeat per month (36 kg per year) and 4.16 kg of chicken and tinned meat per month (50 kg per year)(Queensland Health 2000). Therefore a 2.6 person household consumes 2.6 kg red meat per month (31.2 kgper year) and 3.6 kg of chicken and tinned meat per month (43 kg per year). Thus emissions from meatconsumption per 2.6 person household per year is estimated to be: Red meat 12.8 kg CO2e/kg x 31.2 kg = 0.4 t-CO2e Chicken and tinned meat 3.5 kg CO2e/kg x 43 kg = 0.15 t-CO2e Total emissions for Australia (0.4 + 0.15) t-CO2e x 7,596,183 households = 4,177,900 t-CO2eNote that these emission values are included within the total domestic food values above and are equivalentto 4,177,900 t-CO2e / 47,406,271 t-CO2e = 8.8% of emissions for the domestic food basket.Imported FoodApproximately 10% of Australia’s total food consumed is imported (DAFF). Hence 90% of food consumed isdomestic giving a total food basket for a 2.6 person household of 102.78 kg / 90% = 114.2 kg per month and114.2 -102.78 = 11.42kg per month of imported food.Currently no studies have been conducted specifically for Australia and Western Australia. Hence we will beusing the average emissions for a western household. The emissions for food and groceries for an averagewestern household is 7.7 t-CO2e per year (Figure 1.2, Rose, 2006b). Therefore the emissions for importedfoods per 2.6 person household per year is estimated to be: 7.7 – 6.24 (domestic estimate) = 1.46 t-CO2eThe emissions for imported food per kg of food is therefore: 1.46 t-CO2e / (11.42kg x 12 months) = 0.0106 t-CO2e per kg = 10.65 kg CO2e per kg of foodThe results show that the emissions per kg of imported food (10.65 kg CO2e per kg of food) is therefore morethen double the emissions per kg of domestic food (5.06 kg CO2e per kg of food). Given the longer distancesthat food is required to travel and the mode of transport required (i.e. by air or boat) this estimate appears tobe reasonable. These estimates will therefore be used to determine the total emissions for food for anaverage Australian household per year. Total emissions for Australia for imported foods 1.46 t-CO2e x 7,596,183 households = 11,090,427 t-CO2e Total emissions for Australia for all foods 7.7 t-CO2e x 7,596,183 households = 58,490,609 t-CO2eThese vales are extrapolated back to section A1.1.1 to determine the national proportion.Household Embodied EnergyHousing (Brick and Tile)Assuming an average house is double brick, tiled roof with a concrete floor, the annual embodiedemissions/sqm is 9.1 kgCO2e/m2/year (Table A2.8, Rose, 2005). The average floor space for new residentialbuildings from 1984 to 2003 was 174.8sqm (ABS 2005). Emissions per household is calculated as: Emissions per household for housing 9.1 kgCO2e/m2/year x 174.8sqm = 1.58 t-CO2ePossessions (average)The conversion factor for emissions from possessions (average) is 0.158 kg CO2e/MJ (P30, Rose, 2005) withan embodied energy value of 14,600 MJ/year for an average household (Table A2.9, Rose, 2005). For anaverage household this was calculated as: Emissions per household for possessions 0.158 x 14,600 = 2.31 t-CO2e Total household embodied energy emissions for Australia 1.58 t-CO2e + 2.31 t-CO2e x 7,596,183 households = 29,549,152 t-CO2e DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 22
  • 25. Holiday (air travel)For Australia, in 2003, 1,839,000 travellers departed the nation on international flights for holidays (page 62)(TRA, 2004) and 11,213,260 travellers departed Australian cities for domestic holidays (calculated bymultiplying 79% [combined value of 46% leisure and 33% visiting friends/family] with 14,194,000 totaldomestic flights). A total of 13,052,260 international and domestic flights from Australia for holidays wererecorded which equates to 1.72 departures per household (13,052,260 international and domestic flightsdivided by 7,596,183 dwellings per Australia) (ABS 2006a).Assuming all flights were medium haul return journeys (>2,000 <10,000 km), emissions per km is 0.30kgCO2e (Carbon Planet, 2007 – see figure 12 below). National emissions for air travel per household istherefore calculated as 1.72 departures x 10,000km x 0.3 kgCO2e = 5.16 t-CO2e.Total household air travel emissions for Australia: 5.16 t-CO2e x 7,596,183 households = 39,196,304 t-CO2e Figure 13. Average aviation CO2e emission factors Source: Carbon Planet (2007), Emission Factors for Flights. Available online at: http://www.carbonplanet.com/downloads/ghg_emission_factors_for_flights.pdf Accessed 1 November 2007.The values determined for Australian households for other consumer choices are: • Food/groceries (domestic food) = 47,406,271 t-CO2e = 6.24 t-CO2e/household • Imported Food = 11,090,427 t-CO2e = 1.46 t-CO2e/household • Embodied Energy = 29,549,152 t-CO2e = 3.89 t-CO2e/household • Air travel (holidays) = 39,196,304 t-CO2e = 5.16 t-CO2e/householdThe emissions for these other consumer choices are 6.24 + 1.46 + 3.89 + 5.16 = 16.75 t-CO2e/household, or127,242,154 t-CO2e total emissionsThe emissions for Australian households including energy use, waste, travel, water and other consumerchoices is therefore: 14.45 + 16.75 = 31.20 t-CO2e/household, or 237,000,785 t-CO2e total emissionsThese vales are extrapolated back to section A1.1.1 to determine the national proportion for each category.National Household Emissions Compared to Total National EmissionsThe total national emissions figures for Australia were sourced from the AGO National Greenhouse AccountsOnline and included the direct emissions and indirect (scope 2) emissions as follows (figures 14 and 15): DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 23
  • 26. Figure 14. Total National Direct Emissions –Australia Figure 15. Total National Indirect Emissions –Australia Australia – Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Emissions, 2005, Kyoto – Economic Sector Accounting, Total of all Economic (ANZSIC) Sectors, 2005 (AGEIS, 2007).The emissions figures include total of all economic (ANZSIC) sectors in accordance with Kyoto and the AGO,including: • Div A Agriculture, Forestry, fishing; • Div B Mining; • Div C Manufacturing; • Div D Electricity, gas, water; • Div E Construction; DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 24
  • 27. • Div F-H, J-Q Commercial Services; • Div I Transport and storage; and • Residential.The total National emissions for 2005 are: Direct 559,074,490 t-CO2e Indirect 194,270,210 t-CO2e Total 753,344,700 t-CO2eThe emissions for Australian households including energy use, waste, travel and water for 2005 are: Household 109,764,840 t-CO2eThe total emissions for Australian households including energy use, waste, travel and water, food/groceries,imported food, embodied energy, and air travel (holidays) for 2005 are: Total Household 237,000,785 t-CO2eThese vales are extrapolated back to section A1.1.1 to determine the national proportion for householdemissions.A1.1.3 Total tonnes CO2e per Perth Metropolitan household per annum for a and babovea) Energy, Waste and TravelThe total emissions figures for Perth Metropolitan households could not be derived due to limited dataavailability from AGO National Greenhouse Accounts Online. That is, the smallest boundary of the AGO’semissions data is for state and territory, not city. However by applying the same methodology as that used insection 4.3.2a) above we are able to derive the total tonnes CO2e for Western Australian households.The total emissions figures for Western Australia were sourced from the AGO National Greenhouse AccountsOnline and included the direct emissions and indirect (scope 2) emissions as follows (figures 16 and 17): Figure 16. Residential Direct Emissions – Western Australia DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 25
  • 28. Figure 17. Residential Indirect Emissions – Western Australia Western Australia - Residential, Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Emissions, 2005, Kyoto - Economic Sector Accounting, Total of all Economic (ANZSIC) Sectors, 2005 (AGEIS, 2007). Residential Non transport (i.e. wastes and municipal waste water treatment) 779,890 t-CO2e Transport (i.e. car travel but not air travel) 4,633,310 t-CO2e Direct Emissions Sub total 5,413,200 t-CO2eWestern Australia - Indirect Emissions from the Generation of Purchased Electricity (Scope 2 Emissions),Total of all Economic (ANZSIC) Sectors, 2005 (AGEIS, 2007). Residential Indirect (i.e. energy) 3,306,750 t-CO2e Indirect Emissions Sub total 3,306,750 t-CO2eThe number of households for Western Australia for 2006 (ABS, 2006b): Occupied private dwellings (WA) 757,989 householdsNote that the latest AGO data publicly available is for 2005 and the ABS data is for 2006. In order to providea reasonable estimate of the total tonnes CO2e per household for 2005, we assumed the number of dwellingsin 2005 is as reported for 2006.The total tonnes CO2e per household for 2005 was derived by dividing the total emissions from the residentialsector in Western Australia in 2005 by the number of occupied private dwellings in Western Australia in 2006as follows: Residential Direct Emissions Sub total 5,413,200 t-CO2e Indirect Emissions Sub total 3,306,750 t-CO2e Total Residential Emissions (WA) 8,719,950 t-CO2e Occupied private dwellings (WA) 757,989 Emissions per Household (WA) 8,719,950 / 757,989 = 11.50 tonnes/household DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 26
  • 29. An average Western Australian household generated approximately 11.50 tonnes of greenhouse gas per yearin 2005. This is lower than national average due partly to the lower emissions factor for electricity in WesternAustralia compared to the other emissions factors for electricity in the Eastern states. WA has a higherpercentage of its electricity derived from gas (60%) compared to the Eastern states who generally have highercoal dependency. This therefore lowers our GHG emissions compared to the eastern states.However the report calls for figures for Perth Metropolitan area. The number of households for WesternAustralia, Perth (Major Statistical Region) for 2006 (ABS, 2006c): Occupied private dwellings (Perth) 560,070The percentage of private dwellings in Western Australia located within the Perth Metropolitan region istherefore 73.88% (i.e. 560,070/757,989 = 73.88%). We have therefore assumed that equivalently thepercentage of residential emissions originating from households in the Perth Metropolitan area isapproximately 73.88%. Direct Emissions - Non transport 779,890 x 73.88% = 576,183 t-CO2e Direct Emissions - Transport 4,633,310 x 73.88% = 3,423,089 t-CO2e Direct Emissions Sub total 5,413,200 x 73.88% = 3,999,272 t-CO2e Indirect Emissions Sub total 3,306,750 x 73.88% = 2,443,027 t-CO2e Total Residential Emissions (Perth) 8,719,950 x 73.88% = 6,442,299 t-CO2eThe emissions per household are therefore: Emissions per Household (Perth) 6,442,299 / 560,070 = 11.50 tonnes/householdAlthough the majority of Western Australian dwellings are located in the Perth Metropolitan region, this is not avery accurate assessment of the Perth emissions. Many factors can influence household emissionsparticularly weather patterns and house construction. Many parts of WA are very hot and householders wouldrun airconditioning for longer periods per annum then in Perth. On the other hand the colder south-westernregion of WA would run airconditioning for shorter periods throughout the year (but heating for longer).Another factor to consider is that the electricity for the Perth Metropolitan region is fed from the SWISelectricity grid. The electricity generated for the SWIS is approximately 35% gas, unlike WA which is 60%.This will affect the electricity emissions factor for Perth, however the actual emissions factor has not beendocumented by the AGO and will therefore not be considered as a critical factor in this report.Given that more accurate data is not available for the Perth Metropolitan region, and the time constraints ofthis report, we will assume that the emissions per household for Perth are 11.50 tonnes/household ascalculated above.Water ConsumptionThe national water consumption values for WA households was obtained from the Australian Bureau ofStatistics Water Account (ABS, 2005). The values for distributed water sources only was used, i.e. waterconsumption from self-extracted sources (i.e. rainwater tanks and direct extraction from surface orgroundwater) and re-used water was not included. Water used by households is defined as “any water that isused for human consumption (such as for drinking and cooking) as well as water used by Households forcleaning or outdoors (such as water for gardens and swimming pools)”. Total Household Consumption (WA) 226,151 ML (or 226,151,000 kL) Occupied private dwellings (WA) 757,989 Consumption per Household (WA) 226,151,000 / 757,989 = 298 kL/householdWe have assumed that the average consumption per household for Perth is the same as the WA value. Occupied private dwellings (Perth) 560,070 Consumption per Household (Perth) 298 kL/household Total Household Consumption (Perth) 560,070 x 298 = 167,100 ML (or 167,100,560 kL) DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 27
  • 30. The emissions factor used for determining the emissions for operating energy of household water supply forthe Perth metropolitan area was sourced via a private communication with Geoff Down, Energy Planner forWater Corporation. Operating energy for domestic reticulated water supply in metropolitan Perth = 1.24kWh/kL = 4.46MJ/kL (1kWh = 3.6 MJ) = 4.46GJ/ML or 0.00446GJ/kL Operating energy (Perth) 4.46GJ/ML x 167,100 ML = 745,266 GJ Operating energy per household (Perth) 745,266 GJ / 560,070 = 1.330 GJ / household = 1.33 / 3.6 x 1000 (or 1.24 kWh x 298kL) = 369 kWh / householdThe fixed embodied energy of the household’s water system infrastructure and pipes accounts forapproximately 1/3 of the total energy and is approximately 687 MJ (or 0.687 GJ) per year per household(Rose, 2005b). This assumed to be the same for Perth and WA households. Fixed embodied energy (Perth) 0.687 GJ x 560,070 households = 384,768 GJ Total energy (Perth) 745,266 GJ + 384,768 GJ = 1,130,034 Total energy per household (Perth) 1,130,034 / 560,070 = 2.02 GJ (or 0.687 + 1.33) = 2.02 GJThe full fuel cycle emissions factor for electricity generated in Perth was used to convert operating energy toemissions, i.e. 0.260 kgCO2e/MJ (AGO, 2007). The emissions factor for embodied manufactured goods wasused to convert embodied energy to emissions, i.e. 0.158 kgCO2e/MJ (Rose, 2005b). Emissions per Household (Perth) 0.260 x 1,330 + 0.158 x 687 = 346+108 kg/household = 454 kgCO2e/household = 0.454 tCO2e/ household Emissions (Perth) 0.454 x 560,070 households = 254,272 tCO2e Emissions (WA) 0.454 x 757,989 households = 344,127 tCO2eThe total emissions per household including energy use, waste, transport and water is therefore: 11.50 tCO2e /household + 0.454 tCO2e / household = 11.954 tCO2e per householdEnergy, water, waste and private car useThe values determined above for Perth households including water consumption were: • Water consumption emissions = 254,272 tCO2e = 0.454 tCO2e/ household • Wastes and municipal waste water treatment (Non transport) = 576,183 t-CO2e = 1.029 tCO2e/ household • Car travel (Transport) = 3,423,089 t-CO2e = 6.111 tCO2e/ household • Energy (Indirect) = 2,443,027 t-CO2e = 4.361 tCO2e/ household • Total emissions = 6,696,571 tCO2e = 11.954 tCO2e/ householdThe above values are used to determine the Perth proportion for each category of energy, travel, waste andwater. Refer to the table below (figure 18). DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 28
  • 31. Perth AGEIS % AGEIS Totals Inclusive % Energy 37.9% 2,443,027 36.5% Travel 53.1% 3,423,089 51.1% Was te 8.9% 576,183 8.6% s ub total 100.0% 6,442,299 96.2% Water (ABS) 3.8% total 100.0% total (excluding water) 6,442,299 total (including water) 6,696,571 per hous ehold (ex water) 11.50 per hous ehold (inc water) 11.95 no. hous eholds 560,070 water total 254,272 Figure 18. Table of Proportion of Perth GHG Emissions and Totals in tonnes CO2eFollowing calculations to determine the proportion of each category we have ascertained the following: • Energy accounts for 36.5% • Travel accounts for 51.1% • Waste disposal accounts for 8.6% • Water accounts for 3.8%b) addition of other consumer decisions such as: imported food, meat, embodied energyin new building/renovation products, holiday (not work) flights etc.No governmental publications were available to reference part b of the Matrix, hence private publications wereutilised.Food/groceriesThe estimates and assumptions used for the national estimates in section A1.1.2 will be also be used forPerth calculations due to lack of more specific data.A healthy food basket for a Perth household is therefore estimated to be 102.78kg of domestic food permonth for a 2.6 person household, with an emissions factor of 5.06 kg CO2e per kg of food. The totalemissions for domestic food per household for a year is therefore the same as the national estimate, i.e.: 102.78 kg per month x 12 months x 5.06 kg CO2e per kg of food = 6.24 t-CO2e per yearThe total number of occupied private dwellings in Perth is 560,070. Therefore the total emissions for domesticfood for Perth for a year is: 6.24 t-CO2e x 560,070 households = 3,494,837 t-CO2eMeatA Perth household consumes 2.6 kg red meat per month (31.2 kg per year) with an emissions factor of 12.8kg CO2e/kg and 3.6 kg of chicken and tinned meat per month (43 kg per year) with an emissions factor of 3.5kg CO2e per kg. Thus emissions from meat consumption per 2.6 person household per year is estimated tobe: Red meat 12.8 kg CO2e/kg x 31.2 kg = 0.4 t-CO2e Chicken and tinned meat 3.5 kg CO2e/kg x 43 kg = 0.15 t-CO2e Total emissions for Perth (0.4 + 0.15) t-CO2e x 560,070 households = 308,038 t-CO2e DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 29
  • 32. Note that these emission values are included within the total domestic food values above and are equivalentto 308,038 t-CO2e / 3,494,837 t-CO2e = 8.8% of emissions for the domestic food basket.Imported FoodAn average Perth household consumes 102.78 kg of domestic food per month and 11.42 kg of imported foodper month, as calculated in section A1.1.2, producing 7.7 t-CO2e emissions per year. The emissions forimported foods per Perth household per year is estimated to be: 7.7 – 6.24 (domestic estimate) = 1.46 t-CO2e per year Total emissions for Perth for imported foods 1.46 t-CO2e x 560,070 households = 817,702 t-CO2e Total emissions for Perth households for all foods 7.7 t-CO2e x 560,070 households = 4,312,539 t-CO2eHousehold Embodied EnergyThe estimates used for the national estimates in section A1.1.2 will be also be used for Perth calculations dueto lack of more specific data.Housing (Brick and Tile)Emissions per household for the embodied energy for housing for an average Perth house is calculated as: Emissions per household for housing 9.1 kgCO2e/m2/year x 174.8sqm = 1.58 t-CO2ePossessions (average)Emissions per household for the embodied energy for possessions for an average Perth house is calculatedas: Emissions per household for possessions 0.158 x 14,600 = 2.31 t-CO2e Total household embodied energy emissions for Perth 1.58 t-CO2e + 2.31 t-CO2e x 560,070 households = 2,178,672 t-CO2eHoliday (air travel)In 2004, 224,247 travellers departed on overseas flights on holiday from WA (page 63)(ABS, 2005b) and in2003, 946,420 travellers (page 128) departed from WA for interstate on holiday (calculated from 79% of travelbeing holiday [combined value of 46% leisure and 33% visiting friends/family] of a total of 1,198,000 visitorstravelling interstate from WA (TRA, 2004)).The number of travellers (departures) departing WA for national and international holidays per year is1,170,667 which equates to 1.54 departures per household (1,170,667 flights divided by 757,989 dwellings inWA in 2006 (ABS 2006c)). Assuming all flights were medium haul journeys (>2,000 <10,000 km), emissionsper km is 0.30 kgCO2e (Carbon Planet, 2007 – see figure 16 below). Figure 19. Average aviation CO2e emission factorsSource: Carbon Planet (2007), Emission Factors for Flights. Available online at:http://www.carbonplanet.com/downloads/ghg_emission_factors_for_flights.pdf Accessed 1 November 2007. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 30
  • 33. WA emissions for air travel per household is therefore calculated as: Emissions for air travel per household 1.54 departures x 10,000km x 0.3 kgCO2e = 4.62 t-CO2eData is not available for air travel specific to Perth households hence we assume that the above calculationsfor WA households are the same for Perth households, i.e. 1.54 departures per Perth household per year withan emissions total of 4.62 t-CO2e. Total emissions for Perth 4.62 t-CO2e x 560,070 households = 2,587,523 t-CO2eThe values determined above for Perth households for other consumer decisions were: • Food/groceries (domestic food) = 3,494,837 t-CO2e = 6.24 tCO2e/ household • Imported Food = 817,702 t-CO2e = 1.46 tCO2e/ household • Embodied Energy = 2,178,672 t-CO2e = 3.890 tCO2e/ household • Air travel (holidays) = 2,587,523 t-CO2e = 4.620 tCO2e/ householdThe above values are used to determine the latest proportion for each category of energy, travel, waste, waterconsumption and other household decisions for Perth. Refer to the table below (figure 20). Perth Exclusive % Totals Inclusive % Energy 36.5% 2,443,027 15.5% Travel 51.1% 3,423,089 21.7% Was te 8.6% 576,183 3.7% Water (ABS) 3.8% 254,272 1.6% s ub total 100.0% 6,696,571 42.4% Food/groceries 3,494,837 22.2% Im ported food 817,702 5.2% Em bodied energy 2,178,672 13.8% Air travel (holidays ) 2,587,523 16.4% s ub total 9,078,734 57.6% Total 15,775,305 100.0% Figure 20. Table of Proportion of Perth GHG Emissions and Totals in tonnes CO2e including additional consumer behavioursFollowing calculations to determine the proportion of each category we have ascertained the following: • Energy accounts for 15.5% • Water accounts for 1.6% • Travel accounts for 21.7% • Waste disposal accounts for 3.7% • Food/groceries (domestic food) accounts for 22.2% • Imported Food accounts for 5.2% • Embodied Energy accounts for 13.8% • Air travel (holidays) accounts for 16.4% DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 31
  • 34. A1.1.4 Emissions factors for Perth Metro electricity (per kWh), gas (per KWh, per m3and BTU), water supply (per kL) and water disposal (per KL with estimate of %consumption that is disposed)The amount of GHG emissions estimated in this report are expressed in tonnes of CO2e based mainly on theAGO’s Factors and Methods Workbook (AGO, 2007b). However where emissions factors are not availablefrom the AGO other factors will be used.Electricity 0.840 (Scope 2) + 0.096 (Scope3) = 0.936 kgCO2e/kWh (AGO, 2007b,Table 5, p13)Natural Gas 60.7 kgCO2e/GJ = 0.0607 kgCO2e/MJ = 0.2185 kgCO2e/kWh (1kWh = 3.6 MJ) (AGO, 2007b, Table 2, p8) = 2.519 kgCO2e/m3 (energy content of natural gas in WA: 41.5 MJ/m3) (ABARE, 2007) = 0.000064 kgCO2e/BTU (1BTU = 1055.05585J)Water Supply Operating energy for domestic reticulated water supply in metropolitan Perth is1.24kWh/kL (Geoff Down, Water Corporation) = 4.46MJ/kL (1kWh = 3.6 MJ). The full fuel cycle emissionsfactor for electricity generated in WA to convert operating energy to emissions is 0.260 kgCO2e/MJ (AGO,2007b). The emissions conversion factor for water supply is: = 4.46 x 0.260 = 1.16 kgCO2e/kLWater Disposal Emissions for municipal wastewater treatment is based on population and anumber of other factors (please note this includes sewerage). The AGO Factors and Methods Workbook(AGO, 2007b), details the calculations required to determine the emissions factor for each individual scenario.Assuming the default factors given in the Workbook the calculations are given in the table below (figure 21): Municipal W aste W ater Treatm ent BOD Calculation: BODw (tonnes ) = Population x DCw / 1000 = 1 x 22.5 / 1000 = 0.023 Em issions from w astew ater treatm ent calculation: GHG Em is s ions (tCO2e) = BOD x (1-Fs l) x Fan x EFw x 21 = 0.0 x 0.71 x 0.3 x 0.65 x 21 = 0.065 GHG Em is s ions (kgCO2e) = 65.42 Em issions from sludge calculation: GHG Em is s ions (tCO2e) = BOD x Fs l x Efs l x 21 = 0.0 x 0.29 x 0.11 x 21 = 0.015 GHG Em is s ions (kgCO2e) = 15.073 Total em issions (Sum of w aste w ater (m inus recovery) and sludge GHG em issions): GHG Em is s ions (tCO2e) = 0.065+0.015 = 0.08 GHG Emissions (kgCO2e) = 80.49 Figure 21. Municipal Waste Water Treatment Calculations DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 32
  • 35. Municipal Waste Water Treatment Emissions from wastewater treatment calculation: 65.4 kgCO2e/person Emissions from sludge calculation: 15.1 kgCO2e/person = 80.5 kgCO2e/personA typical household in WA has 2.6 people (ABS, 2006c) and consumes 298kL of water (ABS, 2005).Assuming 75% of water is wasted then the emissions factor for wastewater treatment per householdbecomes: 65.4 kgCO2e/person x 2.6 persons / 0.75*298 = 0.76 kgCO2e/kLNote that these values do not include for the electricity used to treat the waste water or emissions for sludge.Waste Disposal Decomposition of municipal solid waste produces methane. AGO’s Factors andMethods Workbook (AGO, 2007b) details the calculations required to determine the emissions factor for theemissions of municipal solid waste disposed of in a well managed landfill. Using the emissions factor in Table15 of the Workbook, the emissions factor for waste disposal for households is: Emissions factor for municipal solid waste: 1,140 kgCO2e/tonne wasteVehicle Fuel (Petroleum) = 2600 kgCO2e/kL (AGO, 2007b,Table 21, p37)A1.2 The TableThe methodology’s used to estimate data for each part of The Table are summarised below. All calculationsare based on annual use and savings.Definitions and calculations:The current use is the use per year prior to the saving measure being implemented.The new use is the use per year following the implementation of the saving measure.The savings are the savings per year as a result of implementing the savings measure, and is the current useminus the new use.The emissions savings are the emissions per year in kgCO2e/year saved as a result of implementing thesavings measure, and are the savings multiplied by the emissions factor.The cost savings are the cost per year in Aus$/year saved as a result of implementing the savings measure,and are the savings multiplied by the unit cost for Perth.A1.2.1 Energy Saving Measures:Assumptions: • The emissions conversion factor for electricity is 0.936 kgCO2e/kWh (refer to Section 4.2). • The residential unit rate for electricity in Perth is assumed to be a constant 0.1394 $/kWh, based on Synergy’s A1 tariff. • The emissions conversion factor for natural gas is 0.2185 kgCO2e/kWh (refer to Section 4.2). • The residential unit rate for gas in Perth is tiered, i.e. it depends on how much gas you use. We have assumed a mid range constant of 0.0505 $/kWh, based on Alinta’s residential pricing schedule. • The breakdown for energy use for WA homes is estimated in figure 22 below. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 33
  • 36. Figure 22. Energy use in a typical Western Australian home (Source: SEDO, 2008)1.01 Switching off stand-by power (typical mix of devices)On average, appliances not performing their main function use a constant 87 Watt per household, or 760 kWhper year (Cool Communities, p51). It is likely that at least two appliances will remain on stand-by power (ie.television and microwave) which equates to 74.25 kWh (47.38 kWh/year for a television and 26.87 kWh/yearfor a microwave). Calculations for each appliance is below:A conventional cathode ray tube (CRT) television’s average power on standby is 5.9W (Harrington and Holt,2003). Assuming a television is on 2 hours a day, standby power per year is calculated as 22 hours x 5.9W x365 days = 47.38 kWh/year.A domestic microwave oven’s average power on standby is 3.1W (Harrington and Holt, 2003). Assuming amicrowave is used for 15 minutes per day, standby power per year is calculated as 23.75 hours x 3.1W x 365days = 26.87 kWh/year. Current energy use = 760 kWh/year New energy use (two appliance on stand-by power) = 47.38 kWh + 26.87 kWh = 74.25 kWh/year.1.02 Adjusting water heater (from 80 degrees to 60 degrees for electric storage/ gas storage/ electric instant/gas instant (for typical use)The average energy consumption for various hot water units is shown in the table below (Energy Rating,2001). The table is based on average water consumption for a typical Australian household. Figure 23. Average Annual Energy Consumption per Hot Water Unit Source: Proposed MEPS for Water Heaters: Domestic & Commercial, Table 34, Page 30. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 34
  • 37. The calculations for Perth are based on the above and the assumption that reducing water temperature by 5.6deg C can reduce water heating energy consumption by 3% to 5% (Synergy, 2008). Hence for a 20 deg Creduction the energy consumption is reduced by 20/5.6 x 3% and 5% = 11% to 18%. The calculations willassume a mid-range of 14%.The natural gas conversion factor for the gas hot water systems is 0.2185 kgCO2e/kWh (refer to section4.3.4). Refer to The Table for the calculation results.1.03 Switching off second fridge (bar fridge)e.g. Westinghouse RA122T 120L 2.5 star bar fridge is rated with an annual energy use of 296 kWh/year =current energy use = energy savings (Energy Rating, 2008a). Refer to The Table for the calculation results.1.04 Adjusting fridge/ freezer (1, 2, 3 degrees warmer than current settings)A change of one degree can effect energy consumption by 5% (Energy Rating, 2008a).e.g. Westinghouse BJ433 3.5 star fridge is rated with an annual energy use of 543 kWh/year. The energysavings is therefore 5% of 543 kWh (i.e. 27kWh) for each 1 degree change up to 3 degrees of change.Setting it lower than necessary can release 15 – 50 kgCO2e/year (p18 Cool it). Refer to The Table for thecalculation results. However the refrigerator should not be set higher than 3-5 degree as any warmer does notkeep the food fresh.1.05 Adjusting air conditioner (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 degrees warmer than current setting) (say 34 degrees outside, fromsetting of 20 degrees inside in typical brick, insulated house, for typical cooling hrs per year) and 1.06Adjusting heater thermostat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 degrees cooler than current setting) (say 16 degrees outside, fromsetting of 25 degrees inside in typical brick, insulated house, for typical heating hrs per year)For a reverse cycle air-conditioner, each degree of extra heating in winter or cooling in summer will increaseenergy consumption by about 5–10%. Set thermostat 18-20 in winter, 25 – 27 in summer (AGO, fs44).e.g. Daikin FTXS50F Single Split Non Ducted 5-star System with 5kW cooling output and 5.80kW heatingoutput (Energy Rating, 2008b). Current energy use for cooling = 1.55 kW x 300 hrs per annum (SEDO, fs90) Current energy use for heating = 1.60 kW x 150 hrs per annum (SEDO, fs90) Assume energy saving for both cooling and heating = 7.5% of current energy useUsing the sizing rule of 125W per sq.m for living areas then the above airconditioner is suitable for 40sq.m ofliving area (or 3 large bedrooms, given a standard rule of 80W per sq.m for bedrooms). (Energy Rating,2008b). Refer to The Table for the calculation results.1.07 Using fan to cool house instead of air conditioningFans are cheaper to purchase and run and have less greenhouse impact then air conditioners. Fans shouldbe the first choice for cooling, although they only circulate the air and do not cool it. Assuming threecirculating ceiling fans are used in place of a single split non-ducted air conditioner, such as the DaikinFTXS50F in 1.05 above, we have the following: Current energy use for cooling = 1.55 kW x 300 hrs per annum (SEDO, fs90) New energy use for cooling = 3x65 W (Clipsal) x 300 hrs per annum (SEDO, fs90)Energy saving = current – new energy use. Refer to The Table for the calculation results.1.08 Using cold water in washing machine instead of hot waterA cold wash cycle on a washing machine uses less energy then a warm wash cycle and produces lessgreenhouse gases. e.g. Samsung J1045 front-loading 4-star washing machine with 7kg capacity (Energy Rating, 2008c). Current energy use for cold wash = 93 kWh per annum Current energy use for hot water wash = 230 kWh per annumEnergy saving = current – new energy use. Refer to The Table for the calculation results.1.09 Installing 10 compact fluorescent globes (typical use) DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 35
  • 38. Compact fluorescent light (CFL) globes are more energy efficient than the typical GLS incandescent lightglobes, producing more light output per Watt of energy input. A 20W CFL is typically used to replace a 75WGLS (AGO, fs45). e.g. replace 10 x 75W (current energy use) GLS globes with 10 x 20W (new energy use) CFL globes.Based on 4 hours use per day (SEDO, fs91). Refer to The Table for the calculation results.1.10 Switching 5 240V down lights to alternativesLower energy lamp replacements are available for existing 50W 240V downlight fittings. Some compactfluorescent lamps can be directly changed into the fitting (e.g. 11W, spiral style lamps), as can LED lamps(e.g. 15W, par 30 style) and low energy halogen lamps (e.g. 20W, par 38 style). Other LED type lamps wouldrequire a conversion kit as they are run from low voltage, not mains voltage.1.10a) Switching to compact fluorescent globes Current energy use = 5 x 50W x 4 hours x 365 days = 365kWh/year New energy use = 5 x 11W x 4 hours x 365 days = 80kWh/year1.10b) Switching to LED globes Current energy use = 5 x 50W x 4 hours x 365 days = 365kWh/year New energy use = 5 x 15W x 4 hours x 365 days = 110kWh/year1.10c) Switching to low energy, 20W globes Current energy use = 5 x 50W x 4 hours x 365 days = 365kWh/year New energy use = 5 x 20W x 4 hours x 365 days = 146kWh/yearThe fluorescent lamp is the cheapest to replace with and has an average lamp life of 8,000 hours ($6.95,NECOa) however it does not suit all downlight fittings. The LED globe has the highest lamp life of about50,000 hours and fits into most downlight fittings, but is the most costly at $250 (TODAEa). The low energyhalogen has an estimated lamp life of 10,000 at a cost of $39.95 (NECOb).Refer to The Table for the calculation results. Please note that the calculations do not allow for the cost of thelamp as the costs will vary depending on manufacturer and retailer.1.11 Switching 5 12v down lights to lower watt/ higher efficiency globesLower energy lamp replacements are available for existing 50W 12V low voltage (LV) dichroic downlightfittings. Some compact fluorescent lamps can be directly changed into the fitting (e.g. 11W, downlight stylelamps), as can LED lamps (e.g. 7W, downlight style) and low energy halogen lamps (e.g. 20W, downlightstyle). Note in the calculations below that the 50W LV fitting also has a 10W transformer, giving a total of60W per fitting.1.11a) Switching to compact fluorescent globes Current energy use = 5 x 60W x 4 hours x 365 days = 438kWh/year New energy use = 5 x 11W x 4 hours x 365 days = 80kWh/year1.11b) Switching to LED globes Current energy use = 5 x 60W x 4 hours x 365 days = 438kWh/year New energy use = 5 x 7W x 4 hours x 365 days = 51kWh/year1.11c) Switching to low energy, 20W globes Current energy use = 5 x 60W x 4 hours x 365 days = 438kWh/year New energy use = 5 x 20W x 4 hours x 365 days = 146kWh/yearThe low energy halogen lamp is the cheapest to replace ($10.95) and has an estimated lamp life of a low3,000 hours (TODAEb).The fluorescent lamp and has an average lamp life of 8,000 hours and costs about $17.95 (TODAEc). DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 36
  • 39. The LED globe has the highest lamp life of about 50,000 hours, is the most costly to purchase at $114.90(TODAEd). The light output for the low energy globes and the LED globes is only 80-85% of that for an LVfitting, hence they are not a 1:1 replacement. Less expensive 3W versions of the LED globe exist howeverthey generally only have a 50% light output compared to the LV downlight (TODAEe), i.e. you would need twoLED downlights to replaced one LV downlight if you wanted the same light levels.Refer to The Table for the calculation results. Please note that the calculations do not allow for the cost of thelamp as the costs will vary depending on manufacturer and retailer.1.12 Running a pool pump for 2 hours a day less than usualA 750W pool pump is generally adequate for a typical domestic pool (Energy Australia, Swimming Pools),although it is not uncommon for many pumps to be oversized, some up to 1,500W. Hence for the purpose ofthis calculation we will use a pool pump size of 1,500W.Filtration time can be limited to 6 hours per day (Energy Australia, Swimming Pools) hence the pool pumponly needs to run for 6 hours per day instead of 8 hours per day.Current energy use = 8 hours x 365 days x 1.5kW = 4.38 kWh per annumNew energy use = 6 hours x 365 days x 1.5kW = 3.285 kWh per annumRefer to The Table for the calculation results.1.13 Installing a solar hot water systemA solar hot water system can heat up to 90% of a Perth household’s annual hot water requirement, but istypically around 65%-85% (SEDO, fs77).The majority of hot water systems currently used in Perth are electric storage units (refer to figure 24 below).Hence the calculations will be based on the average annual energy use for an electric storage unit, which is3,000kWh per annum (refer to figure 23 above).Assuming installing a hot water system will typically provide 75% of the heating requirements, requiring only afurther 25% of water to be heated. Assuming this heating is provided via an instantaneous electric boostersystem, which typically consumes 1,500 kWh per year (refer to figure 23 above) for full heating, then only 25%x 1,500 kWh = 375 kWh per year is required to run the system. Refer to The Table for the calculation results. Figure 24. Market Share of Hot Water Units in Australia Source: Proposed MEPS for Water Heaters: Domestic & Commercial, Table 4, Page 15.1.14 Shade East- West windows (per average 1m2 window avoiding aircon to counter act summer heat)Direct sun on a surface can generate the same heat as a single bar radiator per 1m2 (AGO, fs19). A singlebar radiator is equivalent to about 1kW of heat energy (ref: http://www.science.org.au/nova/037/037glo.htm)therefore direct sun can generate 1kW of heat energy per 1m2. Shading can block up to 90% of this heat(AGO, fs19).East-West facing windows need external adjustable vertical shading such as sliding screens, louvre screens,shutters, retractable awnings and adjustable external blinds to control the low angled morning and afternoonsun. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 37
  • 40. Other alternatives, like providing internal blinds or curtains or verandahs, reduce the light and warmth provided in winter by blocking out all the (low angled) sunlight, which is not desirable. Figure 25. Comparison of heat gains through different window treatments in summerReference: (SEAV, 2008a)e.g. Using Daikin FTXS50F Single Split Non Ducted 5-star System with 5kW cooling output and 5.80kWheating output (from example 1.05, Energy Rating, 2008b) and assuming that 1kW of heating requires 1kW ofcooling output to counteract the effect, and that 70% can be blocked out by shading (refer to roller shutters,figure 7): Current energy use for cooling = 1.55 kW / 5m2 x 300 hrs per annum = 93kWh/m2/annum New energy use = 30% x 93kWh/m2/annum = 27.9kWh/m2/annumRefer to The Table for the calculation results.1.15 Installing roof insulationInsulation can improve the energy efficiency of ahome by reducing the heat gains in the summerand the heat losses in winter by up to 35% for ahome in a temperate climate such as Perth (referto figure 27). Insulating the ceiling and roof canreduce the energy required for cooling in summerby up to 45% and reduce the energy required forheating by up to 25% (refer to figure 26). Figure 26. Energy savings with insulation DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 38
  • 41. Figure 27. Heat gains and losses without insulation Reference: (SEAV, 2008b)Installing insulation in the ceiling reduces heat gain and losses. Installing insulation under the roof reducesradiant heat gain. Assuming the example used in 1.05 for reverse-cycled air-conditioning, and the upper limitsfor energy saving percentages in figure 7, we can calculate the energy savings as follows: e.g. Daikin FTXS50F Single Split Non Ducted 5-star System with 5kW cooling output and 5.80kW heating output (from example 1.05, Energy Rating, 2008b). Current energy use for cooling = 1.55 kW x 300 hrs per annum Current energy use for heating = 1.60 kW x 150 hrs per annum Assume energy saving for cooling = 45% of current energy use Assume energy saving for heating = 25% of current energy useRefer to The Table for the calculation results.1.16 Reducing Showers from 8 minutes to 4 minutes per day.The majority of hot water systems currently used in Perth are electric storage units (refer to figure 24 above).Hence the calculations will be based on the average annual energy use for an electric storage unit, which is3,000kWh per annum (refer to figure 23 above).Approximately half of hot water use in the home is used in the bathroom, a third in the laundry and theremainder in the kitchen (AGO, fs42). Assuming therefore that 50% of hot water is used for showering andthe showering per household per year is halved (i.e. 8 minute showers to 4 minute showers) then: Current energy use = 3,000 kWh Energy savings = (3,000 kWh x 50%) / 2 = 750 kWh New energy use = 3,000 kWh – 750 kWh = 2,250 kWhThat is an energy savings for total hot water use of 25%. Refer to The Table for the calculation results.1.17 Switching to low flow shower head (2 x 4 mins)A standard shower head uses 12L/minute of water. A low flow shower head being rated 3 ‘stars’ uses 9L/minute (Water Corporation, 2006a). Therefore the percentage water savings by using a low flow head versusa normal head is (12 - 9) /12 = 25%. Based on a 3,000kWh per annum hot water unit with 50% of hot waterused for showering and 4 minute showers (refer to 1.16 above) then: Current energy use = 2,250 kWh Energy savings = (2,250 kWh x 50%) x 25% = 281.25 kWhThat is an energy savings for total hot water use of 12.5%. Refer to The Table for the calculation results. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 39
  • 42. 1.18 Adding a pool blanket The predicted average water temperatures for Perth without a pool blanket vary from 23.5ºC in January to 13.0ºC in July (Daisy Pool Covers, Heating Capabilities). According to the CSIRO the minimum acceptable water temperature for swimming is 20ºC. We assume that the household pool will only be heated during the cooler months, i.e. when the predicted average water temperatures, without a pool blanket, are <20ºC, which is April through to October inclusively (Daisy Pool Covers, Heating Capabilities). The predicted average water temperatures for Perth, with a pool blanket, vary from 30.3ºC in January to 15.6ºC in July (Daisy Pool Covers, Heating Capabilities). With a pool blanket we assume the household pool will only be heated from May through to September inclusively (Daisy Pool Covers, Heating Capabilities). Using the predicted average water temperatures for Perth between April and October, the requirement to heat the pool to 20 ºC is as shown in the table below (Figure 28): Monthly Temperature Difference to Heat to 20ºC April (ºC) May (ºC) June (ºC) July (ºC) August (ºC) September (ºC) October (ºC)W ithout a pool blanket 1.4 4.7 6.7 7 5.8 3.5 1.4W ith a pool blanket 0 2 4.3 4.4 2.4 0 0Difference 1.4 2.7 2.4 2.6 3.4 3.5 1.4 Figure 28. Temperature Difference between a Pool with a Blanket and a Pool without a Blanket to Heat to 20ºC Based on a 9.2m x 4.5m pool in Perth which has a volume of 53,820L and that it takes 3 BTU’s to raise the temperature of 1.5L of water by 1ºC (Daisy Pool Covers, Heating Capabilities) and the assumption that the pool will only be used one day per week during the cooler months (i.e. 4 times per month) then the energy requirement to heat the pool without and with a pool blanket is as shown in the table below (Figure 29): Heating Requirement No. Days Total Temp BTUs MJ kW h W ithout a pool blanket 28 122 13,132,080 12,447 3,457 W ith a pool blanket 16 52.4 5,640,336 5,346 1,485 Difference 12 70 7,491,744 7,101 1,972 Figure 29. Heating Difference between a Pool with a Blanket and a Pool without a Blanket to Heat to 20ºC The following unit conversions are used for the energy units: 1BTU = 0.001055 MJ and 1kWh = 3.6 MJ. Current energy use = use without pool blanket New energy use = use with pool blanket Refer to the Table for calculations results for a gas pool heater. A1.2.2 Water Saving Measures: Assumptions: • The emissions conversion factor for water supply is 1.16 kgCO2e/kL (refer to Section 4.2). • The residential water rates for Perth are tiered. WA households typically use 298kL per annum, hence for these calculations we will assume a summer time price for water usage of 151kL-350kL = 78.4c/kL (Water Corporation, 2007). • Household water use in Perth (Loh and Cohglan, 2003) was found to be 56% on outdoor water use and 42% indoor ( further broken down to 13.86% on showers, 11.34% on washing machines, 8.82% on toilets, 6.72% on taps/kitchen and 1.26% on others) with remainder 2% on water leaks. 2.01 Reducing showers from 8 to 4 minutes (2pp @ 1 shower/day) Based on a 2 ‘stars’ showerhead which uses 12 L/minute (Water Corporation, 2006a). DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 40
  • 43. Current water use = 12L x 8 mins x 2 people x 365 days = 70.08 kL (70,080 L) per year New water use = 12L x 4 mins x 2 people x 365 days = 35.04 kL (35,040 L) pear yearRefer to The Table for the calculation results.2.02 Switching to low flow shower head (2 x 4 mins)Switching from a 2 ‘stars’ 12 L/min showerhead to a low flow 3 ‘stars’ shower head rated at 9 L/ min (WaterCorporation, 2006a). Current water use = 12L x 4 mins x 2 people x 365 days = 35.04 kL (35,040 L) New water use = 9L x 4 mins x 2 showers/day x 365 days = 26.28 kL (26,280 L)Refer to The Table for the calculation results.2.03 Installing a low pressure regulator in the water systemBased on using regulators for 42% of indoor use (Loh and Cohglan, 2003) and using a 3 ‘stars’ waterregulator which saves up to 50% water use (Water Corporation, 2006b). Current water use = WA household average use 298kL/annum x 42% = 125.16 kL New water use = 125.16 kL x 50% = 62.58 kLRefer to The Table for the calculation results.2.04 Switching to low flush toiletBased on the toilet using 21% of water for indoor use in an average house (Loh and Cohglan, 2003), a typicalWA household using 298kL/year and dual flush toilet using 75% less water than a standard single flush toilet(Water Corporation 2006b). Current water use = 21% x (indoor use of 42% water x 298 kL) = 26.28 kL New water use = 26.28 kL x 25% = 6.57 kLRefer to The Table for the calculation results.2.05 Fixing a leaking tap (leaking at 1 drip/5 sec)Based on a tap leaking at one drip per second wasting 12 kL per year (AGO, 2005). Current water use = one drip per 5 seconds = 12 kL / 5 = 2.4 kL, New water use = 0 kLRefer to The Table for the calculation results.2.06 Installing a rain water tank (1,000L & 10,000L)Information on volume of water collected per year by rainwater tanks in various Australian cities was availablefor 1,000L and 10,000L tanks only. A 1,000L tank is considered small and is generally emptied frequently bythe householders. A 10,000L tank is considered large and emptied less frequently, hence does not collect aproportionate amount of water when compared to the smaller tanks (enHealth, 2004).Based on a 150 sq.m roof area for a typical house in Perth a 1,000L tank will collect 51 kL/year (enHealth,2004, Table 4) and a 10,000kL tank will collect 87 kL/year (enHealth, 2004, Table 4). The annual waterconsumption value per Perth household is 298kL/year, hence: For a 1,000L tank: Current water use = 298 kL/year and New water use = 298 - 51 = 247kL/year For a 10,000L tank: Current water use = 298 kL/year and New water use = 298 - 87=212 kL/yearRefer to The Table for the calculation results.2.07 Installing a grey water system (3 bed house, 1sqm garden)Based on 113L of greywater used per person per day (AGO, 2005) and a 2.6 persons household. Current water use = 298kL Water savings = 113 L/per day x 2.6 people x 365 days per year = 107.24 kL New water use = 298 kL – 107.24 kL = 190.76 kL DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 41
  • 44. Refer to The Table for the calculation results.2.08 Reducing lawn area by 50sqm (and replace with waterwise garden/mulch)Based on the typical rates of annual domestic use for lawn with shrubs which uses 3,000 L per sq.m per yearand a native garden with no lawn which uses 1,000 L per sq.m per year (Cummings, 2002). Current water use = 3,000L/sqm x 50 sqm = 150 kL New water use = 1,000 L/sqm x 50 sqm = 50 kLRefer to The Table for the calculation results.2.09 Adding a pool blanketA pool blanket can prevent up to 97% evaporation (Daisy Pool Covers, Evaporation). Based on a 9.2m x4.5m pool in Perth which loses 86.95 kL of water per year (Daisy Pool Covers, Evaporation) and assuming theblanket is off for daytime pool use for 20% of the year and maximum evaporation prevention is obtained whenthe pool blanket is on: Current water use = 86.95 kL (to refill the pool with no blanket) Water savings = 97% x 80% x 86.95 kL = 67.47 kL New water use = 86.95 kL - 67.47 kL = 19.48 kLRefer to The Table for the calculation results.2.10 Replacing a 50sqm lawn with a pool (with a blanket)Based on the typical rate of annual domestic use for lawn with shrubs which uses 3,000 L per sq.m per year(refer to 2.08) (Cummings, 2002) and a 9.2m x 4.5m pool (refer to 2.09). Current water use = 150 kL (refer to 2.08) New water use = 19.48 kL (refer to 2.09)Refer to The Table for the calculation results.A1.2.3 Travel Saving Measures:Assumptions: • The emissions conversion factor for fuel (assuming for petrol) is 2600 kgCO2e/kL (refer section 4.2) • Average petrol price for 2007 in the Perth Metropolitan region = $1,252.3/kL (Fuelwatch) • Vehicle is a 2003 Holden Commodore VY ‘S’ V6 4 door Manual Sedan (petrol) using 10L/100km (AGO, Fuel consumption guide database) • Average distance travelled per passenger vehicle per year in Australia in 2000 is 14,800km (page 122) (ABS, 2002)3.01 Using an alternative for 1 car trip per week (2, 10, 20 km return trip/journey) 2km journey: Current fuel use = ([2km x 52 weeks] x 10 L)/100km=10.4L 10km journey: Current fuel use = ([10km x 52 weeks]x10 L)/100km=52L 20km journey: Current fuel use = ([20km x 52 weeks]x10L)/100km=104L 2km, 10km, 20km journeys: New fuel use = 0LAssuming that the alternate trip is not by car then the New fuel use is zero for all journeys. SMEC has alsoassumed that the alternate trip does not result in GHG emissions. Refer to The Table for the calculationresults.3.02 Servicing the car / inflating tyresServicing a vehicle on a regular basis can save up to 10% on fuel (DPI). Current Fuel Use = 14,800km x (10L/100km) = 1.48kL (average journey per vehicle per year) DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 42
  • 45. New fuel use = 90% x 1.48kL = 1.332kLRefer to The Table for the calculation results.3.03 Driving smoothlyDriving smoothly can save up to 30% on fuel (DPI). Current Fuel Use = 14,800km x (10L)/100km = 1.48kL (average journey per vehicle per year) New fuel use = 70% x 1.48kL = 1.036kLRefer to The Table for the calculation results.A1.2.4 Waste Saving Measures:Assumptions: • The emissions conversion factor for waste disposal is 1140 kgCO2e/t (refer section 4.2) • Cost of compost: $17.70/tonne dry matter (Environment Australia, 2003) • 883,000 tonnes of municipal waste is generated in WA and 40% of waste is organic (ABS 2006). There are 560,070 dwellings in Perth and 757,989 in WA, thus general waste generated in Perth is (560,070/757,989) x 883,000 tonnes = 652,439 tonnes per year. Organic waste generated in Perth is 652,439 tonnes per year x 40%= 260,976 tonnes per year. • A typical food basket for a 3 person household for one month consists of 118.59 kg groceries and costs $310.29. The fruit, vegetable and legumes component makes up 58.55 kg of the basket and costs $119.48 (Queensland Health, 2000). Given the typical household in Perth is 2.6 persons we will assume the typical food basket is 118.59/ 3persons x 2.6 persons = 102.78 kg and costs $310.29/ 3persons x 2.6 persons = $268.92 and the fruit and vegetable portion is 58.55/ 3persons x 2.6 persons = 50.74 kg and costs $119.48/3 persons x 2.6 persons = $103.55. • The emissions conversion factor for fruit and vegetables is: 0.6 kg/CO2e per kg of food (Table A2.5, Rose 2006)4.01 Reducing green waste by 20% Current Use = Organic waste per household for Perth is 260,976 tonnes / 560,070 dwellings in Perth = 465.97 kg/household New use = 80% x 465.97 kg/per household = 372.78 kg/householdRefer to The Table for the calculation results.4.02 Growing 50% of vegetables at homeAssuming that vegetables makes up 50% of the household’s fruit and vegetable component of a typical foodbasket then for a 2.6 person household: Current use = 50.74 x 50% per month x 12 months = 304.46 kg, Current cost = $103.55 x 50% per month x 12 months = $621.30 New use = 50% x 304.46 kg= 152.23 kg New cost = 50% x $621.30 = $310.65 (excluding costs to plant and maintain the vegetables) Emissions savings = (304.46 kg - 152.23 kg) x 0.6 kg CO2e per kg of food = 91.34 kg CO2eRefer to The Table for the calculation results.4.03 Buying only WA vegetables and 50% WA produced groceriesPurchasing 100% WA fruit and vegetables and 50% WA food has been calculated in detail below. Insummary: Current use = 102.78 kg Aus food per month Current emissions = 520.1 kg CO2e per month = 6.24 t-CO2e per year New use = 50.74 kg WA fruit and vegetables + 26.02 kg WA food + 26.02 kg Aus food per month New emissions = 483.47 kg CO2e per month = 5.8 t-CO2e per yearAssumptions: DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 43
  • 46. 1. A typical Australian household is 2.6 persons. 2. The typical food basket total for a 2.6 person household is 102.78 kg per month and the fruit and vegetable component is 50.74 kg. 3. Transport accounts for 20% of total energy of a food production (Salleh, 2007). 4. Emissions allow for food production, packaging and transportation.The emissions conversion unit (CU) for Australian food is: 5.06 kg CO2e per kg of food (refer to sectionA1.1.2b). The CU for Australian fruit and vegetables is: 0.6 kg/CO2e per kg of food (Table A2.5, Rose 2006).The CU for WA fruit and vegetables is calculated as follows:Assuming transport accounts for 20% of food production (Salleh, 2007) and food within WA travels two thirdsless (of the travel emissions) than the average national distance (i.e. 2/3*20% = 6.7%), then the averageemissions for WA food is 86.7% (i.e. 80%+6.7%) of the CU for Australian food. That is: The CU for WA fruit and vegetable is 86.7% x 0.6 per kg CO2e per kg food = 0.5202 kg CO2e per kg food The CU for WA food is 86.7% x 5.06 kg CO2e per kg food = 4.387 kg CO2e per kg of foodThe formula for emissions is 100% WA fruit and vegetables + 50% Aus food (minus fruit and vegetables) +50% WA food (minus fruit and vegetables). The calculations are: Aus food = 102.78 kg per month x 5.06 kg CO2e/kg food (Australian food CU) = 520.1 kg CO2e per month per 2.6 person household. Aus fruit and vegetables = 50.74 kg per month x 0.6 kg/CO2e/kg food (Australian fruit and vegetable CU) = 30.44 kg CO2e per month per 2.6 person household. WA fruit and vegetables = 50.74 kg per month x 0.5202 kg CO2e per kg food (WA fruit and vegetable CU) = 26.39 kg CO2e per month per 2.6 person household. Aus fruit and vegetables minus WA fruit and vegetables = 30.44 – 26.39 = 4.05 CO2e per month per 2.6 person household. 100% Aus food (minus fruit and vegetables) = 102.78 kg – 50.74 kg = 52.04 kg per month per 2.6 person household. 50% Aus food (minus fruit and vegetables) = 52.04 kg x 50% = 26.02 kg. Emissions = 50% x (520.1 - 30.44) kg CO2e per month = 244.83 CO2e kg per month per 2.6 person household. 100% WA food = 102.78 kg per month per 2.6 person household. WA food emissions = 102.78 x 4.387 kg CO2e per kg of food = 450.9 CO2e kg per month per 2.6 person household. WA food (minus fruit and vegetables) = 102.78 kg – 50.74 kg = 52.04 kg per month per 2.6 person household. 50% WA food (minus fruit and vegetables) = 52.04 kg x 50% = 26.02 kg. Emissions = 50% x (450.9 – 26.39) kg CO2e per month = 212.25 kg CO2e per month per 2.6 person household. 50% Aus food (minus fruit and vegetables) - 50% WA food (minus fruit and vegetables) = 244.83 - 212.25 = 32.58 kg CO2e per month per 2.6 person household. New use = 50.74 kg + 26.02 kg + 26.02kg per month per 2.6 person household = 102.78 kg. New emissions = 100% WA fruit and vegetables + 50% Aus food (minus fruit and vegetables) + 50% WA food (minus fruit and vegetables) = 26.39 + 244.83 + 212.25 = 483.47 kg CO2e per month per 2.6 person household. For one year = 0.48 t-CO2e x 12 months = 5.8 t-CO2e per year per 2.6 person household.Cost savings were not evaluated due to lack of available data. DPI Living Smart Report - Final: August 2011 44
  • 47. THE TABLE