Use of Emerging         Technologies and          transformation ofteaching/learning practices                    Dick Ng’...
Presentation Outline• Overview of challenges of teaching 21st Century  Students• Implications of International dashboard o...
19th Century Pedagogy
21st Century Photohttp://www.edutech.my/technology-in-teaching-super-large-classes-in-universities/
21st Century Photo                                                   ch ing                                          is te...
ion                                                           l   ect                                                     ...
rn ing                      a             e r-le        Pehttp://clas.sa.ucsb.edu/CLAS_services.htm
-w ork                                                     ield                                                   hf      ...
http://chronicle.com/article/How-Flipping-the-Classroom/130857/
http://21stcenturylibrary.com/2010/05/27/changes-in-our-librarian-profession-for-the-21st-century/
http://mastermcdaniel.edublogs.org/2011/05/23/21st-century-teacher/
Indicators from international dashboard
Promise of emerging technologies• Use of emerging technologies such as Facebook,  Twitter, blogs and many others among stu...
Terminologies• Emerging technologies has a contested  meaning (see Siemens and Tittenberger,  2009; Veletsianos, 2010) but...
Emerging technologiesNew Media Consortium  “likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning,   or creative expressio...
Rather than define, we opted for characteristics ofET    1. May or may not be new technologies    2. Evolving organism, th...
Is higher education - passive oractive?• Increased gap between educators with resources  and the will to experiment and th...
Research Camps• Learning Objects Camp – design                         to remove humans from the loop• Learning Communitie...
http://www.malanenewman.com/offline/focus/learning_objects.html
http://langwitches.org/blog/2008/09/12/
http://www.p21.org/
Blended / Mixed approaches on increase
http://www.thethinkingstick.com/the-purpose-of-a-back-channel-necc09/
Institutions provide emergedICTs
Students using emerging ICTs
History of Learning Management Systems        http://www.mindflash.com/learning-management-systems/history-of-lms
What version of educationare you?                                                Authentic human                          ...
Source: http://socialmediatoday.com/kanter/258877/quora-yet-another-social-network-yasn-or-something-different
Image source: http://www.nscorp.com/nscportal/nscorp/Employees/Diversity/Diversity_in_Action/fitzgerald.html
•   Problems are broadcast to an unknown group of solvers in the form of an open call for    solutions    Image Source: ht...
Danny Goodwin, May 25, 2011 !
A connected                                                          new world                                            ...
Source: http://socialnetworksales.net/
Changing role of the educators
Changing role of the educators
Theory of Connectivism                                       Facilitating continual                                       ...
Verhagen (2006; as cited inVeletsianos, 2010),“…connectivism is more atheory of curriculum (specifyingwhat the goal of edu...
• Learning is the creation                  and removal of connections between the entities, or the adjustment of the stre...
•Learning is a connection-making process         George Siemens, 2012: Available at: http://         www.connectivism.ca/
• Anderson (2008), it helps people to  understand that learning is about  making connections with  ideas, facts, people, a...
Emerging Technologies Survey• Part of NRF project• Target group: lecturers that are known to be open to/  engaged with tec...
Conceptual framework• Mayes and de Freitas (2004) propose three  perspectives that affect choices of teaching  strategies:...
Types of learning strategies• Prescriptive learning  – Pre-determines what learners should learn (Williams,    2011)• Emer...
Analytical Framework                  Replicative/Prescriptive Emergent /                  learning                 Transf...
Institutional location                               Fem   Male       Total   %University of Stellenbosch                 ...
Institutional location                               Fem   Male       Total   %University of Stellenbosch                 ...
Respondents by gender           43%          56%
Level of appointment                                    Junior lecturer            Non-Academic                 10%       ...
Associative / Replication /Prescription                                                                 Distributing routi...
Notices on demand – use of a virtual noticeboard
Students work collaboratively (situative) to produce    podcasts/vodcasts and distribute via a LMS Situative Emergent / Tr...
Task focused (Associative) and prescriptive yet couldAssociative replication / prescriptive                               ...
Emergent transformative - example                                             An autonomous learner (cognitive) learning t...
Situative Replication / prescriptive - example                                                   Learning through relation...
Emergent transformative - example
Pulling web resources in a single space
Blending ‘new’ with the ‘old’ approaches        http://www.thethinkingstick.com/the-purpose-of-a-back-channel-necc09/
Backchannel     Students use Twitter or Instant Messaging tools to interact with each                           other and ...
Observations• Most (28%) of educators use of  emerging technologies for T&L is self- motivated• It was evident from data t...
Conclusion 1/2• Technologies emerging amongst  HE educators’ in South Africa  –Low bandwidth intensive    technologies  –P...
Conclusion 2/2• ET potential to transform teaching  and learning practices  –Spectrum of uses as per our   framework  –Tho...
Further research    Further research is required to     establish whether there is a relationship between awareness of  te...
Any questions?    See more information  on our project on our blog:http://emergingicts.blogspot.com/
Thank you         Contact details:        Prof Dick Ng’ambiCentre for Educational Technology    University of Cape Town   ...
Use of Emerging Technologies and transformation of teaching/learning practices
Use of Emerging Technologies and transformation of teaching/learning practices
Use of Emerging Technologies and transformation of teaching/learning practices
Use of Emerging Technologies and transformation of teaching/learning practices
Use of Emerging Technologies and transformation of teaching/learning practices
Use of Emerging Technologies and transformation of teaching/learning practices
Use of Emerging Technologies and transformation of teaching/learning practices
Use of Emerging Technologies and transformation of teaching/learning practices
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Use of Emerging Technologies and transformation of teaching/learning practices

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  • Much rhetoric about today’s student based on age and/or generation aspects of young people. Different labels are used e.g. Netgeneration (Tapscott); Digital Natives (Prensk); Generation Y, Generation C etc\nStephanie Armour, USA TODAY. They're young, smart, brash. They may wear flip-flops to the office or listen to iPods at their desk. They want to work, but they don't want work to be their life.\n
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  • Increased gap between educators with resources and the will to experiment and those who cannot or are not willing to…\nStudents are increasingly disengaged\nMismatch between student expectations of HEI\nOpportunities for preparing 21st century graduates are lost\nStudent skills are not visibly assessable\nMissions of HEI tend to be failing students\n
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  • New Media Consortium\n
  • Although lecturers and students are seemingly embracing emerging technologies enthusiastically, it is taking longer for institutions and policy makers to adopt and implement them. \nInstitutions and policy makers are not yet fully engaging with these technologies to understand the usefulness of these technologies and therefore administrative policies may slow down or halt adoption.”\n
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  • Emerging and new are not necessarily synonomous\nWhile for example, Twitter may be an emerging technology, various practices on Twitter platform may already be established\nToday’s ET may become tomorrow’s fad – must remain sceptical about sudden transformation. ETs go through cycles of euphoria, adoption, use, maturity, impact, enthusiasm or even infatuation. Some will remain, others fade into background\nCan’t yet fully understand the implications and what they offer teaching and learning, what they mean for educators and for institutions. It is not predictable we can’t determine in advance what will happen but only make sense of it after the event (Williams et al. 2011).\nInitial investigations often evangelical and describe superficial aspects of the technology without understanding the affordances of the technology and how these provide different ways to learn. Newer technologies can also be used in old traditional ways.\nLack of research impedes dissemination\n\nAccording to Veletsianos (2010:17) emerging technologies are ‘tools, technologies, innovations, and advancements utlized in diverse educational settings to serve varied education-related purposes’. We are still learning and still learners with regard to the affordances of ETs. There is an absence of empirical work or practitioner knowledge base to explore enhancement of practice. Veletsianos (2010:17) \n\npersonal technologies often sit uneasily with institutions; in some cases they are even banned within the university buildings and networks (Parry, 2005).\n
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  • KARNATAKA STATE OPEN UNIVERSITY, Bangalore\n
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  • The 21st century education is more about engagement in authentic connections and collaboration. The education 4.0 has subsumed the traditional education systems (education 1.0), use of internet as a place to go for instant access to information (Education 2.0), and web-based interactions with online users (Education 3.0).\n
  • A human being is so connected that a single source of information is inadequate to meet all the information needs. \n
  • In today connected world, new skills are required to survive. The skills required should involve acquiring the ability to make sense of these connection, exploiting these connections, knowing which ones are worth nurturing and maintaining at different stages of life or problem spaces.\n
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  • The connectedness enabled by the technologies has led to a new phenomenon of crowdsourcing i.e. anyone with a problem can now ask the crowd for answers. The need to know specific experts is dissipating as there are experts out in the cloud willing to share their expertise.\n
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  • It is against the afore said background, that George Siemens’ Connectivism theory becomes useful for us to examine. In this slide, I describe the key principles of Connectivism. \n
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  • Use of Emerging Technologies and transformation of teaching/learning practices

    1. 1. Use of Emerging Technologies and transformation ofteaching/learning practices Dick Ng’ambi, PhD. Centre for Educational Technology University of Cape Town, South Africa Presented at Makerere University on 10 Oct 2012
    2. 2. Presentation Outline• Overview of challenges of teaching 21st Century Students• Implications of International dashboard on emerging technologies (ET)• Definition of ET - why no one knows• Institutional provided vs Student owned technologies• Connectedness and Connectivism• Report on South African Survey on ET• Recommendations• Conclusion
    3. 3. 19th Century Pedagogy
    4. 4. 21st Century Photohttp://www.edutech.my/technology-in-teaching-super-large-classes-in-universities/
    5. 5. 21st Century Photo ch ing is tea m bly as se e of rp os Pu Learning is a subsidiary outcome
    6. 6. ion l ect d ref g an d oin g h h r ou in gt e arn Lhttp://www.nolabeez.org/article/2010-0718-new-orleans-agenda-xavier-university-1-in-placing-african-american-students-into-medical-schools
    7. 7. rn ing a e r-le Pehttp://clas.sa.ucsb.edu/CLAS_services.htm
    8. 8. -w ork ield hf ro ug h in gt e arn Lhttp://www.globalgiving.org/projects/globaleducation/photos/
    9. 9. http://chronicle.com/article/How-Flipping-the-Classroom/130857/
    10. 10. http://21stcenturylibrary.com/2010/05/27/changes-in-our-librarian-profession-for-the-21st-century/
    11. 11. http://mastermcdaniel.edublogs.org/2011/05/23/21st-century-teacher/
    12. 12. Indicators from international dashboard
    13. 13. Promise of emerging technologies• Use of emerging technologies such as Facebook, Twitter, blogs and many others among students and educators is increasing (Johnston et al. 2011, Johnson and Adams, 2011) promise to• Use of technologies radically transform teaching and learning practice (Johnson et al., 2012)
    14. 14. Terminologies• Emerging technologies has a contested meaning (see Siemens and Tittenberger, 2009; Veletsianos, 2010) but usually mentioned as if it has a universally accepted meaning• Attempts to define ET include (New Media Consortium’s Horizon Reports, 2011 & 2012; Siemens & Tittenberger’s book, 2009; Veletsianos’ edited collection on ET, 2010) but yet its definition is still in flux
    15. 15. Emerging technologiesNew Media Consortium “likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative expression within higher education”Siemens & Tittenberger ET = Social software Not neutral Multiple affordancesVeletsianos “tools, concepts, innovations, and advancements utilized in diverse educational settings to serve varied education-related purposes”
    16. 16. Rather than define, we opted for characteristics ofET 1. May or may not be new technologies 2. Evolving organism, that exist in the state of coming into being 3. Go through hype cycles 4. They are not yet fully understood 5. They are not yet fully researched 6. They are potentially disruptive, but that potential is mostly unfulfilled Veletsianos, 2010:13-17
    17. 17. Is higher education - passive oractive?• Increased gap between educators with resources and the will to experiment and those who cannot or are not willing to• Students are increasingly disengaged• Mismatch between student expectations of HEI• Opportunities for preparing 21st century graduates are lost• Student skills are not visibly assessable• Missions of HEI tend to be failing students
    18. 18. Research Camps• Learning Objects Camp – design to remove humans from the loop• Learning Communities Camp - design to bring humans into the loop
    19. 19. http://www.malanenewman.com/offline/focus/learning_objects.html
    20. 20. http://langwitches.org/blog/2008/09/12/
    21. 21. http://www.p21.org/
    22. 22. Blended / Mixed approaches on increase
    23. 23. http://www.thethinkingstick.com/the-purpose-of-a-back-channel-necc09/
    24. 24. Institutions provide emergedICTs
    25. 25. Students using emerging ICTs
    26. 26. History of Learning Management Systems http://www.mindflash.com/learning-management-systems/history-of-lms
    27. 27. What version of educationare you? Authentic human connections & Interact with web collaboration Internet, a & other online place to go users Education 4.0 for instant access to Education 3.0 Education 3.0 information Education 2.0 Education 2.0 Education 2.0TraditionalEducation 1.0 Education 1.0 Education 1.0 Education 1.0
    28. 28. Source: http://socialmediatoday.com/kanter/258877/quora-yet-another-social-network-yasn-or-something-different
    29. 29. Image source: http://www.nscorp.com/nscportal/nscorp/Employees/Diversity/Diversity_in_Action/fitzgerald.html
    30. 30. • Problems are broadcast to an unknown group of solvers in the form of an open call for solutions Image Source: http://www.greenbookblog.org/2010/11/05/crowdsourcing%E2%80%A6counterintuitive/
    31. 31. Danny Goodwin, May 25, 2011 !
    32. 32. A connected new world Complex network (twitter follower-graph)Source: http://www.fernfachhochschule.ch/ffhs/afe/lws/forschung/research/view?
    33. 33. Source: http://socialnetworksales.net/
    34. 34. Changing role of the educators
    35. 35. Changing role of the educators
    36. 36. Theory of Connectivism Facilitating continual learning is a process of nurturing & maintaining connectionsLearning =process of connectingspecialised nodes orinfo sources Connectivism Ability to seeCapacity to know connectionsmore is more critical between fields,than what is ideas and conceptscurrently known is a core skill
    37. 37. Verhagen (2006; as cited inVeletsianos, 2010),“…connectivism is more atheory of curriculum (specifyingwhat the goal of education should be and theway students should learn in that curriculum)than a theory of learning” (p. 35).
    38. 38. • Learning is the creation and removal of connections between the entities, or the adjustment of the strengths of those connections. A learning theory is, literally, a theory describing how these connections are created or adjusted. Source: Stephen Downes (2012) ebook on Connectivism and Connective Knowledge: Essays on meaning and learning networks
    39. 39. •Learning is a connection-making process George Siemens, 2012: Available at: http:// www.connectivism.ca/
    40. 40. • Anderson (2008), it helps people to understand that learning is about making connections with ideas, facts, people, and communities.• Marcum (2006), it goes beyond behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and learner-centered approaches to a learner-driven approach.
    41. 41. Emerging Technologies Survey• Part of NRF project• Target group: lecturers that are known to be open to/ engaged with technology• Sent by email to contacts in all public HEIs institution, snowball sampling• Content: 3 parts, demographic, tools and open ended questions around practice with ET• Respondents: 242 (by 31 August 2011) – 187 (77%) completed second part survey (tools) – 149 (62%) completed all three parts of survey
    42. 42. Conceptual framework• Mayes and de Freitas (2004) propose three perspectives that affect choices of teaching strategies: –Associative - Task-focused –Cognitive and - Develop autonomous learners –Situative - Exploit learning relationships
    43. 43. Types of learning strategies• Prescriptive learning – Pre-determines what learners should learn (Williams, 2011)• Emergent / transformative learning – Learning is through interactions with people, resources and others (Williams, 2011) – Technology is used to increase levels of interactions (Anderson and Garrison, 2003) and lead to deep and meaningful learning (Anderson, 2003)
    44. 44. Analytical Framework Replicative/Prescriptive Emergent / learning Transformative (pre-determined) learning (learning by engagement)Associative Associative Associative(task-focused) Replication / Emergent / Prescriptive (ARP) Transformative (AET)Cognitive Cognitive Replication / Cognitive Emergent /(autonomous Prescriptive (CRP) Transformative (CET)learner)Situative Situative Replication / Situative Emergent /(relationships) Prescriptive (SRP) Transformative (SET)
    45. 45. Institutional location Fem Male Total %University of Stellenbosch 27 21 48 20%University of Cape Town 24 9 33 14%Cape Peninsula University of Technology 14 16 30 12%University of the Western Cape 15 12 27 11%University of Fort Hare 5 8 2 15 6%Durban University of Technology 9 4 13 5%Rhodes University 11 2 13 5%Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University 6 5 11 5%University of Johannesburg 4 5 9 4%University of Limpopo 5 2 7 3%University of the Free State 6 6 2%Walter Sisulu University of Technology and Science 1 5 6 2%Central University of Technology 1 2 1 4 2%Mangosuthu University of Technology 4 4 2%Vaal University of Technology 1 3 4 2%North-West University 3 3 1%University of South Africa 3 3 1%Other (e.g. overseas) 2 2 1%Tshwane University of Technology 1 1 0%University of Pretoria 1 1 0%University of the Witwatersrand 1 1 0%University of Venda for Science and Technology 1 1 0%Total 136 103 3 242 100%
    46. 46. Institutional location Fem Male Total %University of Stellenbosch 27 21 48 20%University of Cape Town 57% 24 9 33 14%Cape Peninsula University of Technology 14 16 30 12%University of the Western Cape 15 12 27 11%University of Fort Hare 5 8 2 15 6%Durban University of Technology 9 4 13 5%Rhodes University 11 2 13 5%Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University 6 5 11 5%University of Johannesburg 4 5 9 4%University of Limpopo 5 2 7 3%University of the Free State 6 6 2%Walter Sisulu University of Technology and Science 1 5 6 2%Central University of Technology 1 2 1 4 2%Mangosuthu University of Technology 4 4 2%Vaal University of Technology 1 3 4 2%North-West University 3 3 1%University of South Africa 3 3 1%Other (e.g. overseas) 2 2 1%Tshwane University of Technology 1 1 0%University of Pretoria 1 1 0%University of the Witwatersrand 1 1 0%University of Venda for Science and Technology 1 1 0%Total 136 103 3 242 100%
    47. 47. Respondents by gender 43% 56%
    48. 48. Level of appointment Junior lecturer Non-Academic 10% 21% Professor 7% Lecturer 33%Associate Professor 8% Senior lecturer 20%
    49. 49. Associative / Replication /Prescription Distributing routine lectures (associative) as Podcast / vodcasts Lecturer generated podcasts/vodcasts
    50. 50. Notices on demand – use of a virtual noticeboard
    51. 51. Students work collaboratively (situative) to produce podcasts/vodcasts and distribute via a LMS Situative Emergent / Transformation Student generated podcasts / vodcasts
    52. 52. Task focused (Associative) and prescriptive yet couldAssociative replication / prescriptive be transformative if students answered questions Use to answer critical & reflective questions about today’s lecture
    53. 53. Emergent transformative - example An autonomous learner (cognitive) learning through• …I run an adaptive management course where students were given a engagement (emergent) fish in a tank to take for and to keep a personal blog journal of how often they changed its water, feed the fish, what plants they introduced, what was the quality of water and where they kept the fish… (E5)
    54. 54. Situative Replication / prescriptive - example Learning through relationships (situative) and applying• …the students would then be fixed knowledge on video story telling paired up with those people in the community who have been trained by our local newspaper in basic print journalism. Students trained them in video storytelling and then had to shoot their own clips… (E4)
    55. 55. Emergent transformative - example
    56. 56. Pulling web resources in a single space
    57. 57. Blending ‘new’ with the ‘old’ approaches http://www.thethinkingstick.com/the-purpose-of-a-back-channel-necc09/
    58. 58. Backchannel Students use Twitter or Instant Messaging tools to interact with each other and with presenter http://www.thethinkingstick.com/the-purpose-of-a-back-channel-necc09/
    59. 59. Observations• Most (28%) of educators use of emerging technologies for T&L is self- motivated• It was evident from data that most institutions provided neither incentive nor supportive environment to use ET for teaching (e.g. lack lack of policies)
    60. 60. Conclusion 1/2• Technologies emerging amongst HE educators’ in South Africa –Low bandwidth intensive technologies –Prevalence of LMS• Motivating factors guiding educators’ use of ET –Passion and availability of technologies
    61. 61. Conclusion 2/2• ET potential to transform teaching and learning practices –Spectrum of uses as per our framework –Though potential to transform T&L practices exist, educators not exploiting the opportunity
    62. 62. Further research Further research is required to establish whether there is a relationship between awareness of technologies and use for teaching and learning.
    63. 63. Any questions? See more information on our project on our blog:http://emergingicts.blogspot.com/
    64. 64. Thank you Contact details: Prof Dick Ng’ambiCentre for Educational Technology University of Cape Town Dick.Ngambi@uct.ac.za
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